Abstract

We have characterized low-birefringence, PbF2 coatings to permit, first, agreement between envelope and prism-coupler waveguide methods under the standard isotropic assumption. In essentially the same measurement conditions, for obliquely deposited (58.3°) CeO2 coatings the isotropic model becomes unsustainable. Explicit consideration of the film microstructure is then required for good correlation between thickness results from TE (503 ± 9 nm) and TM (504 ± 10 nm) modes in the waveguide experiment as well as between refractive-index results from envelope (n2 = 1.78 ± 0.03) and waveguide (n2 = 1.794 ± 0.002) techniques. We considered uniaxial and biaxial models to achieve consistency, and the refractive indices along the principal axes of symmetry were determined.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. A. Macleod, “The microstructure of optical thin films,” in Optical Thin Films, R. I. Siddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.325, 21–28 (1982).
  2. D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. B. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. M. Nieuwenhiuzen, H. B. Haanstra, “Microfractography of thin films,” Philips Tech. Rev. 27, 87–91 (1966).
  4. M. Sikkens, I. J. Hodgkinson, F. Horowitz, H. A. Macleod, J. J. Wharton, “Computer simulation of thin film growth: applying the results to optical coatings,” Opt. Eng. 25, 142–147 (1986).
  5. F. Horowitz, H. A. Macleod, “Form birefringence in thin films,” in Los Alamos Conference on Optics '83, R. S. McDowell, S. C. Stotlai, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.380, 83–87 (1983).
  6. F. Horowitz, H. A. Macleod, “Determination of principal refractive indices of birefringent films,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 6 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 203–206.
  7. P. K. Tien, “Light waves in thin films and integrated optics,” Appl. Opt. 10, 2395–2413 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. O. Vassel, “Structure of optical guided modes in planar multilayers of optically anisotropic materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 166–173 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. B. Mendes, “Comparative analysis of envelope and waveguide methods with extension to anisotropic microstructures in dielectric films,” M.Sc. thesis (Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1991).
  10. R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Swanepoel, “Determination of surface roughness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 17, 896–903 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Otto, “Excitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection,” Z. Phys. 216, 399–410 (1968).
  13. A. G. Dirks, H. J. Leamy, “Columnar microstructure in vapor-deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 47, 219–233 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. A. Macleod, Optical Science Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz.85721 (personal communication, 1988).

1986

M. Sikkens, I. J. Hodgkinson, F. Horowitz, H. A. Macleod, J. J. Wharton, “Computer simulation of thin film growth: applying the results to optical coatings,” Opt. Eng. 25, 142–147 (1986).

1984

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. B. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of surface roughness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 17, 896–903 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1977

A. G. Dirks, H. J. Leamy, “Columnar microstructure in vapor-deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 47, 219–233 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974

1971

1968

A. Otto, “Excitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection,” Z. Phys. 216, 399–410 (1968).

1966

J. M. Nieuwenhiuzen, H. B. Haanstra, “Microfractography of thin films,” Philips Tech. Rev. 27, 87–91 (1966).

Arndt, D. P.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. B. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azzam, R. M. A.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. B. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, J. B.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. B. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borgogno, J. P.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. B. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carniglia, C. K.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. B. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Case, W. E.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. B. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dirks, A. G.

A. G. Dirks, H. J. Leamy, “Columnar microstructure in vapor-deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 47, 219–233 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Dobrowolski, J. A.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. B. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, U. J.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. B. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haanstra, H. B.

J. M. Nieuwenhiuzen, H. B. Haanstra, “Microfractography of thin films,” Philips Tech. Rev. 27, 87–91 (1966).

Ho, F. C.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. B. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hodgkin, V. A.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. B. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hodgkinson, I. J.

M. Sikkens, I. J. Hodgkinson, F. Horowitz, H. A. Macleod, J. J. Wharton, “Computer simulation of thin film growth: applying the results to optical coatings,” Opt. Eng. 25, 142–147 (1986).

Horowitz, F.

M. Sikkens, I. J. Hodgkinson, F. Horowitz, H. A. Macleod, J. J. Wharton, “Computer simulation of thin film growth: applying the results to optical coatings,” Opt. Eng. 25, 142–147 (1986).

F. Horowitz, H. A. Macleod, “Determination of principal refractive indices of birefringent films,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 6 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 203–206.

F. Horowitz, H. A. Macleod, “Form birefringence in thin films,” in Los Alamos Conference on Optics '83, R. S. McDowell, S. C. Stotlai, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.380, 83–87 (1983).

Klapp, W. P.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. B. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leamy, H. J.

A. G. Dirks, H. J. Leamy, “Columnar microstructure in vapor-deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 47, 219–233 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

M. Sikkens, I. J. Hodgkinson, F. Horowitz, H. A. Macleod, J. J. Wharton, “Computer simulation of thin film growth: applying the results to optical coatings,” Opt. Eng. 25, 142–147 (1986).

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. B. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Macleod, “The microstructure of optical thin films,” in Optical Thin Films, R. I. Siddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.325, 21–28 (1982).

F. Horowitz, H. A. Macleod, “Form birefringence in thin films,” in Los Alamos Conference on Optics '83, R. S. McDowell, S. C. Stotlai, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.380, 83–87 (1983).

F. Horowitz, H. A. Macleod, “Determination of principal refractive indices of birefringent films,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 6 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 203–206.

H. A. Macleod, Optical Science Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz.85721 (personal communication, 1988).

Mendes, S. B.

S. B. Mendes, “Comparative analysis of envelope and waveguide methods with extension to anisotropic microstructures in dielectric films,” M.Sc. thesis (Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1991).

Nieuwenhiuzen, J. M.

J. M. Nieuwenhiuzen, H. B. Haanstra, “Microfractography of thin films,” Philips Tech. Rev. 27, 87–91 (1966).

Otto, A.

A. Otto, “Excitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection,” Z. Phys. 216, 399–410 (1968).

Pelletier, E.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. B. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Purvis, M. K.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. B. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quinn, D. M.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. B. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sikkens, M.

M. Sikkens, I. J. Hodgkinson, F. Horowitz, H. A. Macleod, J. J. Wharton, “Computer simulation of thin film growth: applying the results to optical coatings,” Opt. Eng. 25, 142–147 (1986).

Strome, D. H.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. B. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanepoel, R.

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of surface roughness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 17, 896–903 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Swenson, R.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. B. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Temple, P. A.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. B. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thonn, T. F.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. B. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tien, P. K.

Tuttle Hart, T.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. B. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vassel, M. O.

Wharton, J. J.

M. Sikkens, I. J. Hodgkinson, F. Horowitz, H. A. Macleod, J. J. Wharton, “Computer simulation of thin film growth: applying the results to optical coatings,” Opt. Eng. 25, 142–147 (1986).

Appl. Opt.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. B. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys. E

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of surface roughness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 17, 896–903 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

M. Sikkens, I. J. Hodgkinson, F. Horowitz, H. A. Macleod, J. J. Wharton, “Computer simulation of thin film growth: applying the results to optical coatings,” Opt. Eng. 25, 142–147 (1986).

Philips Tech. Rev.

J. M. Nieuwenhiuzen, H. B. Haanstra, “Microfractography of thin films,” Philips Tech. Rev. 27, 87–91 (1966).

Thin Solid Films

A. G. Dirks, H. J. Leamy, “Columnar microstructure in vapor-deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 47, 219–233 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys.

A. Otto, “Excitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection,” Z. Phys. 216, 399–410 (1968).

Other

S. B. Mendes, “Comparative analysis of envelope and waveguide methods with extension to anisotropic microstructures in dielectric films,” M.Sc. thesis (Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1991).

F. Horowitz, H. A. Macleod, “Form birefringence in thin films,” in Los Alamos Conference on Optics '83, R. S. McDowell, S. C. Stotlai, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.380, 83–87 (1983).

F. Horowitz, H. A. Macleod, “Determination of principal refractive indices of birefringent films,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 6 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 203–206.

H. A. Macleod, Optical Science Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz.85721 (personal communication, 1988).

H. A. Macleod, “The microstructure of optical thin films,” in Optical Thin Films, R. I. Siddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.325, 21–28 (1982).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Representation of the columnar model for an anisotropic film with the principal indices shown along the axes of symmetry.6 η1–η3, symmetry; x, y, z, ϕ, and θ, coordinate variables.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Thin film deposited on a transparent substrate surrounded by air with the conventions shown for the envelope method calculations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Configuration of the waveguide experiment with the hemispherical coupler.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Thickness versus refractive index for a normally deposited PbF2 film as seen by the waveguide method. The two TE–TM pairs refer to the left and right sides of the hemispheric prism coupler.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Refractive-index data from the envelope and waveguide methods for a PbF2 film thermally deposited at normal vapor incidence.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Thickness versus refractive index for an obliquely deposited CeO2 film as seen by isotropic (□) and uniaxial (■) models. The TE (○) results from both cases are coincident.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Refractive-index data of a CeO2 film from envelope and waveguide (WG) TE and TM measurements. The film was deposited at 58.3°, and a biaxial model with n2nTE was considered.

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2 π λ d β f = θ a + θ b + m π ,
β f ( n 2 υ 2 ) 1 / 2 ,
s polarization p polarization tan ( θ i ) β i η s , tan ( θ i ) η p β i n i 2 ,
η s ( n 2 υ 2 ) 1 / 2 , η p n 2 ( n 2 υ 2 ) 1 / 2 ,
β i ( υ 2 n i 2 ) 1 / 2 , i = a , b .
β s f ( n 2 2 υ 2 ) 1 / 2 , β p f n 1 n 3 [ n 1 2 sin 2 ( ϕ ) + n 3 2 cos 2 ( ϕ ) υ 2 ] 1 / 2 n 1 2 sin 2 ( ϕ ) + n 3 2 cos 2 ( ϕ ) ,
η s ( n 2 2 υ 2 ) 1 / 2 , η p n 1 n 3 [ n 1 2 sin 2 ( ϕ ) + n 3 2 cos 2 ( ϕ ) υ 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
T = T 1 T s 1 R 2 R s ,
T A 1 x A 2 A 3 x cos ( 2 γ ) + A 4 x 2 , x exp ( 2 α )
λ = 4 nd 2 m for T = T max
λ = 4 n d 2 m + 1 for T = T min .
n = [ N ± ( N 2 n o 2 n s 2 ) 1 / 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
N 2 n o n s ( 1 T min 1 T max ) + n o 2 + n s 2 2 .
n = n 2 ,
n = n 1 n 3 [ n 1 2 sin 2 ( ϕ ) + n 3 2 cos 2 ( ϕ ) ] 1 / 2 ,

Metrics