Abstract

We describe a 6 × 6 array of electrically addressed field-effect-transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device differential modulators in which each element has a single-stage amplifier to permit an input voltage of less than 1 V to control the output modulators, which can operate at as high as 10 V. The variations in the switching voltages across the array are less than ±70 mV, and the individual array elements are operated at as high as 2 Gbits/s. We also measure cross talk between adjacent elements within the array, measure the dependence of the switching time on the input voltage swing, and calculate the dependence of the switching time that is due to the photocurrent of the modulators.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. A. B. Miller, M. D. Feuer, T. Y. Chang, S. C. Shunk, J. E. Henry, D. J. Burrows, D. S. Chemla, “Field-effect transistor self-electrooptic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator and transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 61–64 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, S. S. Pei, F. Ren, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, R. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, M. D. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs/AlGaAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 614–618 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs-A1GaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEEDs) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. See, e.g., D. A. B. Miller, “Quantum-well self-electro-optic effect devices,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, S61–S98 (1990).
  5. L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, A. L. Lentine, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “Large arrays of symmetric self electro-optc effect devices,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 56–59.
  6. R. H. Yan, R. J. Simes, L. A. Coldren, A. C. Gossard, “Transverse modulators with a record reflection change of > 20 percent/volt using asymmetric Fabry–Perot structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1126–1128 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. W. Goossen, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Excitonic electroabsorption in extremely shallow quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2582–2584 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Hida, A. Okamoto, H. Toyoshima, O. Keiichi, “An investigation of i-AlGaAs/n-GaAs doped channel MIS-like FETs (DMTs)—properties and performance potentialities,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-34, 1448–1455 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” presented at the IEEE Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Santa Barbara, Calif., August, 1992.
  10. R. A. Morgan, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, R. E. Leibenguth, “High power multiple quantum well modulators exploiting resonant tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3524–3526 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

1993 (1)

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs-A1GaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEEDs) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, S. S. Pei, F. Ren, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, R. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, M. D. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs/AlGaAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 614–618 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. A. Morgan, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, R. E. Leibenguth, “High power multiple quantum well modulators exploiting resonant tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3524–3526 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

See, e.g., D. A. B. Miller, “Quantum-well self-electro-optic effect devices,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, S61–S98 (1990).

R. H. Yan, R. J. Simes, L. A. Coldren, A. C. Gossard, “Transverse modulators with a record reflection change of > 20 percent/volt using asymmetric Fabry–Perot structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1126–1128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Excitonic electroabsorption in extremely shallow quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2582–2584 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, M. D. Feuer, T. Y. Chang, S. C. Shunk, J. E. Henry, D. J. Burrows, D. S. Chemla, “Field-effect transistor self-electrooptic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator and transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 61–64 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

H. Hida, A. Okamoto, H. Toyoshima, O. Keiichi, “An investigation of i-AlGaAs/n-GaAs doped channel MIS-like FETs (DMTs)—properties and performance potentialities,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-34, 1448–1455 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Asom, M. T.

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, S. S. Pei, F. Ren, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, R. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, M. D. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs/AlGaAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 614–618 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. D.

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” presented at the IEEE Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Santa Barbara, Calif., August, 1992.

Buchholz, D. B.

L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, A. L. Lentine, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “Large arrays of symmetric self electro-optc effect devices,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 56–59.

Burrows, D. J.

D. A. B. Miller, M. D. Feuer, T. Y. Chang, S. C. Shunk, J. E. Henry, D. J. Burrows, D. S. Chemla, “Field-effect transistor self-electrooptic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator and transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 61–64 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T. Y.

D. A. B. Miller, M. D. Feuer, T. Y. Chang, S. C. Shunk, J. E. Henry, D. J. Burrows, D. S. Chemla, “Field-effect transistor self-electrooptic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator and transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 61–64 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

D. A. B. Miller, M. D. Feuer, T. Y. Chang, S. C. Shunk, J. E. Henry, D. J. Burrows, D. S. Chemla, “Field-effect transistor self-electrooptic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator and transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 61–64 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs-A1GaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEEDs) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, S. S. Pei, F. Ren, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, R. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, M. D. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs/AlGaAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 614–618 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Morgan, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, R. E. Leibenguth, “High power multiple quantum well modulators exploiting resonant tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3524–3526 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, A. L. Lentine, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “Large arrays of symmetric self electro-optc effect devices,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 56–59.

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” presented at the IEEE Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Santa Barbara, Calif., August, 1992.

Cloonan, T. J.

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” presented at the IEEE Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Santa Barbara, Calif., August, 1992.

Coldren, L. A.

R. H. Yan, R. J. Simes, L. A. Coldren, A. C. Gossard, “Transverse modulators with a record reflection change of > 20 percent/volt using asymmetric Fabry–Perot structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1126–1128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

K. W. Goossen, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Excitonic electroabsorption in extremely shallow quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2582–2584 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D’Asaro, L. A.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs-A1GaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEEDs) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, S. S. Pei, F. Ren, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, R. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, M. D. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs/AlGaAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 614–618 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” presented at the IEEE Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Santa Barbara, Calif., August, 1992.

L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, A. L. Lentine, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “Large arrays of symmetric self electro-optc effect devices,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 56–59.

Feuer, M. D.

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, S. S. Pei, F. Ren, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, R. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, M. D. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs/AlGaAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 614–618 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, M. D. Feuer, T. Y. Chang, S. C. Shunk, J. E. Henry, D. J. Burrows, D. S. Chemla, “Field-effect transistor self-electrooptic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator and transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 61–64 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Focht, M. W.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs-A1GaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEEDs) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, S. S. Pei, F. Ren, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, R. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, M. D. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs/AlGaAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 614–618 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Morgan, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, R. E. Leibenguth, “High power multiple quantum well modulators exploiting resonant tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3524–3526 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, A. L. Lentine, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “Large arrays of symmetric self electro-optc effect devices,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 56–59.

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” presented at the IEEE Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Santa Barbara, Calif., August, 1992.

Freund, J. M.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs-A1GaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEEDs) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” presented at the IEEE Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Santa Barbara, Calif., August, 1992.

L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, A. L. Lentine, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “Large arrays of symmetric self electro-optc effect devices,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 56–59.

Goossen, K. W.

K. W. Goossen, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Excitonic electroabsorption in extremely shallow quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2582–2584 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

R. H. Yan, R. J. Simes, L. A. Coldren, A. C. Gossard, “Transverse modulators with a record reflection change of > 20 percent/volt using asymmetric Fabry–Perot structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1126–1128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Guth, G. D.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs-A1GaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEEDs) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, S. S. Pei, F. Ren, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, R. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, M. D. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs/AlGaAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 614–618 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” presented at the IEEE Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Santa Barbara, Calif., August, 1992.

L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, A. L. Lentine, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “Large arrays of symmetric self electro-optc effect devices,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 56–59.

Henry, J. E.

D. A. B. Miller, M. D. Feuer, T. Y. Chang, S. C. Shunk, J. E. Henry, D. J. Burrows, D. S. Chemla, “Field-effect transistor self-electrooptic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator and transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 61–64 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hida, H.

H. Hida, A. Okamoto, H. Toyoshima, O. Keiichi, “An investigation of i-AlGaAs/n-GaAs doped channel MIS-like FETs (DMTs)—properties and performance potentialities,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-34, 1448–1455 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hinton, H. S.

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” presented at the IEEE Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Santa Barbara, Calif., August, 1992.

Jan, W. Y.

K. W. Goossen, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Excitonic electroabsorption in extremely shallow quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2582–2584 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Keiichi, O.

H. Hida, A. Okamoto, H. Toyoshima, O. Keiichi, “An investigation of i-AlGaAs/n-GaAs doped channel MIS-like FETs (DMTs)—properties and performance potentialities,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-34, 1448–1455 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kopf, R.

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, S. S. Pei, F. Ren, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, R. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, M. D. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs/AlGaAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 614–618 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, J. M.

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, S. S. Pei, F. Ren, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, R. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, M. D. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs/AlGaAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 614–618 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Laskowski, E. J.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs-A1GaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEEDs) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, S. S. Pei, F. Ren, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, R. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, M. D. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs/AlGaAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 614–618 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” presented at the IEEE Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Santa Barbara, Calif., August, 1992.

Leibenguth, R. E.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs-A1GaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEEDs) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, S. S. Pei, F. Ren, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, R. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, M. D. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs/AlGaAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 614–618 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Morgan, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, R. E. Leibenguth, “High power multiple quantum well modulators exploiting resonant tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3524–3526 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, A. L. Lentine, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “Large arrays of symmetric self electro-optc effect devices,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 56–59.

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” presented at the IEEE Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Santa Barbara, Calif., August, 1992.

Lentine, A. L.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs-A1GaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEEDs) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, S. S. Pei, F. Ren, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, R. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, M. D. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs/AlGaAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 614–618 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” presented at the IEEE Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Santa Barbara, Calif., August, 1992.

L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, A. L. Lentine, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “Large arrays of symmetric self electro-optc effect devices,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 56–59.

Miller, D. A. B.

See, e.g., D. A. B. Miller, “Quantum-well self-electro-optic effect devices,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, S61–S98 (1990).

D. A. B. Miller, M. D. Feuer, T. Y. Chang, S. C. Shunk, J. E. Henry, D. J. Burrows, D. S. Chemla, “Field-effect transistor self-electrooptic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator and transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 61–64 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, R. A.

R. A. Morgan, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, R. E. Leibenguth, “High power multiple quantum well modulators exploiting resonant tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3524–3526 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, R. A.

L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, A. L. Lentine, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “Large arrays of symmetric self electro-optc effect devices,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 56–59.

Okamoto, A.

H. Hida, A. Okamoto, H. Toyoshima, O. Keiichi, “An investigation of i-AlGaAs/n-GaAs doped channel MIS-like FETs (DMTs)—properties and performance potentialities,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-34, 1448–1455 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pei, S. S.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs-A1GaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEEDs) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, S. S. Pei, F. Ren, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, R. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, M. D. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs/AlGaAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 614–618 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” presented at the IEEE Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Santa Barbara, Calif., August, 1992.

Przybylek, G. J.

L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, A. L. Lentine, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “Large arrays of symmetric self electro-optc effect devices,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 56–59.

Ren, F.

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, S. S. Pei, F. Ren, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, R. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, M. D. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs/AlGaAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 614–618 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shunk, S. C.

D. A. B. Miller, M. D. Feuer, T. Y. Chang, S. C. Shunk, J. E. Henry, D. J. Burrows, D. S. Chemla, “Field-effect transistor self-electrooptic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator and transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 61–64 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Simes, R. J.

R. H. Yan, R. J. Simes, L. A. Coldren, A. C. Gossard, “Transverse modulators with a record reflection change of > 20 percent/volt using asymmetric Fabry–Perot structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1126–1128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Smith, L. E.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs-A1GaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEEDs) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” presented at the IEEE Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Santa Barbara, Calif., August, 1992.

L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, A. L. Lentine, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “Large arrays of symmetric self electro-optc effect devices,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 56–59.

Toyoshima, H.

H. Hida, A. Okamoto, H. Toyoshima, O. Keiichi, “An investigation of i-AlGaAs/n-GaAs doped channel MIS-like FETs (DMTs)—properties and performance potentialities,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-34, 1448–1455 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, T. K.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs-A1GaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEEDs) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, S. S. Pei, F. Ren, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, R. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, M. D. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs/AlGaAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 614–618 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” presented at the IEEE Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Santa Barbara, Calif., August, 1992.

Yan, R. H.

R. H. Yan, R. J. Simes, L. A. Coldren, A. C. Gossard, “Transverse modulators with a record reflection change of > 20 percent/volt using asymmetric Fabry–Perot structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1126–1128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. H. Yan, R. J. Simes, L. A. Coldren, A. C. Gossard, “Transverse modulators with a record reflection change of > 20 percent/volt using asymmetric Fabry–Perot structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1126–1128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Excitonic electroabsorption in extremely shallow quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2582–2584 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Morgan, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, R. E. Leibenguth, “High power multiple quantum well modulators exploiting resonant tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3524–3526 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs-A1GaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEEDs) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

D. A. B. Miller, M. D. Feuer, T. Y. Chang, S. C. Shunk, J. E. Henry, D. J. Burrows, D. S. Chemla, “Field-effect transistor self-electrooptic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator and transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 61–64 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, M. W. Focht, G. D. Guth, S. S. Pei, F. Ren, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, R. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, M. D. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs/AlGaAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 614–618 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices (1)

H. Hida, A. Okamoto, H. Toyoshima, O. Keiichi, “An investigation of i-AlGaAs/n-GaAs doped channel MIS-like FETs (DMTs)—properties and performance potentialities,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-34, 1448–1455 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

See, e.g., D. A. B. Miller, “Quantum-well self-electro-optic effect devices,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, S61–S98 (1990).

Other (2)

L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, A. L. Lentine, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “Large arrays of symmetric self electro-optc effect devices,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 56–59.

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” presented at the IEEE Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels, Santa Barbara, Calif., August, 1992.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram, layer structure, and photograph of the 6 × 6 array of amplified differential modulators: (a) schematic diagram, (b) layer structure, (c) photograph. MQW—multiple quantum well.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Superposition of reflectivity versus input voltage for 30 of the devices in the array. Solid curves indicate the top modulators, and starred curves indicate the bottom. Vds = 6.5 V, λ = 860 nm, and Poptical = 50 μW.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output reflectivity for an 200-MHz input square wave with peak-to-peak voltages of (a) 0.6 V, (b) 1.0 V, (c) 2.0 V. The input optical power was ~ 50 μW.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output reflectivity for both modulators for a 2-Gbits/s nonreturn-to-zero input with an input voltage swing of ~ 2 V: (a) input waveform, (b) noninverted optical output, (c) inverted optical output. The input optical power was ~ 50 μW.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reflectivity of one of the modulators versus input voltage for optical input powers of 20, 100, 250, and 500 μW, and 1 mW. λ = 858 nm, which is 5 nm beyond the excitonic peak at 0-V bias.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Photocurrent (solid curve) and linear approximation (dotted curve) from one of the modulators at 858 nm for an input optical power of 50 μW, (b) model of the amplified differential modulator used to calculate the effect of the photocurrent on the switching speed.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Ratio of switching times with and without photocurrents plotted against the ratio of the PET current difference to photocurrent difference.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V n ( t ) = ( R 2 Δ I FET + V 0 2 ) [ 1 - exp ( - t / τ ) ] .
t = - τ ln ( 1 - V 0 R 2 Δ I FET + V 0 2 ) .
t = - F C V 0 Δ I FET ln ( F - 1 F + 1 ) ,
t / t 0 = - F 2 ln ( F - 1 F + 1 ) .

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