Abstract

We performed an experimental investigation of thermal lensing in silver gallium selenide (AgGaSe2) optical parametric oscillator crystals pumped by a 2-μm laser at ambient temperature. We determined an empirical expression for the effective thermal focusing power in terms of the pump power, beam diameter, crystal length, and absorption coefficient. This relation may be used to estimate average power limitations in designing AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillators. We also demonstrated an 18% slope efficiency from a 2-μm pumped AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator operated at 77 K, at which temperature thermal lensing is substantially reduced because of an increase in the thermal conductivity and a decrease in the thermal index gradient dn/dT. Cryogenic cooling may provide an additional option for scaling up the average power capability of a 2-μm pumped AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. C. Eckardt, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, C. L. Marquardt, M. E. Storm, L. Esterowitz, “Broadly tunable infrared parametric oscillator using AgGaSe2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 608–610 (1986); G. J. Quarles, C. L. Marquardt, L. Esterowitz, “2 μm pumped AgGaSe2 with continuous tuning 2.49–12.05 μm,” in Proceedings of LEOS ’90 (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1990), paper ELT7.1.
    [Crossref]
  2. P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, E. P. Chicklis, K. L. Schepler, “High repetition rate AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 95.
  3. C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing and power scaling of a AgGaSe2 OPO,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 95.
  4. J. D. Beasley, “Thermal conductivities of some novel nonlinear optical materials,” Appl. Opt. 33, (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. G. C. Catella, L. R. Shiozawa, J. R. Hietanen, R. C. Eckardt, R. K. Route, R. S. Feigelson, D. G. Cooper, C. L. Marquardt, “Mid-IR absorption in AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator crystals,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3948–3951 (1993).
    [PubMed]
  6. S. M. Wasim, “Thermal conductivity of ternary compounds,” Phys. Status Solidi 51, K35–K40 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. A. Annamamedov, A. E. Balanevskaya, L. I. Berger, A. I. Dobrushina, I. K. Shchukina, “Thermal and elastic properties of a number of diamond-like semiconducting ternary compounds,” in Chemical Bonds in Semiconductors and Thermodynamics, N. N. Sirota, ed. (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1968), pp. 240–242.
  8. N. P. Barnes, R. C. Eckhardt, D. J. Gettemy, L. B. Edgett, “Absorption coefficients and temperature variation of refractive index difference of nonlinear optical crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1074–1076 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  9. “Silver gallium selenide and silver gallium sulphide,” product information sheet (Cleveland Crystals, Inc., 1990).
  10. N. P. Barnes, D. J. Gettemy, J. R. Hietanen, R. A. Iannini, “Parametric amplification in AgGaSe2,” Appl. Opt. 28, 5162–5168 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Textron Defense Systems, “CO2 laser frequency doubling,” Contract N00014-91-C-2279 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 33–36.
  12. See, for example, W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), Chap. 7, pp. 357–361.
  13. Methods described in S. C. Abrahams, A. S. L. Hsu, “Debye temperatures and cohesive properties,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 1162–1165 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  14. N. P. Barnes, K. E. Murray, “High gain nonlinear interactions using a 1.73 μm Er:YLF laser,” in Tunable Solid State Lasers, M. L. Shand, H. P. Jenssen, eds., Vol. 5 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 319–324.

1994 (1)

J. D. Beasley, “Thermal conductivities of some novel nonlinear optical materials,” Appl. Opt. 33, (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1989 (1)

1986 (1)

R. C. Eckardt, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, C. L. Marquardt, M. E. Storm, L. Esterowitz, “Broadly tunable infrared parametric oscillator using AgGaSe2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 608–610 (1986); G. J. Quarles, C. L. Marquardt, L. Esterowitz, “2 μm pumped AgGaSe2 with continuous tuning 2.49–12.05 μm,” in Proceedings of LEOS ’90 (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1990), paper ELT7.1.
[Crossref]

1979 (2)

S. M. Wasim, “Thermal conductivity of ternary compounds,” Phys. Status Solidi 51, K35–K40 (1979).
[Crossref]

N. P. Barnes, R. C. Eckhardt, D. J. Gettemy, L. B. Edgett, “Absorption coefficients and temperature variation of refractive index difference of nonlinear optical crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1074–1076 (1979).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

Methods described in S. C. Abrahams, A. S. L. Hsu, “Debye temperatures and cohesive properties,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 1162–1165 (1975).
[Crossref]

Abrahams, S. C.

Methods described in S. C. Abrahams, A. S. L. Hsu, “Debye temperatures and cohesive properties,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 1162–1165 (1975).
[Crossref]

Annamamedov, R. A.

R. A. Annamamedov, A. E. Balanevskaya, L. I. Berger, A. I. Dobrushina, I. K. Shchukina, “Thermal and elastic properties of a number of diamond-like semiconducting ternary compounds,” in Chemical Bonds in Semiconductors and Thermodynamics, N. N. Sirota, ed. (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1968), pp. 240–242.

Balanevskaya, A. E.

R. A. Annamamedov, A. E. Balanevskaya, L. I. Berger, A. I. Dobrushina, I. K. Shchukina, “Thermal and elastic properties of a number of diamond-like semiconducting ternary compounds,” in Chemical Bonds in Semiconductors and Thermodynamics, N. N. Sirota, ed. (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1968), pp. 240–242.

Barnes, N. P.

N. P. Barnes, D. J. Gettemy, J. R. Hietanen, R. A. Iannini, “Parametric amplification in AgGaSe2,” Appl. Opt. 28, 5162–5168 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. P. Barnes, R. C. Eckhardt, D. J. Gettemy, L. B. Edgett, “Absorption coefficients and temperature variation of refractive index difference of nonlinear optical crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1074–1076 (1979).
[Crossref]

N. P. Barnes, K. E. Murray, “High gain nonlinear interactions using a 1.73 μm Er:YLF laser,” in Tunable Solid State Lasers, M. L. Shand, H. P. Jenssen, eds., Vol. 5 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 319–324.

Beasley, J. D.

J. D. Beasley, “Thermal conductivities of some novel nonlinear optical materials,” Appl. Opt. 33, (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berger, L. I.

R. A. Annamamedov, A. E. Balanevskaya, L. I. Berger, A. I. Dobrushina, I. K. Shchukina, “Thermal and elastic properties of a number of diamond-like semiconducting ternary compounds,” in Chemical Bonds in Semiconductors and Thermodynamics, N. N. Sirota, ed. (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1968), pp. 240–242.

Budni, P. A.

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing and power scaling of a AgGaSe2 OPO,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 95.

P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, E. P. Chicklis, K. L. Schepler, “High repetition rate AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 95.

Byer, R. L.

R. C. Eckardt, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, C. L. Marquardt, M. E. Storm, L. Esterowitz, “Broadly tunable infrared parametric oscillator using AgGaSe2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 608–610 (1986); G. J. Quarles, C. L. Marquardt, L. Esterowitz, “2 μm pumped AgGaSe2 with continuous tuning 2.49–12.05 μm,” in Proceedings of LEOS ’90 (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1990), paper ELT7.1.
[Crossref]

Catella, G. C.

G. C. Catella, L. R. Shiozawa, J. R. Hietanen, R. C. Eckardt, R. K. Route, R. S. Feigelson, D. G. Cooper, C. L. Marquardt, “Mid-IR absorption in AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator crystals,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3948–3951 (1993).
[PubMed]

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing and power scaling of a AgGaSe2 OPO,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 95.

Chicklis, E. P.

P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, E. P. Chicklis, K. L. Schepler, “High repetition rate AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 95.

Cooper, D. G.

G. C. Catella, L. R. Shiozawa, J. R. Hietanen, R. C. Eckardt, R. K. Route, R. S. Feigelson, D. G. Cooper, C. L. Marquardt, “Mid-IR absorption in AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator crystals,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3948–3951 (1993).
[PubMed]

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing and power scaling of a AgGaSe2 OPO,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 95.

DeDomenico, R.

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing and power scaling of a AgGaSe2 OPO,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 95.

Dobrushina, A. I.

R. A. Annamamedov, A. E. Balanevskaya, L. I. Berger, A. I. Dobrushina, I. K. Shchukina, “Thermal and elastic properties of a number of diamond-like semiconducting ternary compounds,” in Chemical Bonds in Semiconductors and Thermodynamics, N. N. Sirota, ed. (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1968), pp. 240–242.

Eckardt, R. C.

G. C. Catella, L. R. Shiozawa, J. R. Hietanen, R. C. Eckardt, R. K. Route, R. S. Feigelson, D. G. Cooper, C. L. Marquardt, “Mid-IR absorption in AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator crystals,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3948–3951 (1993).
[PubMed]

R. C. Eckardt, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, C. L. Marquardt, M. E. Storm, L. Esterowitz, “Broadly tunable infrared parametric oscillator using AgGaSe2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 608–610 (1986); G. J. Quarles, C. L. Marquardt, L. Esterowitz, “2 μm pumped AgGaSe2 with continuous tuning 2.49–12.05 μm,” in Proceedings of LEOS ’90 (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1990), paper ELT7.1.
[Crossref]

Eckhardt, R. C.

N. P. Barnes, R. C. Eckhardt, D. J. Gettemy, L. B. Edgett, “Absorption coefficients and temperature variation of refractive index difference of nonlinear optical crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1074–1076 (1979).
[Crossref]

Edgett, L. B.

N. P. Barnes, R. C. Eckhardt, D. J. Gettemy, L. B. Edgett, “Absorption coefficients and temperature variation of refractive index difference of nonlinear optical crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1074–1076 (1979).
[Crossref]

Esterowitz, L.

R. C. Eckardt, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, C. L. Marquardt, M. E. Storm, L. Esterowitz, “Broadly tunable infrared parametric oscillator using AgGaSe2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 608–610 (1986); G. J. Quarles, C. L. Marquardt, L. Esterowitz, “2 μm pumped AgGaSe2 with continuous tuning 2.49–12.05 μm,” in Proceedings of LEOS ’90 (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1990), paper ELT7.1.
[Crossref]

Fan, Y. X.

R. C. Eckardt, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, C. L. Marquardt, M. E. Storm, L. Esterowitz, “Broadly tunable infrared parametric oscillator using AgGaSe2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 608–610 (1986); G. J. Quarles, C. L. Marquardt, L. Esterowitz, “2 μm pumped AgGaSe2 with continuous tuning 2.49–12.05 μm,” in Proceedings of LEOS ’90 (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1990), paper ELT7.1.
[Crossref]

Feigelson, R. S.

Gettemy, D. J.

N. P. Barnes, D. J. Gettemy, J. R. Hietanen, R. A. Iannini, “Parametric amplification in AgGaSe2,” Appl. Opt. 28, 5162–5168 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. P. Barnes, R. C. Eckhardt, D. J. Gettemy, L. B. Edgett, “Absorption coefficients and temperature variation of refractive index difference of nonlinear optical crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1074–1076 (1979).
[Crossref]

Hietanen, J. R.

Hsu, A. S. L.

Methods described in S. C. Abrahams, A. S. L. Hsu, “Debye temperatures and cohesive properties,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 1162–1165 (1975).
[Crossref]

Iannini, R. A.

Knights, M. G.

P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, E. P. Chicklis, K. L. Schepler, “High repetition rate AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 95.

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing and power scaling of a AgGaSe2 OPO,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 95.

Koechner, W.

See, for example, W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), Chap. 7, pp. 357–361.

Marquardt, C. L.

G. C. Catella, L. R. Shiozawa, J. R. Hietanen, R. C. Eckardt, R. K. Route, R. S. Feigelson, D. G. Cooper, C. L. Marquardt, “Mid-IR absorption in AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator crystals,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3948–3951 (1993).
[PubMed]

R. C. Eckardt, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, C. L. Marquardt, M. E. Storm, L. Esterowitz, “Broadly tunable infrared parametric oscillator using AgGaSe2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 608–610 (1986); G. J. Quarles, C. L. Marquardt, L. Esterowitz, “2 μm pumped AgGaSe2 with continuous tuning 2.49–12.05 μm,” in Proceedings of LEOS ’90 (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1990), paper ELT7.1.
[Crossref]

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing and power scaling of a AgGaSe2 OPO,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 95.

Murray, K. E.

N. P. Barnes, K. E. Murray, “High gain nonlinear interactions using a 1.73 μm Er:YLF laser,” in Tunable Solid State Lasers, M. L. Shand, H. P. Jenssen, eds., Vol. 5 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 319–324.

Route, R. K.

Schepler, K. L.

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing and power scaling of a AgGaSe2 OPO,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 95.

P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, E. P. Chicklis, K. L. Schepler, “High repetition rate AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 95.

Shchukina, I. K.

R. A. Annamamedov, A. E. Balanevskaya, L. I. Berger, A. I. Dobrushina, I. K. Shchukina, “Thermal and elastic properties of a number of diamond-like semiconducting ternary compounds,” in Chemical Bonds in Semiconductors and Thermodynamics, N. N. Sirota, ed. (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1968), pp. 240–242.

Shiozawa, L. R.

Storm, M. E.

R. C. Eckardt, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, C. L. Marquardt, M. E. Storm, L. Esterowitz, “Broadly tunable infrared parametric oscillator using AgGaSe2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 608–610 (1986); G. J. Quarles, C. L. Marquardt, L. Esterowitz, “2 μm pumped AgGaSe2 with continuous tuning 2.49–12.05 μm,” in Proceedings of LEOS ’90 (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1990), paper ELT7.1.
[Crossref]

Wasim, S. M.

S. M. Wasim, “Thermal conductivity of ternary compounds,” Phys. Status Solidi 51, K35–K40 (1979).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. D. Beasley, “Thermal conductivities of some novel nonlinear optical materials,” Appl. Opt. 33, (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. C. Eckardt, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, C. L. Marquardt, M. E. Storm, L. Esterowitz, “Broadly tunable infrared parametric oscillator using AgGaSe2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 608–610 (1986); G. J. Quarles, C. L. Marquardt, L. Esterowitz, “2 μm pumped AgGaSe2 with continuous tuning 2.49–12.05 μm,” in Proceedings of LEOS ’90 (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1990), paper ELT7.1.
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. P. Barnes, R. C. Eckhardt, D. J. Gettemy, L. B. Edgett, “Absorption coefficients and temperature variation of refractive index difference of nonlinear optical crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1074–1076 (1979).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

Methods described in S. C. Abrahams, A. S. L. Hsu, “Debye temperatures and cohesive properties,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 1162–1165 (1975).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

S. M. Wasim, “Thermal conductivity of ternary compounds,” Phys. Status Solidi 51, K35–K40 (1979).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

R. A. Annamamedov, A. E. Balanevskaya, L. I. Berger, A. I. Dobrushina, I. K. Shchukina, “Thermal and elastic properties of a number of diamond-like semiconducting ternary compounds,” in Chemical Bonds in Semiconductors and Thermodynamics, N. N. Sirota, ed. (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1968), pp. 240–242.

“Silver gallium selenide and silver gallium sulphide,” product information sheet (Cleveland Crystals, Inc., 1990).

P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, E. P. Chicklis, K. L. Schepler, “High repetition rate AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 95.

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing and power scaling of a AgGaSe2 OPO,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 95.

N. P. Barnes, K. E. Murray, “High gain nonlinear interactions using a 1.73 μm Er:YLF laser,” in Tunable Solid State Lasers, M. L. Shand, H. P. Jenssen, eds., Vol. 5 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 319–324.

Textron Defense Systems, “CO2 laser frequency doubling,” Contract N00014-91-C-2279 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 33–36.

See, for example, W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), Chap. 7, pp. 357–361.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measurement of room-temperature thermal lensing in AgGaSe2 at 2-W pump power. Crystal is placed at the horizontal zero position; triangles show propagation of the pump beam with the crystal removed.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Conversion efficiency measurement for a nonoptimized AgGaSe2 OPO at LNT. The linear least-squares fit indicates a slope efficiency of 18%.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Beam profiles of the 3.8-μm output of an optically compensated AgGaSe2 OPO at room temperature with 5-W pump power. The camera was located 1 m from the OPO output coupler. The frames shown were taken A, 15 s, B, 17 s, C, 19 s, and D, 21 s after turning on the pump beam.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 AgGaSe2 Crystals Used in Thermal Focusing and OPO Experimentsa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Thermal Focusing Data Obtained from Three AgGaSe2 Crystals at Room Temperature with e-Polarized 2.05-μm Pumping

Tables Icon

Table 3 Experimental and Calculated Values of the Thermal Focusing Power PTF of Crystal CCI-90 at Three Different Temperaturesa

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P TF = [ ( 4 . 9 ± 1 . 9 ) × 10 5 m W 1 ] [ L α P / D 2 ] ,
K ( T ) = A · T · exp ( θ / T ) .

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