Abstract

An optically addressed parallel-aligned nematic-liquid-crystal spatial light modulator is developed for applications in optical information processing and interferometry. Its performance, including diffraction efficiency, is measured, and a theoretical analysis of diffraction efficiency is performed. A comparison between the experimental results and the theoretical analysis shows good agreement. The diffraction efficiency of near-sinusoidal gratings written on the device is of the order of 30%, which is close to theoretical maximum.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. L. Horner, P. D. Gianino, “Phase only matched filtering,” Appl. Opt. 23, 812–816 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Psaltis, E. G. Paek, S. S. Venkatesh, “Optical image correlation with a binary spatial light modulator,” Opt. Eng. 23, 698–704(1984).
  3. D. L. Flannery, J. S. Loomis, M. E. Milkovich, P. E. Keller, “Application of binary phase only correlation to machine vision,” Opt. Eng. 27, 309–319 (1988).
  4. T. H. Barnes, K. Matsumoto, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, N. Ooyama, “Phase only liquid crystal light modulator and its application in the Fourier plane of optical correlation systems,” in Optical Pattern Recognition III, H. J. Caulfield, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1134, 204–208 (1989).
  5. L. Pugliese, G. M. Morris, “Computer generated holography in photorefractive material,” Opt. Lett. 15, 338–340 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. H. Barnes, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, N. Ooyama, “Phase-only modulation using a twisted nematic liquid crystal television,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4845–4852 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. H. Barnes, M. Muramatsu, K. Matsuda, “Interferometer using a flexible kinoform implemented with a liquid crystal panel,” in Optics in Complex Systems, F. Lanzl, H. J. Preuss, G. Weigelt, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1319, 218–219 (1990).
  8. O. V. Garibyan, I. N. Kompanets, A. V. Parfyonov, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, A. N. Sudarkin, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, A. A. Vasiliev, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, “Optical phase conjugation by microwatt power of reference waves via liquid crystal light valve,” Opt. Commun. 38, 67–70 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Marom, U. Efron, “Phase conjugation of low-power optical beams using liquid-crystal light valves,” Opt. Lett. 12, 504–506 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Ichikawa, T. H. Barnes, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, “Dynamic space variant optical interconnections using liquid crystal spatial liquid modulators,” Opt. Commun. 93, 145–150 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Hara, “Phase modulation with microchannel spatial light modulator (MSLM),” Electron. Commun. Jpn. 74, Part 2, 40–45 (1991).
  12. D. R. Pape, L. J. Hornbeck, “Characteristics of the deformable mirror device for optical information processing,” Opt. Eng. 22, 675–679 (1983).
  13. T. H. Barnes, K. Matsumoto, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, N. Ooyama, “The application of phase-only filters to optical interconnects and pattern recognition,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 1849–1863 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Armitage, J. I. Thackara, W. D. Eades, “Photoaddressed liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4763–4771 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. Joffre, G. Illiagner, J. P. Huignard, “Electro-optic properties of nematic liquid crystals for phase modulation in the infrared at 10.6 microns,” in Electro-Optic and Magneto-Optic Materials and Applications, J. P. Castera, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1126, 13–20 (1989).
  16. N. Konforti, E. Marom, S. T. Wu, “Phase only modulation using twisted nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” Opt. Commun. 13, 251–253 (1988).
  17. K. Lu, B. E. A. Saleh, “Complex amplitude reflectance of the liquid crystal light valve,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2354–2362 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. U. Efron, S. T. Wu, J. Grinberg, L. D. Hess, “Liquid-crystal-based visible-to-infrared dynamic image converter,” Opt. Eng. 24, 111–118 (1985).
  19. S.-T. Wu, “Infrared properties of nematic liquid crystals: an overivew,” Opt. Eng. 26, 120–128 (1987).
  20. U. Efron, S. T. Wu, T. D. Bates, “Nematic liquid crystals for spatial light modulators: recent studies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 247–252 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. T. Wu, U. Efron, T. Y. Hsu, “Near-infrared-to-visible image conversion using a Si liquid-crystal light valve,” Opt. Lett. 13, 13–15 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. W. R. Klein, B. D. Cook, “Unified approach to ultrasonic light diffraction,” IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason. SU-14, 123–134 (1967)
    [CrossRef]

1992

H. Ichikawa, T. H. Barnes, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, “Dynamic space variant optical interconnections using liquid crystal spatial liquid modulators,” Opt. Commun. 93, 145–150 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

T. Hara, “Phase modulation with microchannel spatial light modulator (MSLM),” Electron. Commun. Jpn. 74, Part 2, 40–45 (1991).

K. Lu, B. E. A. Saleh, “Complex amplitude reflectance of the liquid crystal light valve,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2354–2362 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

T. H. Barnes, K. Matsumoto, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, N. Ooyama, “The application of phase-only filters to optical interconnects and pattern recognition,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 1849–1863 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. Pugliese, G. M. Morris, “Computer generated holography in photorefractive material,” Opt. Lett. 15, 338–340 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

1988

N. Konforti, E. Marom, S. T. Wu, “Phase only modulation using twisted nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” Opt. Commun. 13, 251–253 (1988).

D. L. Flannery, J. S. Loomis, M. E. Milkovich, P. E. Keller, “Application of binary phase only correlation to machine vision,” Opt. Eng. 27, 309–319 (1988).

S. T. Wu, U. Efron, T. Y. Hsu, “Near-infrared-to-visible image conversion using a Si liquid-crystal light valve,” Opt. Lett. 13, 13–15 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

S.-T. Wu, “Infrared properties of nematic liquid crystals: an overivew,” Opt. Eng. 26, 120–128 (1987).

E. Marom, U. Efron, “Phase conjugation of low-power optical beams using liquid-crystal light valves,” Opt. Lett. 12, 504–506 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

1985

U. Efron, S. T. Wu, J. Grinberg, L. D. Hess, “Liquid-crystal-based visible-to-infrared dynamic image converter,” Opt. Eng. 24, 111–118 (1985).

1984

D. Psaltis, E. G. Paek, S. S. Venkatesh, “Optical image correlation with a binary spatial light modulator,” Opt. Eng. 23, 698–704(1984).

J. L. Horner, P. D. Gianino, “Phase only matched filtering,” Appl. Opt. 23, 812–816 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

D. R. Pape, L. J. Hornbeck, “Characteristics of the deformable mirror device for optical information processing,” Opt. Eng. 22, 675–679 (1983).

1981

O. V. Garibyan, I. N. Kompanets, A. V. Parfyonov, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, A. N. Sudarkin, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, A. A. Vasiliev, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, “Optical phase conjugation by microwatt power of reference waves via liquid crystal light valve,” Opt. Commun. 38, 67–70 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1967

W. R. Klein, B. D. Cook, “Unified approach to ultrasonic light diffraction,” IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason. SU-14, 123–134 (1967)
[CrossRef]

Armitage, D.

Barnes, T. H.

H. Ichikawa, T. H. Barnes, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, “Dynamic space variant optical interconnections using liquid crystal spatial liquid modulators,” Opt. Commun. 93, 145–150 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Barnes, K. Matsumoto, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, N. Ooyama, “The application of phase-only filters to optical interconnects and pattern recognition,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 1849–1863 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Barnes, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, N. Ooyama, “Phase-only modulation using a twisted nematic liquid crystal television,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4845–4852 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Barnes, K. Matsumoto, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, N. Ooyama, “Phase only liquid crystal light modulator and its application in the Fourier plane of optical correlation systems,” in Optical Pattern Recognition III, H. J. Caulfield, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1134, 204–208 (1989).

T. H. Barnes, M. Muramatsu, K. Matsuda, “Interferometer using a flexible kinoform implemented with a liquid crystal panel,” in Optics in Complex Systems, F. Lanzl, H. J. Preuss, G. Weigelt, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1319, 218–219 (1990).

Bates, T. D.

Cook, B. D.

W. R. Klein, B. D. Cook, “Unified approach to ultrasonic light diffraction,” IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason. SU-14, 123–134 (1967)
[CrossRef]

Eades, W. D.

Efron, U.

Eiju, T.

H. Ichikawa, T. H. Barnes, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, “Dynamic space variant optical interconnections using liquid crystal spatial liquid modulators,” Opt. Commun. 93, 145–150 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Barnes, K. Matsumoto, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, N. Ooyama, “The application of phase-only filters to optical interconnects and pattern recognition,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 1849–1863 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Barnes, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, N. Ooyama, “Phase-only modulation using a twisted nematic liquid crystal television,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4845–4852 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Barnes, K. Matsumoto, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, N. Ooyama, “Phase only liquid crystal light modulator and its application in the Fourier plane of optical correlation systems,” in Optical Pattern Recognition III, H. J. Caulfield, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1134, 204–208 (1989).

Flannery, D. L.

D. L. Flannery, J. S. Loomis, M. E. Milkovich, P. E. Keller, “Application of binary phase only correlation to machine vision,” Opt. Eng. 27, 309–319 (1988).

Garibyan, O. V.

O. V. Garibyan, I. N. Kompanets, A. V. Parfyonov, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, A. N. Sudarkin, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, A. A. Vasiliev, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, “Optical phase conjugation by microwatt power of reference waves via liquid crystal light valve,” Opt. Commun. 38, 67–70 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gianino, P. D.

Grinberg, J.

U. Efron, S. T. Wu, J. Grinberg, L. D. Hess, “Liquid-crystal-based visible-to-infrared dynamic image converter,” Opt. Eng. 24, 111–118 (1985).

Hara, T.

T. Hara, “Phase modulation with microchannel spatial light modulator (MSLM),” Electron. Commun. Jpn. 74, Part 2, 40–45 (1991).

Hess, L. D.

U. Efron, S. T. Wu, J. Grinberg, L. D. Hess, “Liquid-crystal-based visible-to-infrared dynamic image converter,” Opt. Eng. 24, 111–118 (1985).

Hornbeck, L. J.

D. R. Pape, L. J. Hornbeck, “Characteristics of the deformable mirror device for optical information processing,” Opt. Eng. 22, 675–679 (1983).

Horner, J. L.

Hsu, T. Y.

Huignard, J. P.

P. Joffre, G. Illiagner, J. P. Huignard, “Electro-optic properties of nematic liquid crystals for phase modulation in the infrared at 10.6 microns,” in Electro-Optic and Magneto-Optic Materials and Applications, J. P. Castera, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1126, 13–20 (1989).

Ichikawa, H.

H. Ichikawa, T. H. Barnes, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, “Dynamic space variant optical interconnections using liquid crystal spatial liquid modulators,” Opt. Commun. 93, 145–150 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Illiagner, G.

P. Joffre, G. Illiagner, J. P. Huignard, “Electro-optic properties of nematic liquid crystals for phase modulation in the infrared at 10.6 microns,” in Electro-Optic and Magneto-Optic Materials and Applications, J. P. Castera, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1126, 13–20 (1989).

Joffre, P.

P. Joffre, G. Illiagner, J. P. Huignard, “Electro-optic properties of nematic liquid crystals for phase modulation in the infrared at 10.6 microns,” in Electro-Optic and Magneto-Optic Materials and Applications, J. P. Castera, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1126, 13–20 (1989).

Keller, P. E.

D. L. Flannery, J. S. Loomis, M. E. Milkovich, P. E. Keller, “Application of binary phase only correlation to machine vision,” Opt. Eng. 27, 309–319 (1988).

Klein, W. R.

W. R. Klein, B. D. Cook, “Unified approach to ultrasonic light diffraction,” IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason. SU-14, 123–134 (1967)
[CrossRef]

Kompanets, I. N.

O. V. Garibyan, I. N. Kompanets, A. V. Parfyonov, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, A. N. Sudarkin, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, A. A. Vasiliev, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, “Optical phase conjugation by microwatt power of reference waves via liquid crystal light valve,” Opt. Commun. 38, 67–70 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Konforti, N.

N. Konforti, E. Marom, S. T. Wu, “Phase only modulation using twisted nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” Opt. Commun. 13, 251–253 (1988).

Loomis, J. S.

D. L. Flannery, J. S. Loomis, M. E. Milkovich, P. E. Keller, “Application of binary phase only correlation to machine vision,” Opt. Eng. 27, 309–319 (1988).

Lu, K.

Marom, E.

N. Konforti, E. Marom, S. T. Wu, “Phase only modulation using twisted nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” Opt. Commun. 13, 251–253 (1988).

E. Marom, U. Efron, “Phase conjugation of low-power optical beams using liquid-crystal light valves,” Opt. Lett. 12, 504–506 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuda, K.

H. Ichikawa, T. H. Barnes, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, “Dynamic space variant optical interconnections using liquid crystal spatial liquid modulators,” Opt. Commun. 93, 145–150 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Barnes, K. Matsumoto, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, N. Ooyama, “The application of phase-only filters to optical interconnects and pattern recognition,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 1849–1863 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Barnes, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, N. Ooyama, “Phase-only modulation using a twisted nematic liquid crystal television,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4845–4852 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Barnes, M. Muramatsu, K. Matsuda, “Interferometer using a flexible kinoform implemented with a liquid crystal panel,” in Optics in Complex Systems, F. Lanzl, H. J. Preuss, G. Weigelt, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1319, 218–219 (1990).

T. H. Barnes, K. Matsumoto, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, N. Ooyama, “Phase only liquid crystal light modulator and its application in the Fourier plane of optical correlation systems,” in Optical Pattern Recognition III, H. J. Caulfield, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1134, 204–208 (1989).

Matsumoto, K.

T. H. Barnes, K. Matsumoto, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, N. Ooyama, “The application of phase-only filters to optical interconnects and pattern recognition,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 1849–1863 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Barnes, K. Matsumoto, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, N. Ooyama, “Phase only liquid crystal light modulator and its application in the Fourier plane of optical correlation systems,” in Optical Pattern Recognition III, H. J. Caulfield, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1134, 204–208 (1989).

Milkovich, M. E.

D. L. Flannery, J. S. Loomis, M. E. Milkovich, P. E. Keller, “Application of binary phase only correlation to machine vision,” Opt. Eng. 27, 309–319 (1988).

Morris, G. M.

Muramatsu, M.

T. H. Barnes, M. Muramatsu, K. Matsuda, “Interferometer using a flexible kinoform implemented with a liquid crystal panel,” in Optics in Complex Systems, F. Lanzl, H. J. Preuss, G. Weigelt, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1319, 218–219 (1990).

Ooyama, N.

T. H. Barnes, K. Matsumoto, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, N. Ooyama, “The application of phase-only filters to optical interconnects and pattern recognition,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 1849–1863 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Barnes, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, N. Ooyama, “Phase-only modulation using a twisted nematic liquid crystal television,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4845–4852 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Barnes, K. Matsumoto, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, N. Ooyama, “Phase only liquid crystal light modulator and its application in the Fourier plane of optical correlation systems,” in Optical Pattern Recognition III, H. J. Caulfield, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1134, 204–208 (1989).

Paek, E. G.

D. Psaltis, E. G. Paek, S. S. Venkatesh, “Optical image correlation with a binary spatial light modulator,” Opt. Eng. 23, 698–704(1984).

Pape, D. R.

D. R. Pape, L. J. Hornbeck, “Characteristics of the deformable mirror device for optical information processing,” Opt. Eng. 22, 675–679 (1983).

Parfyonov, A. V.

O. V. Garibyan, I. N. Kompanets, A. V. Parfyonov, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, A. N. Sudarkin, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, A. A. Vasiliev, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, “Optical phase conjugation by microwatt power of reference waves via liquid crystal light valve,” Opt. Commun. 38, 67–70 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Pilipetsky, N. F.

O. V. Garibyan, I. N. Kompanets, A. V. Parfyonov, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, A. N. Sudarkin, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, A. A. Vasiliev, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, “Optical phase conjugation by microwatt power of reference waves via liquid crystal light valve,” Opt. Commun. 38, 67–70 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

D. Psaltis, E. G. Paek, S. S. Venkatesh, “Optical image correlation with a binary spatial light modulator,” Opt. Eng. 23, 698–704(1984).

Pugliese, L.

Saleh, B. E. A.

Shkunov, V. V.

O. V. Garibyan, I. N. Kompanets, A. V. Parfyonov, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, A. N. Sudarkin, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, A. A. Vasiliev, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, “Optical phase conjugation by microwatt power of reference waves via liquid crystal light valve,” Opt. Commun. 38, 67–70 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sudarkin, A. N.

O. V. Garibyan, I. N. Kompanets, A. V. Parfyonov, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, A. N. Sudarkin, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, A. A. Vasiliev, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, “Optical phase conjugation by microwatt power of reference waves via liquid crystal light valve,” Opt. Commun. 38, 67–70 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sukhov, A. V.

O. V. Garibyan, I. N. Kompanets, A. V. Parfyonov, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, A. N. Sudarkin, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, A. A. Vasiliev, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, “Optical phase conjugation by microwatt power of reference waves via liquid crystal light valve,” Opt. Commun. 38, 67–70 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N. V.

O. V. Garibyan, I. N. Kompanets, A. V. Parfyonov, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, A. N. Sudarkin, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, A. A. Vasiliev, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, “Optical phase conjugation by microwatt power of reference waves via liquid crystal light valve,” Opt. Commun. 38, 67–70 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Taghizadeh, M. R.

H. Ichikawa, T. H. Barnes, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, “Dynamic space variant optical interconnections using liquid crystal spatial liquid modulators,” Opt. Commun. 93, 145–150 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Thackara, J. I.

Turunen, J.

H. Ichikawa, T. H. Barnes, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, “Dynamic space variant optical interconnections using liquid crystal spatial liquid modulators,” Opt. Commun. 93, 145–150 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vasiliev, A. A.

O. V. Garibyan, I. N. Kompanets, A. V. Parfyonov, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, A. N. Sudarkin, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, A. A. Vasiliev, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, “Optical phase conjugation by microwatt power of reference waves via liquid crystal light valve,” Opt. Commun. 38, 67–70 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Venkatesh, S. S.

D. Psaltis, E. G. Paek, S. S. Venkatesh, “Optical image correlation with a binary spatial light modulator,” Opt. Eng. 23, 698–704(1984).

Wu, S. T.

S. T. Wu, U. Efron, T. Y. Hsu, “Near-infrared-to-visible image conversion using a Si liquid-crystal light valve,” Opt. Lett. 13, 13–15 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Konforti, E. Marom, S. T. Wu, “Phase only modulation using twisted nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” Opt. Commun. 13, 251–253 (1988).

U. Efron, S. T. Wu, T. D. Bates, “Nematic liquid crystals for spatial light modulators: recent studies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 247–252 (1986).
[CrossRef]

U. Efron, S. T. Wu, J. Grinberg, L. D. Hess, “Liquid-crystal-based visible-to-infrared dynamic image converter,” Opt. Eng. 24, 111–118 (1985).

Wu, S.-T.

S.-T. Wu, “Infrared properties of nematic liquid crystals: an overivew,” Opt. Eng. 26, 120–128 (1987).

Zel’dovich, B. Ya.

O. V. Garibyan, I. N. Kompanets, A. V. Parfyonov, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, A. N. Sudarkin, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, A. A. Vasiliev, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, “Optical phase conjugation by microwatt power of reference waves via liquid crystal light valve,” Opt. Commun. 38, 67–70 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Commun. Jpn.

T. Hara, “Phase modulation with microchannel spatial light modulator (MSLM),” Electron. Commun. Jpn. 74, Part 2, 40–45 (1991).

IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason.

W. R. Klein, B. D. Cook, “Unified approach to ultrasonic light diffraction,” IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason. SU-14, 123–134 (1967)
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

T. H. Barnes, K. Matsumoto, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, N. Ooyama, “The application of phase-only filters to optical interconnects and pattern recognition,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 1849–1863 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

O. V. Garibyan, I. N. Kompanets, A. V. Parfyonov, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, A. N. Sudarkin, A. V. Sukhov, N. V. Tabiryan, A. A. Vasiliev, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, “Optical phase conjugation by microwatt power of reference waves via liquid crystal light valve,” Opt. Commun. 38, 67–70 (1981).
[CrossRef]

N. Konforti, E. Marom, S. T. Wu, “Phase only modulation using twisted nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” Opt. Commun. 13, 251–253 (1988).

H. Ichikawa, T. H. Barnes, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, “Dynamic space variant optical interconnections using liquid crystal spatial liquid modulators,” Opt. Commun. 93, 145–150 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

U. Efron, S. T. Wu, J. Grinberg, L. D. Hess, “Liquid-crystal-based visible-to-infrared dynamic image converter,” Opt. Eng. 24, 111–118 (1985).

S.-T. Wu, “Infrared properties of nematic liquid crystals: an overivew,” Opt. Eng. 26, 120–128 (1987).

D. R. Pape, L. J. Hornbeck, “Characteristics of the deformable mirror device for optical information processing,” Opt. Eng. 22, 675–679 (1983).

D. Psaltis, E. G. Paek, S. S. Venkatesh, “Optical image correlation with a binary spatial light modulator,” Opt. Eng. 23, 698–704(1984).

D. L. Flannery, J. S. Loomis, M. E. Milkovich, P. E. Keller, “Application of binary phase only correlation to machine vision,” Opt. Eng. 27, 309–319 (1988).

Opt. Lett.

Other

T. H. Barnes, K. Matsumoto, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, N. Ooyama, “Phase only liquid crystal light modulator and its application in the Fourier plane of optical correlation systems,” in Optical Pattern Recognition III, H. J. Caulfield, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1134, 204–208 (1989).

P. Joffre, G. Illiagner, J. P. Huignard, “Electro-optic properties of nematic liquid crystals for phase modulation in the infrared at 10.6 microns,” in Electro-Optic and Magneto-Optic Materials and Applications, J. P. Castera, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1126, 13–20 (1989).

T. H. Barnes, M. Muramatsu, K. Matsuda, “Interferometer using a flexible kinoform implemented with a liquid crystal panel,” in Optics in Complex Systems, F. Lanzl, H. J. Preuss, G. Weigelt, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1319, 218–219 (1990).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of the PAL-SLM. AR, antireflection; ITO, indium tin oxide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PAL-SLM.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarization and phase modulation when a twisted nematic liquid crystal is used.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Operation of the PAL-SLM. R resistance; LC, liquid crystal.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup used to measure the phase-modulation characteristic. H.M., half-mirror; SF, spatial filter.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Interferograms from the phase-measurement setup.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Phase-modulation characteristic of the PAL-SLM.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Time response of the modulator.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Setup used to measure the diffraction efficiencies of gratings written on the PAL-SLM. ND, neutral-density filter.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Diffraction efficiency versus grating spatial frequency. lp, line pairs.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Experimentally measured diffraction efficiency as a function of phase-modulation amplitude. lp, line pairs.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Sinusoidal phase-grating assumed for theoretical calculation of diffraction efficiency.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Comparison of diffraction efficiencies measured experimentally with theoretical calculations.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Nonsinusoidal phase profiles and resultant power spectra obtained by computer simulation.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Comparison of diffraction efficiencies measured experimentally with results of computer simulation.

Equations (8)

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η i = I i I 0 ,
d Φ m d z + κ ( Φ m - 1 - Φ m + 1 ) = - j m Q 2 T ( m 2 a ) Φ m ,
κ = π Δ n λ 0 , Q = 2 π λ 0 T n 0 Λ 2 , a = - n 0 κ 0 sin θ K K = 2 π Λ , n ( x ) = n 0 + Δ n sin ( K x ) ,
d Φ m d z + κ ( Φ m + 1 - Φ m + 1 ) = - j m Q a Φ m T .
Φ m ( z ) = exp ( - j m Q a z 2 T ) J m ( 4 κ T Q a sin Q a z 2 T ) ,
η m = Φ m 2 = J m 2 2 κ T sinc ( Q a 2 ) .
η m = J m 2 ( 2 κ T ) = J m 2 ( Δ ϕ 2 ) ,
2 κ T = 2 π Δ n T λ 0 = Λ ϕ 2 ,

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