Abstract

Dynamic interconnect holograms are designed by the use of a simulated annealing algorithm and written to a 128 × 128 pixel ferroelectric spatial light modulator that is used in a binary-phase mode. Dynamic holograms are used to implement a 2 × 2 crossbar with single-mode fiber inputs and outputs, which function with as high as 27 dB of isolation between output ports. The principle is extended to two-dimensional interconnection holograms, and arbitrary fan-out to as high as 64 points is demonstrated with good performance.

Images of interconnection holograms are transferred from the spatial light modulator to an optically addressed spatial light modulator that is used in a binary-phase mode. The addition of a fixed array generator computer-generated hologram permits replication of the hologram image, thus creating a larger hologram with a high space–bandwidth product on the optically addressed spatial light modulator.

Results of a preliminary experiment are presented.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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1992

1991

1990

1989

1987

M. F. Bone, D. Coates, W. A. Crossland, P. Gunn, P. W. Ross, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal display capable of video line address times,” Displays 8, 115–118 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Seldowitz, J. P. Allebach, D. W. Sweeney, “Synthesis of holograms by direct binary search,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2788–2798(1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

1985

J. W. Goodman, “Fan-in and fan-out with optical interconnects,” Opt. Acta 32, 1489–1496 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1978

Alchalabi, A. O.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Alchalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. C. Latham, “A high-performance spatial light-modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Gookin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

Allebach, J. P.

Bach, G. W.

Barnes, T. H.

Barret, C. P.

H. J. White, N. A. Brownjohn, C. Stace, G. M. Proudley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barret, M. J. Birch, “Practical demonstration of a freespace optical crossbar switch,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of 1993 OSA Topical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 129–132.

Birch, M. J.

H. J. White, N. A. Brownjohn, C. Stace, G. M. Proudley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barret, M. J. Birch, “Practical demonstration of a freespace optical crossbar switch,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of 1993 OSA Topical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 129–132.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Alchalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. C. Latham, “A high-performance spatial light-modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Gookin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

Bone, M. F.

M. F. Bone, D. Coates, W. A. Crossland, P. Gunn, P. W. Ross, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal display capable of video line address times,” Displays 8, 115–118 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bradford, G.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Alchalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. C. Latham, “A high-performance spatial light-modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Gookin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

Brocklehurst, J. R.

Broomfield, S. E.

S. E. Broomfield, M. A. A. Neil, E. G. S. Paige, G. G. Yang, “Programmable binary phase only optical device based on ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Electron. Lett. 28, 26–27 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brownjohn, N. A.

H. J. White, N. A. Brownjohn, C. Stace, G. M. Proudley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barret, M. J. Birch, “Practical demonstration of a freespace optical crossbar switch,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of 1993 OSA Topical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 129–132.

Burns, D. C.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, A. O’Hara, D. C. Burns, “Issues in improving the performance of liquid-crystal-over-silicon spatial light modulators,” in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications, Vol. 6 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 110–113.

Coates, D.

M. F. Bone, D. Coates, W. A. Crossland, P. Gunn, P. W. Ross, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal display capable of video line address times,” Displays 8, 115–118 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Connely, S. W.

Cottrell, D. M.

Crossland, W. A.

D. C. O’Brien, W. A. Crossland, R. J. Mears, “A holographically routed optical crossbar: theory and simulation,” Opt. Comput. Process. 1, 233–243 (1991).

M. F. Bone, D. Coates, W. A. Crossland, P. Gunn, P. W. Ross, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal display capable of video line address times,” Displays 8, 115–118 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. C. O’Brien, T. D. Wilkinson, R. J. Mears, W. A. Crossland, “Generalised dynamic holographic interconnects using spatial light modulators,” in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications, Vol. 6 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 192–195.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Alchalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. C. Latham, “A high-performance spatial light-modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Gookin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

Dames, M. P.

Davis, J. A.

de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, J. L.

Dias, A. R.

Diep, J.

Dowling, R. J.

Eiju, T.

Fancey, N. E.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Alchalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. C. Latham, “A high-performance spatial light-modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Gookin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

Feldman, M. R.

Fracasso, B.

Fukushima, S.

S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, M. Ohno, “Real-time hologram construction and reconstruction using a high resolution spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 787–789 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

Guest, C. C.

Gunn, P.

M. F. Bone, D. Coates, W. A. Crossland, P. Gunn, P. W. Ross, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal display capable of video line address times,” Displays 8, 115–118 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Handschy, M. A.

Harris, D. O.

Ichikawa, H.

Ishikawa, M.

A. Kirk, T. Tabata, M. Ishikawa, H. Toyoda, “Reconfigurable computer-generated holograms using a phase-only optically addressed spatial light modulator,” submitted to Opt. Lett.

Jared, D. A.

Johnson, K. M.

Kirk, A.

A. Kirk, T. Tabata, M. Ishikawa, H. Toyoda, “Reconfigurable computer-generated holograms using a phase-only optically addressed spatial light modulator,” submitted to Opt. Lett.

Krackhardt, U.

U. Krackhardt, N. Streibl, “Design of Dammann gratings for array generation,” Opt. Commun. 74, 31–35 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kurokawa, T.

S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, M. Ohno, “Real-time hologram construction and reconstruction using a high resolution spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 787–789 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Latham, S. C.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Alchalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. C. Latham, “A high-performance spatial light-modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Gookin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

Lilly, R. A.

Liu, H. K.

Matsuda, K.

McKee, P.

Mears, R. J.

D. C. O’Brien, W. A. Crossland, R. J. Mears, “A holographically routed optical crossbar: theory and simulation,” Opt. Comput. Process. 1, 233–243 (1991).

D. C. O’Brien, T. D. Wilkinson, R. J. Mears, W. A. Crossland, “Generalised dynamic holographic interconnects using spatial light modulators,” in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications, Vol. 6 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 192–195.

D. C. O’Brien, T. D. Wilkinson, R. J. Mears, “Computer generated holograms with large space bandwidth product,” in Fourth International Conference on Holographic Systems, Components and Applications. (Institute of Electrical Engineers, London, 1993), pp. 216–221.

Mok, F.

Neil, M. A. A.

S. E. Broomfield, M. A. A. Neil, E. G. S. Paige, G. G. Yang, “Programmable binary phase only optical device based on ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Electron. Lett. 28, 26–27 (1992).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, D. C.

D. C. O’Brien, W. A. Crossland, R. J. Mears, “A holographically routed optical crossbar: theory and simulation,” Opt. Comput. Process. 1, 233–243 (1991).

D. C. O’Brien, T. D. Wilkinson, R. J. Mears, “Computer generated holograms with large space bandwidth product,” in Fourth International Conference on Holographic Systems, Components and Applications. (Institute of Electrical Engineers, London, 1993), pp. 216–221.

D. C. O’Brien, T. D. Wilkinson, R. J. Mears, W. A. Crossland, “Generalised dynamic holographic interconnects using spatial light modulators,” in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications, Vol. 6 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 192–195.

D. C. O’Brien, “Dynamic holograms for optical interconnections,” Ph. D. dissertation (Department of Engineering, Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 1993).

O’Callaghan, M. J.

O’Hara, A.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, A. O’Hara, D. C. Burns, “Issues in improving the performance of liquid-crystal-over-silicon spatial light modulators,” in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications, Vol. 6 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 110–113.

Ohno, M.

S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, M. Ohno, “Real-time hologram construction and reconstruction using a high resolution spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 787–789 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Paige, E. G. S.

S. E. Broomfield, M. A. A. Neil, E. G. S. Paige, G. G. Yang, “Programmable binary phase only optical device based on ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Electron. Lett. 28, 26–27 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Paltis, D.

Proudley, G. M.

H. J. White, N. A. Brownjohn, C. Stace, G. M. Proudley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barret, M. J. Birch, “Practical demonstration of a freespace optical crossbar switch,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of 1993 OSA Topical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 129–132.

Redmond, I. R.

M. R. Taghizadeh, I. R. Redmond, B. Robertson, A. C. Walker, S. D. Smith, “High-efficiency holographic optical-elements for all-optical digital computing,” In Holographic Optics II: Principles and Applications, G. M. Morris, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1136, 265–274 (1989).

Robertson, B.

M. R. Taghizadeh, I. R. Redmond, B. Robertson, A. C. Walker, S. D. Smith, “High-efficiency holographic optical-elements for all-optical digital computing,” In Holographic Optics II: Principles and Applications, G. M. Morris, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1136, 265–274 (1989).

H. J. White, N. A. Brownjohn, C. Stace, G. M. Proudley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barret, M. J. Birch, “Practical demonstration of a freespace optical crossbar switch,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of 1993 OSA Topical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 129–132.

Ross, P. W.

M. F. Bone, D. Coates, W. A. Crossland, P. Gunn, P. W. Ross, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal display capable of video line address times,” Displays 8, 115–118 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Seldowitz, M. A.

Sillitto, R. M.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Alchalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. C. Latham, “A high-performance spatial light-modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Gookin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

Smith, S. D.

M. R. Taghizadeh, I. R. Redmond, B. Robertson, A. C. Walker, S. D. Smith, “High-efficiency holographic optical-elements for all-optical digital computing,” In Holographic Optics II: Principles and Applications, G. M. Morris, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1136, 265–274 (1989).

Sparks, A. P.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Alchalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. C. Latham, “A high-performance spatial light-modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Gookin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

Stace, C.

H. J. White, N. A. Brownjohn, C. Stace, G. M. Proudley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barret, M. J. Birch, “Practical demonstration of a freespace optical crossbar switch,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of 1993 OSA Topical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 129–132.

Streibl, N.

U. Krackhardt, N. Streibl, “Design of Dammann gratings for array generation,” Opt. Commun. 74, 31–35 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D. W.

Tabata, T.

A. Kirk, T. Tabata, M. Ishikawa, H. Toyoda, “Reconfigurable computer-generated holograms using a phase-only optically addressed spatial light modulator,” submitted to Opt. Lett.

Taghizadeh, M. R.

T. H. Barnes, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, H. Ichikawa, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, “Reconfigurable free-space optical interconnections with a phase-only liquid-crystal spatial light modulator,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5527–5535 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. White, N. A. Brownjohn, C. Stace, G. M. Proudley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barret, M. J. Birch, “Practical demonstration of a freespace optical crossbar switch,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of 1993 OSA Topical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 129–132.

M. R. Taghizadeh, I. R. Redmond, B. Robertson, A. C. Walker, S. D. Smith, “High-efficiency holographic optical-elements for all-optical digital computing,” In Holographic Optics II: Principles and Applications, G. M. Morris, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1136, 265–274 (1989).

Toyoda, H.

A. Kirk, T. Tabata, M. Ishikawa, H. Toyoda, “Reconfigurable computer-generated holograms using a phase-only optically addressed spatial light modulator,” submitted to Opt. Lett.

Turner, R.

Turunen, J.

Underwood, I.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Alchalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. C. Latham, “A high-performance spatial light-modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Gookin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, A. O’Hara, D. C. Burns, “Issues in improving the performance of liquid-crystal-over-silicon spatial light modulators,” in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications, Vol. 6 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 110–113.

Vass, D. G.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, A. O’Hara, D. C. Burns, “Issues in improving the performance of liquid-crystal-over-silicon spatial light modulators,” in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications, Vol. 6 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 110–113.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Alchalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. C. Latham, “A high-performance spatial light-modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Gookin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

Walker, A. C.

M. R. Taghizadeh, I. R. Redmond, B. Robertson, A. C. Walker, S. D. Smith, “High-efficiency holographic optical-elements for all-optical digital computing,” In Holographic Optics II: Principles and Applications, G. M. Morris, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1136, 265–274 (1989).

H. J. White, N. A. Brownjohn, C. Stace, G. M. Proudley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barret, M. J. Birch, “Practical demonstration of a freespace optical crossbar switch,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of 1993 OSA Topical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 129–132.

White, H. J.

H. J. White, N. A. Brownjohn, C. Stace, G. M. Proudley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barret, M. J. Birch, “Practical demonstration of a freespace optical crossbar switch,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of 1993 OSA Topical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 129–132.

Wilkinson, T. D.

D. C. O’Brien, T. D. Wilkinson, R. J. Mears, W. A. Crossland, “Generalised dynamic holographic interconnects using spatial light modulators,” in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications, Vol. 6 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 192–195.

D. C. O’Brien, T. D. Wilkinson, R. J. Mears, “Computer generated holograms with large space bandwidth product,” in Fourth International Conference on Holographic Systems, Components and Applications. (Institute of Electrical Engineers, London, 1993), pp. 216–221.

Wood, D.

Woody, L. M.

Yamaguchi, M.

Yamazaki, H.

Yang, G. G.

S. E. Broomfield, M. A. A. Neil, E. G. S. Paige, G. G. Yang, “Programmable binary phase only optical device based on ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Electron. Lett. 28, 26–27 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, M. Ohno, “Real-time hologram construction and reconstruction using a high resolution spatial light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 787–789 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Displays

M. F. Bone, D. Coates, W. A. Crossland, P. Gunn, P. W. Ross, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal display capable of video line address times,” Displays 8, 115–118 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Hologram assessment apparatus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Line scan of the replay field of a binary-phase grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

2 × 2 fiber-to-fiber crossbar experiment.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

2 × 2 fiber-to-fiber crossbar results.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of a generalized two-dimensional holographic interconnect.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

8 × 8 binary interconnects that show the effect of sinc compensation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

4 × 4 multilevel interconnect.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Holographic replication scheme.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Line scan of the replay of a binary-phase grating on an OASLM.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Image and replay of 4 × 4 array generator.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Image and replay of a replicated array generator.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Line scan through the routed spot.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Isolation between Output Ports Of Fiber-to-Fiber Crossbar

Equations (2)

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T = 0.5 sin 2 ( 2 θ ) [ 1 - cos ( δ ) ] ,
δ = 2 π ( n e - n o ) t cell λ ,

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