Abstract

The performance of liquid-crystal-over-silicon spatial light modulators has advanced rapidly in recent years. Most progress has centered around new device designs with increased bandwidth. In this paper we report on a number of techniques to improve the optical quality; these have applications in both current and future devices.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwell, “Submicrosecond bistable electro-optic switching in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899–901 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillito, “Evaluation of an nMOS VLSI array for an adaptive liquid-crystal spatial light modulator,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. Part J 133, 77–82 (1986).
  3. D. J. McKnight, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, “Development of a spatial light modulator: a randomly addressed liquid crystal over nMOS array,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4757–62 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillito, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Al-Chalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. G. Latham, “A high performance spatial light modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Gookin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).
  5. L. K. Cotter, T. J. Drabik, R. J. Dillon, M. A. Handschy, “Ferroelectric-liquid-crystal silicon-integrated-circuit spatial light modulator,” Opt. Lett. 15, 291–293 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, I. Underwood, “Smart spatial light modulators using liquid crystals on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699–714 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Wolf, Silicon Processing for the VLSI Era (Lattice, Sunset Beach, Calif., 1990), Vol. 2, pp. 110–116.
  8. P. Chaudhari, “Hillock growth in thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4339–4346(1974).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. S. Herman, M. A. Schuster, R. M. Gerber, “Hillock growth on vacuum deposited aluminum films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 515–519 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. O’Hara, J. R. Hannah, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. J. Holwill, “Mirror quality and efficiency improvements of reflective spatial light modulators by the use of dielectric coatings and chemical-mechanical polishing,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5549–5556(1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Sivaram, H. Bath, R. Leggett, A. Maury, K. Monnig, R. Tolles, “Planarizing interlevel dielectrics by chemical-mechanical polishing,” Solid State Technol. 35, 87–91 (1992).
  12. H. Landis, P. Burke, W. Cote, W. Hill, C. Hoffman, C. Kaanta, C. Koburger, W. Lange, M. Leach, S. Luce, “Integration of chemical mechanical polishing into CMOS integrated-circuit manufacturing,” Thin Solid Films 220, 1–7 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. J. Patrick, W. L. Guthrie, C. L. Standley, P. M. Schiable, “Application of chemical-mechanical polishing to the fabrication of VLSI circuit interconnections,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 138, 1778–1784 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, “Surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal electro-optics: new multistate structures and devices,” Ferroelectrics 59, 25–67 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Armitage, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal alignment by oblique evaporation of SiOx,” Ferroelectrics 122, 239–252 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Gourlay, P. McOwan, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, M. Worboys, “Optical engineering aspects of ferroelectric liquid crystal over silicon spatial light modulators,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Applied Optics and Opto-electronics (Institute of Physics, London, England, 1992), pp. 211–213.

1993 (2)

1992 (2)

S. Sivaram, H. Bath, R. Leggett, A. Maury, K. Monnig, R. Tolles, “Planarizing interlevel dielectrics by chemical-mechanical polishing,” Solid State Technol. 35, 87–91 (1992).

H. Landis, P. Burke, W. Cote, W. Hill, C. Hoffman, C. Kaanta, C. Koburger, W. Lange, M. Leach, S. Luce, “Integration of chemical mechanical polishing into CMOS integrated-circuit manufacturing,” Thin Solid Films 220, 1–7 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

W. J. Patrick, W. L. Guthrie, C. L. Standley, P. M. Schiable, “Application of chemical-mechanical polishing to the fabrication of VLSI circuit interconnections,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 138, 1778–1784 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Armitage, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal alignment by oblique evaporation of SiOx,” Ferroelectrics 122, 239–252 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

1986 (1)

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillito, “Evaluation of an nMOS VLSI array for an adaptive liquid-crystal spatial light modulator,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. Part J 133, 77–82 (1986).

1984 (1)

N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, “Surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal electro-optics: new multistate structures and devices,” Ferroelectrics 59, 25–67 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwell, “Submicrosecond bistable electro-optic switching in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899–901 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

P. Chaudhari, “Hillock growth in thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4339–4346(1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

D. S. Herman, M. A. Schuster, R. M. Gerber, “Hillock growth on vacuum deposited aluminum films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 515–519 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Al-Chalabi, A. O.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillito, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Al-Chalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. G. Latham, “A high performance spatial light modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Gookin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

Armitage, D.

D. Armitage, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal alignment by oblique evaporation of SiOx,” Ferroelectrics 122, 239–252 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bath, H.

S. Sivaram, H. Bath, R. Leggett, A. Maury, K. Monnig, R. Tolles, “Planarizing interlevel dielectrics by chemical-mechanical polishing,” Solid State Technol. 35, 87–91 (1992).

Birch, M. J.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillito, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Al-Chalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. G. Latham, “A high performance spatial light modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Gookin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

Bradford, G.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillito, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Al-Chalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. G. Latham, “A high performance spatial light modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Gookin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

Burke, P.

H. Landis, P. Burke, W. Cote, W. Hill, C. Hoffman, C. Kaanta, C. Koburger, W. Lange, M. Leach, S. Luce, “Integration of chemical mechanical polishing into CMOS integrated-circuit manufacturing,” Thin Solid Films 220, 1–7 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chaudhari, P.

P. Chaudhari, “Hillock growth in thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4339–4346(1974).
[CrossRef]

Clark, N. A.

N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, “Surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal electro-optics: new multistate structures and devices,” Ferroelectrics 59, 25–67 (1984).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwell, “Submicrosecond bistable electro-optic switching in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899–901 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Cote, W.

H. Landis, P. Burke, W. Cote, W. Hill, C. Hoffman, C. Kaanta, C. Koburger, W. Lange, M. Leach, S. Luce, “Integration of chemical mechanical polishing into CMOS integrated-circuit manufacturing,” Thin Solid Films 220, 1–7 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cotter, L. K.

Crossland, W. A.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillito, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Al-Chalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. G. Latham, “A high performance spatial light modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Gookin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

Dillon, R. J.

Drabik, T. J.

Fancey, N. E.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillito, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Al-Chalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. G. Latham, “A high performance spatial light modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Gookin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

Gerber, R. M.

D. S. Herman, M. A. Schuster, R. M. Gerber, “Hillock growth on vacuum deposited aluminum films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 515–519 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Gourlay, J.

J. Gourlay, P. McOwan, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, M. Worboys, “Optical engineering aspects of ferroelectric liquid crystal over silicon spatial light modulators,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Applied Optics and Opto-electronics (Institute of Physics, London, England, 1992), pp. 211–213.

Guthrie, W. L.

W. J. Patrick, W. L. Guthrie, C. L. Standley, P. M. Schiable, “Application of chemical-mechanical polishing to the fabrication of VLSI circuit interconnections,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 138, 1778–1784 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Handschy, M. A.

Hannah, J. R.

Herman, D. S.

D. S. Herman, M. A. Schuster, R. M. Gerber, “Hillock growth on vacuum deposited aluminum films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 515–519 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hill, W.

H. Landis, P. Burke, W. Cote, W. Hill, C. Hoffman, C. Kaanta, C. Koburger, W. Lange, M. Leach, S. Luce, “Integration of chemical mechanical polishing into CMOS integrated-circuit manufacturing,” Thin Solid Films 220, 1–7 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, C.

H. Landis, P. Burke, W. Cote, W. Hill, C. Hoffman, C. Kaanta, C. Koburger, W. Lange, M. Leach, S. Luce, “Integration of chemical mechanical polishing into CMOS integrated-circuit manufacturing,” Thin Solid Films 220, 1–7 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Holwill, R. J.

Johnson, K. M.

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, I. Underwood, “Smart spatial light modulators using liquid crystals on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699–714 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kaanta, C.

H. Landis, P. Burke, W. Cote, W. Hill, C. Hoffman, C. Kaanta, C. Koburger, W. Lange, M. Leach, S. Luce, “Integration of chemical mechanical polishing into CMOS integrated-circuit manufacturing,” Thin Solid Films 220, 1–7 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Koburger, C.

H. Landis, P. Burke, W. Cote, W. Hill, C. Hoffman, C. Kaanta, C. Koburger, W. Lange, M. Leach, S. Luce, “Integration of chemical mechanical polishing into CMOS integrated-circuit manufacturing,” Thin Solid Films 220, 1–7 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lagerwall, S. T.

N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, “Surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal electro-optics: new multistate structures and devices,” Ferroelectrics 59, 25–67 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lagerwell, S. T.

N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwell, “Submicrosecond bistable electro-optic switching in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899–901 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Landis, H.

H. Landis, P. Burke, W. Cote, W. Hill, C. Hoffman, C. Kaanta, C. Koburger, W. Lange, M. Leach, S. Luce, “Integration of chemical mechanical polishing into CMOS integrated-circuit manufacturing,” Thin Solid Films 220, 1–7 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lange, W.

H. Landis, P. Burke, W. Cote, W. Hill, C. Hoffman, C. Kaanta, C. Koburger, W. Lange, M. Leach, S. Luce, “Integration of chemical mechanical polishing into CMOS integrated-circuit manufacturing,” Thin Solid Films 220, 1–7 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Latham, S. G.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillito, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Al-Chalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. G. Latham, “A high performance spatial light modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Gookin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

Leach, M.

H. Landis, P. Burke, W. Cote, W. Hill, C. Hoffman, C. Kaanta, C. Koburger, W. Lange, M. Leach, S. Luce, “Integration of chemical mechanical polishing into CMOS integrated-circuit manufacturing,” Thin Solid Films 220, 1–7 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Leggett, R.

S. Sivaram, H. Bath, R. Leggett, A. Maury, K. Monnig, R. Tolles, “Planarizing interlevel dielectrics by chemical-mechanical polishing,” Solid State Technol. 35, 87–91 (1992).

Luce, S.

H. Landis, P. Burke, W. Cote, W. Hill, C. Hoffman, C. Kaanta, C. Koburger, W. Lange, M. Leach, S. Luce, “Integration of chemical mechanical polishing into CMOS integrated-circuit manufacturing,” Thin Solid Films 220, 1–7 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Maury, A.

S. Sivaram, H. Bath, R. Leggett, A. Maury, K. Monnig, R. Tolles, “Planarizing interlevel dielectrics by chemical-mechanical polishing,” Solid State Technol. 35, 87–91 (1992).

McKnight, D. J.

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, I. Underwood, “Smart spatial light modulators using liquid crystals on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699–714 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. J. McKnight, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, “Development of a spatial light modulator: a randomly addressed liquid crystal over nMOS array,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4757–62 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McOwan, P.

J. Gourlay, P. McOwan, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, M. Worboys, “Optical engineering aspects of ferroelectric liquid crystal over silicon spatial light modulators,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Applied Optics and Opto-electronics (Institute of Physics, London, England, 1992), pp. 211–213.

Monnig, K.

S. Sivaram, H. Bath, R. Leggett, A. Maury, K. Monnig, R. Tolles, “Planarizing interlevel dielectrics by chemical-mechanical polishing,” Solid State Technol. 35, 87–91 (1992).

O’Hara, A.

Patrick, W. J.

W. J. Patrick, W. L. Guthrie, C. L. Standley, P. M. Schiable, “Application of chemical-mechanical polishing to the fabrication of VLSI circuit interconnections,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 138, 1778–1784 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schiable, P. M.

W. J. Patrick, W. L. Guthrie, C. L. Standley, P. M. Schiable, “Application of chemical-mechanical polishing to the fabrication of VLSI circuit interconnections,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 138, 1778–1784 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, M. A.

D. S. Herman, M. A. Schuster, R. M. Gerber, “Hillock growth on vacuum deposited aluminum films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 515–519 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Sillito, R. M.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillito, “Evaluation of an nMOS VLSI array for an adaptive liquid-crystal spatial light modulator,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. Part J 133, 77–82 (1986).

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillito, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Al-Chalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. G. Latham, “A high performance spatial light modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Gookin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

Sillitto, R. M.

Sivaram, S.

S. Sivaram, H. Bath, R. Leggett, A. Maury, K. Monnig, R. Tolles, “Planarizing interlevel dielectrics by chemical-mechanical polishing,” Solid State Technol. 35, 87–91 (1992).

Sparks, A. P.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillito, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Al-Chalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. G. Latham, “A high performance spatial light modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Gookin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

Standley, C. L.

W. J. Patrick, W. L. Guthrie, C. L. Standley, P. M. Schiable, “Application of chemical-mechanical polishing to the fabrication of VLSI circuit interconnections,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 138, 1778–1784 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tolles, R.

S. Sivaram, H. Bath, R. Leggett, A. Maury, K. Monnig, R. Tolles, “Planarizing interlevel dielectrics by chemical-mechanical polishing,” Solid State Technol. 35, 87–91 (1992).

Underwood, I.

A. O’Hara, J. R. Hannah, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. J. Holwill, “Mirror quality and efficiency improvements of reflective spatial light modulators by the use of dielectric coatings and chemical-mechanical polishing,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5549–5556(1993).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, I. Underwood, “Smart spatial light modulators using liquid crystals on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699–714 (1993).
[CrossRef]

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillito, “Evaluation of an nMOS VLSI array for an adaptive liquid-crystal spatial light modulator,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. Part J 133, 77–82 (1986).

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillito, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Al-Chalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. G. Latham, “A high performance spatial light modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Gookin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

J. Gourlay, P. McOwan, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, M. Worboys, “Optical engineering aspects of ferroelectric liquid crystal over silicon spatial light modulators,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Applied Optics and Opto-electronics (Institute of Physics, London, England, 1992), pp. 211–213.

Vass, D. G.

A. O’Hara, J. R. Hannah, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. J. Holwill, “Mirror quality and efficiency improvements of reflective spatial light modulators by the use of dielectric coatings and chemical-mechanical polishing,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5549–5556(1993).
[CrossRef]

D. J. McKnight, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, “Development of a spatial light modulator: a randomly addressed liquid crystal over nMOS array,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4757–62 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillito, “Evaluation of an nMOS VLSI array for an adaptive liquid-crystal spatial light modulator,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. Part J 133, 77–82 (1986).

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillito, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Al-Chalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. G. Latham, “A high performance spatial light modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Gookin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

J. Gourlay, P. McOwan, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, M. Worboys, “Optical engineering aspects of ferroelectric liquid crystal over silicon spatial light modulators,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Applied Optics and Opto-electronics (Institute of Physics, London, England, 1992), pp. 211–213.

Wolf, S.

S. Wolf, Silicon Processing for the VLSI Era (Lattice, Sunset Beach, Calif., 1990), Vol. 2, pp. 110–116.

Worboys, M.

J. Gourlay, P. McOwan, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, M. Worboys, “Optical engineering aspects of ferroelectric liquid crystal over silicon spatial light modulators,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Applied Optics and Opto-electronics (Institute of Physics, London, England, 1992), pp. 211–213.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwell, “Submicrosecond bistable electro-optic switching in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899–901 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics (2)

N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, “Surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal electro-optics: new multistate structures and devices,” Ferroelectrics 59, 25–67 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. Armitage, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal alignment by oblique evaporation of SiOx,” Ferroelectrics 122, 239–252 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, I. Underwood, “Smart spatial light modulators using liquid crystals on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699–714 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Chaudhari, “Hillock growth in thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4339–4346(1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

W. J. Patrick, W. L. Guthrie, C. L. Standley, P. M. Schiable, “Application of chemical-mechanical polishing to the fabrication of VLSI circuit interconnections,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 138, 1778–1784 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

D. S. Herman, M. A. Schuster, R. M. Gerber, “Hillock growth on vacuum deposited aluminum films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 515–519 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. Part J (1)

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillito, “Evaluation of an nMOS VLSI array for an adaptive liquid-crystal spatial light modulator,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. Part J 133, 77–82 (1986).

Solid State Technol. (1)

S. Sivaram, H. Bath, R. Leggett, A. Maury, K. Monnig, R. Tolles, “Planarizing interlevel dielectrics by chemical-mechanical polishing,” Solid State Technol. 35, 87–91 (1992).

Thin Solid Films (1)

H. Landis, P. Burke, W. Cote, W. Hill, C. Hoffman, C. Kaanta, C. Koburger, W. Lange, M. Leach, S. Luce, “Integration of chemical mechanical polishing into CMOS integrated-circuit manufacturing,” Thin Solid Films 220, 1–7 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. Gourlay, P. McOwan, D. G. Vass, I. Underwood, M. Worboys, “Optical engineering aspects of ferroelectric liquid crystal over silicon spatial light modulators,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Applied Optics and Opto-electronics (Institute of Physics, London, England, 1992), pp. 211–213.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillito, G. Bradford, N. E. Fancey, A. O. Al-Chalabi, M. J. Birch, W. A. Crossland, A. P. Sparks, S. G. Latham, “A high performance spatial light modulator,” in Devices for Optical Processing, D. M. Gookin, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1562, 107–115 (1991).

S. Wolf, Silicon Processing for the VLSI Era (Lattice, Sunset Beach, Calif., 1990), Vol. 2, pp. 110–116.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

176 × 176 DRAM SLM (a) device, (b) displayed image (courtesy of GEC-Marconi). The backplane of this device is untreated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Interferograms of pixel mirrors fabricated by the use of (a) standard procedure, (b) metal protection technique.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effect of CMP technique for backplane planarization: (a) Part of 176 × 176 SLM backplane with an area of ~ 600 μm × 450 μm, (b) interferogram of part of a polished wafer following metallization. Magnification is the same as (a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SEM picture of alignment structure produced by oblique SiOx evaporation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

LC structure on pixel (a) untreated, off; (b) untreated, on; (c) treated, off; (d) treated, on.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Four-gray-level image obtained by the use of a linear encoding algorithm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Photo showing 16 linearly encoded temporal multiplexed gray levels. The key shows the gray level present in the central square of 4 × 4 pixels.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Eight-gray level image obtained by the use of a binary encoding algorithm and a pulsed light source.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Examples from the Literature that Show the Development of FLC/VLSI Devices

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