Abstract

We have characterized low-birefringence, PbF2 coatings to permit, first, agreement between envelope and prism-coupler waveguide methods under the standard isotropic assumption. In essentially the same measurement conditions, for obliquely deposited (58.3°) CeO2 coatings the isotropic model becomes unsustainable. Explicit consideration of the film microstructure is then required for good correlation between thickness results from TE (503 ± 9 nm) and TM (504 ± 10 nm) modes in the waveguide experiment as well as between refractive-index results from envelope (n2 = 1.78 ± 0.03) and waveguide (n2 = 1.794 ± 0.002) techniques. We considered uniaxial and biaxial models to achieve consistency, and the refractive indices along the principal axes of symmetry were determined.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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