Abstract

We have produced a multilayer transmission filter with 100 periods of Cr/C to achieve a significant phase retardation while maintaining good transmission for photon energies just below the carbon K edge. This device was installed into a polarimeter behind the SX700/3 monochromator at the Berlin synchrotron radiation laboratory, BESSY. The phase-retardation properties were observed as theoretically predicted. Agreement between experiment and calculation could be obtained by introduction of a rather small interface roughness in the simulation code (σ = 0.65 nm rms). An observed phase retardation of 5° was sufficient to permit, for the first time we believe, a complete and unambiguous polarization analysis of soft-x-ray synchrotron radiation (265-eV photon energy) with primary standards.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Dhez, “Polarizer and polarimeters in the XUV range,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 261, 66–71 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of optics (Pergamon, London, 1980).
  3. J. A. Golovchenko, B. M. Kincaid, R. A. Levesque, A. E. Meixner, D. R. Kaplan, “Polarization PENDELLÖSUNG and the generation of circularly polarized x rays with a quarter-wave plate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 202–205 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. M. Mills, “Spin-aligned momentum distribution of transition-metal ferromagnets studied with circularly polarized synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev B 36, 6178–6181 (1987);D. M. Mills, “Phaseplate performance for the production of circularly polarized x-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 266, 531–537 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. B. Kortright, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer optical elements for generation and analysis of circularly polarized x-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 291, 272–277 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Rabinovitch, L. R. Canfield, R. P. Madden, “A method for measuring polarization in the VUV,” Appl. Opt. 4, 1005–1010 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. N. Hamm, R. A. MacRae, E. T. Arakawa, “Polarization studies in the vacuum ultraviolet,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1460–1463 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. S. Gluskin, S. V. Gaponov, P. Dhez, P. P. Ilyinsky, N. N. Salashchenko, Y. M. Shatunov, E. M. Trakhtenberg, “A polarimeter for soft x-ray and VUV radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 394–396 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft x-ray (97 eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Nomura, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Design, fabrication, and polarization of soft-x-ray transmission multilayers,” in International Symposium on Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1720, 395–401 (1992).
  11. S. Nakayama, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, H. Kimura, T. Namioka, “Soft x-ray reflectometer with a laser produced plasma source,” Phys. Scr. 41, 754–757 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Kimura, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Full polarization measurement of synchrotron radiation with use of soft x-ray multilayers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1379–1382 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, H. Nomura, K. Mayama, H. Kimura, “Soft x-ray multilayer phase shifter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1510–1512 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, M. Mast, K. Molter, W. B. Peatman, M. Scheer, Th. Schroeter, Ch. Wang, “Circularly polarized synchrotron radiation from crossed undulator at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 339–342 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Willmann, H. Petersen, F. Schäfers, M. Mast, B. M. Müller, W. Gudat, “The SX700/3 beamline for circularly polarized soft x-rays,” BESSY Annual Rep. 1991 (BESSY, Berlin, 1991), pp. 466–470.
  16. S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, “A quarter waveplate for the polarization analysis close to the carbon K edge,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1375–1378 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Lee, “X-ray diffraction in multilayers,” Opt. Commun. 37, 159–164 (1981);“Multilayer mirrors and beam splitters for soft x rays,” Opt. Commun. 43, 237–241 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. Vidal, P. Vincent, “Metallic multilayers for x rays using classical thin-film theory,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1794–1801 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. B. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low energy interaction coefficients,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–145 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  20. For a more extensive discussion see S. Krinsky, M. L. Perlman, R. E. Watson, “Characteristics of synchrotron radiation and of its sources,” in Handbook on Synchrotron Radiation, E.-E. Koch, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), Vol. 1a, pp. 65–171.
  21. H. Petersen, M. Willmann, F. Schäfers, W. Gudat, “The SX700/3 beamline for circularly polarized soft x rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 333, 594–598 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Petersen, “The plane grating and elliptical mirror: a new optical configuration for monochromators,” Opt. Commun. 40, 402–406 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Gaupp, W. Peatman, “A polarimeter for soft x-rays,” in Soft-X-Ray optics and Technology, E. Koch, G. A. Schmahl, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.733, 272–273 (1986).
  24. A. Gaupp, M. Mast, “First experimental experience with a VUV polarimeter at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2213–2215 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Kühne, K. Danzmann, P. Müller, B. Wende, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Sterns, A. M. Hawryluk, “Characterization of multilayer structures for soft-x-ray laser research,” in Multilayer Structures and Laboratory X-Ray Laser Research, N. M. Ceglio, P. Dhez, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.688, 76–80 (1986).
  26. J. Feldhaus, F. Schäfers, W. Peatman, “The crystal monochromator at BESSY,” in Soft-X-Ray optics and Technology, E. Koch, G. A. Schmahl, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.733, 242–247 (1986).

1993 (1)

H. Petersen, M. Willmann, F. Schäfers, W. Gudat, “The SX700/3 beamline for circularly polarized soft x rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 333, 594–598 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (5)

H. Kimura, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Full polarization measurement of synchrotron radiation with use of soft x-ray multilayers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1379–1382 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, H. Nomura, K. Mayama, H. Kimura, “Soft x-ray multilayer phase shifter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1510–1512 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, M. Mast, K. Molter, W. B. Peatman, M. Scheer, Th. Schroeter, Ch. Wang, “Circularly polarized synchrotron radiation from crossed undulator at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 339–342 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, “A quarter waveplate for the polarization analysis close to the carbon K edge,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1375–1378 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft x-ray (97 eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

S. Nakayama, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, H. Kimura, T. Namioka, “Soft x-ray reflectometer with a laser produced plasma source,” Phys. Scr. 41, 754–757 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer optical elements for generation and analysis of circularly polarized x-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 291, 272–277 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

A. Gaupp, M. Mast, “First experimental experience with a VUV polarimeter at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2213–2215 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

D. M. Mills, “Spin-aligned momentum distribution of transition-metal ferromagnets studied with circularly polarized synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev B 36, 6178–6181 (1987);D. M. Mills, “Phaseplate performance for the production of circularly polarized x-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 266, 531–537 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Dhez, “Polarizer and polarimeters in the XUV range,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 261, 66–71 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

J. A. Golovchenko, B. M. Kincaid, R. A. Levesque, A. E. Meixner, D. R. Kaplan, “Polarization PENDELLÖSUNG and the generation of circularly polarized x rays with a quarter-wave plate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 202–205 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Gluskin, S. V. Gaponov, P. Dhez, P. P. Ilyinsky, N. N. Salashchenko, Y. M. Shatunov, E. M. Trakhtenberg, “A polarimeter for soft x-ray and VUV radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 394–396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1982 (2)

B. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low energy interaction coefficients,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–145 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Petersen, “The plane grating and elliptical mirror: a new optical configuration for monochromators,” Opt. Commun. 40, 402–406 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

P. Lee, “X-ray diffraction in multilayers,” Opt. Commun. 37, 159–164 (1981);“Multilayer mirrors and beam splitters for soft x rays,” Opt. Commun. 43, 237–241 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1965 (2)

Arakawa, E. T.

Bahrdt, J.

J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, M. Mast, K. Molter, W. B. Peatman, M. Scheer, Th. Schroeter, Ch. Wang, “Circularly polarized synchrotron radiation from crossed undulator at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 339–342 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of optics (Pergamon, London, 1980).

Canfield, L. R.

Ceglio, N. M.

M. Kühne, K. Danzmann, P. Müller, B. Wende, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Sterns, A. M. Hawryluk, “Characterization of multilayer structures for soft-x-ray laser research,” in Multilayer Structures and Laboratory X-Ray Laser Research, N. M. Ceglio, P. Dhez, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.688, 76–80 (1986).

Danzmann, K.

M. Kühne, K. Danzmann, P. Müller, B. Wende, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Sterns, A. M. Hawryluk, “Characterization of multilayer structures for soft-x-ray laser research,” in Multilayer Structures and Laboratory X-Ray Laser Research, N. M. Ceglio, P. Dhez, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.688, 76–80 (1986).

Dhez, P.

P. Dhez, “Polarizer and polarimeters in the XUV range,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 261, 66–71 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Gluskin, S. V. Gaponov, P. Dhez, P. P. Ilyinsky, N. N. Salashchenko, Y. M. Shatunov, E. M. Trakhtenberg, “A polarimeter for soft x-ray and VUV radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 394–396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Di Fonzo, S.

S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, “A quarter waveplate for the polarization analysis close to the carbon K edge,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1375–1378 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Feldhaus, J.

J. Feldhaus, F. Schäfers, W. Peatman, “The crystal monochromator at BESSY,” in Soft-X-Ray optics and Technology, E. Koch, G. A. Schmahl, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.733, 242–247 (1986).

Fujikawa, B. K.

B. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low energy interaction coefficients,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–145 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gaponov, S. V.

E. S. Gluskin, S. V. Gaponov, P. Dhez, P. P. Ilyinsky, N. N. Salashchenko, Y. M. Shatunov, E. M. Trakhtenberg, “A polarimeter for soft x-ray and VUV radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 394–396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gaupp, A.

J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, M. Mast, K. Molter, W. B. Peatman, M. Scheer, Th. Schroeter, Ch. Wang, “Circularly polarized synchrotron radiation from crossed undulator at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 339–342 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaupp, M. Mast, “First experimental experience with a VUV polarimeter at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2213–2215 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaupp, W. Peatman, “A polarimeter for soft x-rays,” in Soft-X-Ray optics and Technology, E. Koch, G. A. Schmahl, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.733, 272–273 (1986).

Gluskin, E. S.

E. S. Gluskin, S. V. Gaponov, P. Dhez, P. P. Ilyinsky, N. N. Salashchenko, Y. M. Shatunov, E. M. Trakhtenberg, “A polarimeter for soft x-ray and VUV radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 394–396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Golovchenko, J. A.

J. A. Golovchenko, B. M. Kincaid, R. A. Levesque, A. E. Meixner, D. R. Kaplan, “Polarization PENDELLÖSUNG and the generation of circularly polarized x rays with a quarter-wave plate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 202–205 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gudat, W.

H. Petersen, M. Willmann, F. Schäfers, W. Gudat, “The SX700/3 beamline for circularly polarized soft x rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 333, 594–598 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, M. Mast, K. Molter, W. B. Peatman, M. Scheer, Th. Schroeter, Ch. Wang, “Circularly polarized synchrotron radiation from crossed undulator at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 339–342 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Willmann, H. Petersen, F. Schäfers, M. Mast, B. M. Müller, W. Gudat, “The SX700/3 beamline for circularly polarized soft x-rays,” BESSY Annual Rep. 1991 (BESSY, Berlin, 1991), pp. 466–470.

Hamm, R. N.

Hawryluk, A. M.

M. Kühne, K. Danzmann, P. Müller, B. Wende, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Sterns, A. M. Hawryluk, “Characterization of multilayer structures for soft-x-ray laser research,” in Multilayer Structures and Laboratory X-Ray Laser Research, N. M. Ceglio, P. Dhez, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.688, 76–80 (1986).

Henke, B.

B. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low energy interaction coefficients,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–145 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ilyinsky, P. P.

E. S. Gluskin, S. V. Gaponov, P. Dhez, P. P. Ilyinsky, N. N. Salashchenko, Y. M. Shatunov, E. M. Trakhtenberg, “A polarimeter for soft x-ray and VUV radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 394–396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jark, W.

S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, “A quarter waveplate for the polarization analysis close to the carbon K edge,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1375–1378 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, D. R.

J. A. Golovchenko, B. M. Kincaid, R. A. Levesque, A. E. Meixner, D. R. Kaplan, “Polarization PENDELLÖSUNG and the generation of circularly polarized x rays with a quarter-wave plate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 202–205 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimura, H.

H. Kimura, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Full polarization measurement of synchrotron radiation with use of soft x-ray multilayers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1379–1382 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, H. Nomura, K. Mayama, H. Kimura, “Soft x-ray multilayer phase shifter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1510–1512 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft x-ray (97 eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakayama, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, H. Kimura, T. Namioka, “Soft x-ray reflectometer with a laser produced plasma source,” Phys. Scr. 41, 754–757 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kincaid, B. M.

J. A. Golovchenko, B. M. Kincaid, R. A. Levesque, A. E. Meixner, D. R. Kaplan, “Polarization PENDELLÖSUNG and the generation of circularly polarized x rays with a quarter-wave plate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 202–205 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kortright, J. B.

J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft x-ray (97 eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer optical elements for generation and analysis of circularly polarized x-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 291, 272–277 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Krinsky, S.

For a more extensive discussion see S. Krinsky, M. L. Perlman, R. E. Watson, “Characteristics of synchrotron radiation and of its sources,” in Handbook on Synchrotron Radiation, E.-E. Koch, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), Vol. 1a, pp. 65–171.

Kühne, M.

M. Kühne, K. Danzmann, P. Müller, B. Wende, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Sterns, A. M. Hawryluk, “Characterization of multilayer structures for soft-x-ray laser research,” in Multilayer Structures and Laboratory X-Ray Laser Research, N. M. Ceglio, P. Dhez, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.688, 76–80 (1986).

Lee, P.

B. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low energy interaction coefficients,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–145 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. Lee, “X-ray diffraction in multilayers,” Opt. Commun. 37, 159–164 (1981);“Multilayer mirrors and beam splitters for soft x rays,” Opt. Commun. 43, 237–241 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Levesque, R. A.

J. A. Golovchenko, B. M. Kincaid, R. A. Levesque, A. E. Meixner, D. R. Kaplan, “Polarization PENDELLÖSUNG and the generation of circularly polarized x rays with a quarter-wave plate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 202–205 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacRae, R. A.

Madden, R. P.

Maehara, T.

H. Kimura, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Full polarization measurement of synchrotron radiation with use of soft x-ray multilayers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1379–1382 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mast, M.

J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, M. Mast, K. Molter, W. B. Peatman, M. Scheer, Th. Schroeter, Ch. Wang, “Circularly polarized synchrotron radiation from crossed undulator at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 339–342 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaupp, M. Mast, “First experimental experience with a VUV polarimeter at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2213–2215 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Willmann, H. Petersen, F. Schäfers, M. Mast, B. M. Müller, W. Gudat, “The SX700/3 beamline for circularly polarized soft x-rays,” BESSY Annual Rep. 1991 (BESSY, Berlin, 1991), pp. 466–470.

Mayama, K.

M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, H. Nomura, K. Mayama, H. Kimura, “Soft x-ray multilayer phase shifter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1510–1512 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft x-ray (97 eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Nomura, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Design, fabrication, and polarization of soft-x-ray transmission multilayers,” in International Symposium on Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1720, 395–401 (1992).

Meixner, A. E.

J. A. Golovchenko, B. M. Kincaid, R. A. Levesque, A. E. Meixner, D. R. Kaplan, “Polarization PENDELLÖSUNG and the generation of circularly polarized x rays with a quarter-wave plate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 202–205 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mills, D. M.

D. M. Mills, “Spin-aligned momentum distribution of transition-metal ferromagnets studied with circularly polarized synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev B 36, 6178–6181 (1987);D. M. Mills, “Phaseplate performance for the production of circularly polarized x-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 266, 531–537 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Molter, K.

J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, M. Mast, K. Molter, W. B. Peatman, M. Scheer, Th. Schroeter, Ch. Wang, “Circularly polarized synchrotron radiation from crossed undulator at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 339–342 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Müller, B. M.

M. Willmann, H. Petersen, F. Schäfers, M. Mast, B. M. Müller, W. Gudat, “The SX700/3 beamline for circularly polarized soft x-rays,” BESSY Annual Rep. 1991 (BESSY, Berlin, 1991), pp. 466–470.

Müller, P.

M. Kühne, K. Danzmann, P. Müller, B. Wende, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Sterns, A. M. Hawryluk, “Characterization of multilayer structures for soft-x-ray laser research,” in Multilayer Structures and Laboratory X-Ray Laser Research, N. M. Ceglio, P. Dhez, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.688, 76–80 (1986).

Nakayama, S.

S. Nakayama, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, H. Kimura, T. Namioka, “Soft x-ray reflectometer with a laser produced plasma source,” Phys. Scr. 41, 754–757 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Namioka, T.

H. Kimura, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Full polarization measurement of synchrotron radiation with use of soft x-ray multilayers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1379–1382 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakayama, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, H. Kimura, T. Namioka, “Soft x-ray reflectometer with a laser produced plasma source,” Phys. Scr. 41, 754–757 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, V.

J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft x-ray (97 eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nomura, H.

M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, H. Nomura, K. Mayama, H. Kimura, “Soft x-ray multilayer phase shifter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1510–1512 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Nomura, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Design, fabrication, and polarization of soft-x-ray transmission multilayers,” in International Symposium on Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1720, 395–401 (1992).

Peatman, W.

J. Feldhaus, F. Schäfers, W. Peatman, “The crystal monochromator at BESSY,” in Soft-X-Ray optics and Technology, E. Koch, G. A. Schmahl, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.733, 242–247 (1986).

A. Gaupp, W. Peatman, “A polarimeter for soft x-rays,” in Soft-X-Ray optics and Technology, E. Koch, G. A. Schmahl, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.733, 272–273 (1986).

Peatman, W. B.

J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, M. Mast, K. Molter, W. B. Peatman, M. Scheer, Th. Schroeter, Ch. Wang, “Circularly polarized synchrotron radiation from crossed undulator at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 339–342 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Perlman, M. L.

For a more extensive discussion see S. Krinsky, M. L. Perlman, R. E. Watson, “Characteristics of synchrotron radiation and of its sources,” in Handbook on Synchrotron Radiation, E.-E. Koch, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), Vol. 1a, pp. 65–171.

Petersen, H.

H. Petersen, M. Willmann, F. Schäfers, W. Gudat, “The SX700/3 beamline for circularly polarized soft x rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 333, 594–598 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Petersen, “The plane grating and elliptical mirror: a new optical configuration for monochromators,” Opt. Commun. 40, 402–406 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Willmann, H. Petersen, F. Schäfers, M. Mast, B. M. Müller, W. Gudat, “The SX700/3 beamline for circularly polarized soft x-rays,” BESSY Annual Rep. 1991 (BESSY, Berlin, 1991), pp. 466–470.

Rabinovitch, K.

Salashchenko, N. N.

E. S. Gluskin, S. V. Gaponov, P. Dhez, P. P. Ilyinsky, N. N. Salashchenko, Y. M. Shatunov, E. M. Trakhtenberg, “A polarimeter for soft x-ray and VUV radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 394–396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Schäfers, F.

H. Petersen, M. Willmann, F. Schäfers, W. Gudat, “The SX700/3 beamline for circularly polarized soft x rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 333, 594–598 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Willmann, H. Petersen, F. Schäfers, M. Mast, B. M. Müller, W. Gudat, “The SX700/3 beamline for circularly polarized soft x-rays,” BESSY Annual Rep. 1991 (BESSY, Berlin, 1991), pp. 466–470.

J. Feldhaus, F. Schäfers, W. Peatman, “The crystal monochromator at BESSY,” in Soft-X-Ray optics and Technology, E. Koch, G. A. Schmahl, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.733, 242–247 (1986).

Scheer, M.

J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, M. Mast, K. Molter, W. B. Peatman, M. Scheer, Th. Schroeter, Ch. Wang, “Circularly polarized synchrotron radiation from crossed undulator at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 339–342 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schroeter, Th.

J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, M. Mast, K. Molter, W. B. Peatman, M. Scheer, Th. Schroeter, Ch. Wang, “Circularly polarized synchrotron radiation from crossed undulator at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 339–342 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shatunov, Y. M.

E. S. Gluskin, S. V. Gaponov, P. Dhez, P. P. Ilyinsky, N. N. Salashchenko, Y. M. Shatunov, E. M. Trakhtenberg, “A polarimeter for soft x-ray and VUV radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 394–396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Shimabukuro, R. L.

B. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low energy interaction coefficients,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–145 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sterns, D. G.

M. Kühne, K. Danzmann, P. Müller, B. Wende, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Sterns, A. M. Hawryluk, “Characterization of multilayer structures for soft-x-ray laser research,” in Multilayer Structures and Laboratory X-Ray Laser Research, N. M. Ceglio, P. Dhez, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.688, 76–80 (1986).

Tanaka, T. J.

B. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low energy interaction coefficients,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–145 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Trakhtenberg, E. M.

E. S. Gluskin, S. V. Gaponov, P. Dhez, P. P. Ilyinsky, N. N. Salashchenko, Y. M. Shatunov, E. M. Trakhtenberg, “A polarimeter for soft x-ray and VUV radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 394–396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

J. B. Kortright, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer optical elements for generation and analysis of circularly polarized x-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 291, 272–277 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vidal, B.

Vincent, P.

Wang, Ch.

J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, M. Mast, K. Molter, W. B. Peatman, M. Scheer, Th. Schroeter, Ch. Wang, “Circularly polarized synchrotron radiation from crossed undulator at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 339–342 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Watson, R. E.

For a more extensive discussion see S. Krinsky, M. L. Perlman, R. E. Watson, “Characteristics of synchrotron radiation and of its sources,” in Handbook on Synchrotron Radiation, E.-E. Koch, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), Vol. 1a, pp. 65–171.

Wende, B.

M. Kühne, K. Danzmann, P. Müller, B. Wende, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Sterns, A. M. Hawryluk, “Characterization of multilayer structures for soft-x-ray laser research,” in Multilayer Structures and Laboratory X-Ray Laser Research, N. M. Ceglio, P. Dhez, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.688, 76–80 (1986).

Willmann, M.

H. Petersen, M. Willmann, F. Schäfers, W. Gudat, “The SX700/3 beamline for circularly polarized soft x rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 333, 594–598 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Willmann, H. Petersen, F. Schäfers, M. Mast, B. M. Müller, W. Gudat, “The SX700/3 beamline for circularly polarized soft x-rays,” BESSY Annual Rep. 1991 (BESSY, Berlin, 1991), pp. 466–470.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of optics (Pergamon, London, 1980).

Yamamoto, M.

M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, H. Nomura, K. Mayama, H. Kimura, “Soft x-ray multilayer phase shifter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1510–1512 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft x-ray (97 eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Kimura, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Full polarization measurement of synchrotron radiation with use of soft x-ray multilayers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1379–1382 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakayama, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, H. Kimura, T. Namioka, “Soft x-ray reflectometer with a laser produced plasma source,” Phys. Scr. 41, 754–757 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Nomura, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Design, fabrication, and polarization of soft-x-ray transmission multilayers,” in International Symposium on Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1720, 395–401 (1992).

Yanagihara, M.

H. Kimura, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Full polarization measurement of synchrotron radiation with use of soft x-ray multilayers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1379–1382 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft x-ray (97 eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, H. Nomura, K. Mayama, H. Kimura, “Soft x-ray multilayer phase shifter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1510–1512 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakayama, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, H. Kimura, T. Namioka, “Soft x-ray reflectometer with a laser produced plasma source,” Phys. Scr. 41, 754–757 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Nomura, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Design, fabrication, and polarization of soft-x-ray transmission multilayers,” in International Symposium on Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1720, 395–401 (1992).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft x-ray (97 eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low energy interaction coefficients,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–145 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A (4)

E. S. Gluskin, S. V. Gaponov, P. Dhez, P. P. Ilyinsky, N. N. Salashchenko, Y. M. Shatunov, E. M. Trakhtenberg, “A polarimeter for soft x-ray and VUV radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 394–396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. Dhez, “Polarizer and polarimeters in the XUV range,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 261, 66–71 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer optical elements for generation and analysis of circularly polarized x-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 291, 272–277 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Petersen, M. Willmann, F. Schäfers, W. Gudat, “The SX700/3 beamline for circularly polarized soft x rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 333, 594–598 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

H. Petersen, “The plane grating and elliptical mirror: a new optical configuration for monochromators,” Opt. Commun. 40, 402–406 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. Lee, “X-ray diffraction in multilayers,” Opt. Commun. 37, 159–164 (1981);“Multilayer mirrors and beam splitters for soft x rays,” Opt. Commun. 43, 237–241 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev B (1)

D. M. Mills, “Spin-aligned momentum distribution of transition-metal ferromagnets studied with circularly polarized synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev B 36, 6178–6181 (1987);D. M. Mills, “Phaseplate performance for the production of circularly polarized x-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 266, 531–537 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. A. Golovchenko, B. M. Kincaid, R. A. Levesque, A. E. Meixner, D. R. Kaplan, “Polarization PENDELLÖSUNG and the generation of circularly polarized x rays with a quarter-wave plate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 202–205 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Scr. (1)

S. Nakayama, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, H. Kimura, T. Namioka, “Soft x-ray reflectometer with a laser produced plasma source,” Phys. Scr. 41, 754–757 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (5)

H. Kimura, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Full polarization measurement of synchrotron radiation with use of soft x-ray multilayers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1379–1382 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, H. Nomura, K. Mayama, H. Kimura, “Soft x-ray multilayer phase shifter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1510–1512 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, M. Mast, K. Molter, W. B. Peatman, M. Scheer, Th. Schroeter, Ch. Wang, “Circularly polarized synchrotron radiation from crossed undulator at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 339–342 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, “A quarter waveplate for the polarization analysis close to the carbon K edge,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1375–1378 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaupp, M. Mast, “First experimental experience with a VUV polarimeter at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2213–2215 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

M. Kühne, K. Danzmann, P. Müller, B. Wende, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Sterns, A. M. Hawryluk, “Characterization of multilayer structures for soft-x-ray laser research,” in Multilayer Structures and Laboratory X-Ray Laser Research, N. M. Ceglio, P. Dhez, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.688, 76–80 (1986).

J. Feldhaus, F. Schäfers, W. Peatman, “The crystal monochromator at BESSY,” in Soft-X-Ray optics and Technology, E. Koch, G. A. Schmahl, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.733, 242–247 (1986).

A. Gaupp, W. Peatman, “A polarimeter for soft x-rays,” in Soft-X-Ray optics and Technology, E. Koch, G. A. Schmahl, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.733, 272–273 (1986).

For a more extensive discussion see S. Krinsky, M. L. Perlman, R. E. Watson, “Characteristics of synchrotron radiation and of its sources,” in Handbook on Synchrotron Radiation, E.-E. Koch, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), Vol. 1a, pp. 65–171.

M. Willmann, H. Petersen, F. Schäfers, M. Mast, B. M. Müller, W. Gudat, “The SX700/3 beamline for circularly polarized soft x-rays,” BESSY Annual Rep. 1991 (BESSY, Berlin, 1991), pp. 466–470.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of optics (Pergamon, London, 1980).

H. Nomura, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Design, fabrication, and polarization of soft-x-ray transmission multilayers,” in International Symposium on Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1720, 395–401 (1992).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical scheme of the SX700/3 monochromator for circularly polarized light. The beam comes from the left side. After passing the adjustable aperture, it is directed by the helicity selection mirrors into the monochromator section. The polarimeter was installed directly behind the exit slit.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scheme of the polarimeter used for this investigation. The beam passes through a collimator and a transmission polarizer and is then reflected by an analyzer mirror to the detector; α and β are the azimuth angles for the polarizer and the analyzer, respectively; θ describes the incidence angle onto the polarizer, which remains fixed in a scan of α

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intensity measured behind the analyzer [50 periods of chromium/carbon with spacing d = 3.25 nm (1/3 chromium and 2/3 carbon)] versus photon energy (◇). The analyzer was oriented in s polarization for incident linearly polarized light. The calculated reflectivity (solid curve) has been obtained for an angle of grazing incidence of ϕ = 46.59° and for the parameters of the multilayer with perfectly sharp interfaces. The measured signal has been adjusted to the computationally predicted reflectivity maximum at 265 eV.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured transmission (points) through the polarimeter as a function of the azimuth angle α of the polarizer at eight fixed azimuthal positions β of the analyzer. The conditions were as follows: photon energy, 265 eV; angle of grazing incidence onto the sample, θ = 47.15°, offset angle for acceptance, Ψ = +0.6 mrad. The solid curves represent the least-squares fit to the experimental data with the parameters explained in the text; rp/rs was fixed to 0.047, whereas the other parameters were derived from the fit as tp/ts = 1.034, Δ = −4.88°, I0 = 2101.6, S1 = 0.62, S2 = 0.0543, and S3 = 0.77.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental data as a function of the angle of grazing incidence θ for the phase retardation Δ (top) and the ratio tp/ts (bottom) for the polarizer multilayer filter at a photon energy of 265 eV. The solid curves guide the eye and connect the points.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison between the measured data from Fig. 5 (diamonds) and the calculated numbers (solid and dashed curves and line) as a function of the angle of grazing incidence θ at a photon energy of 265 eV. The calculations are for ideal interfaces with roughness σ = 0 nm rms (solid curve), and for an interfacial roughness σ = 0.65 nm rms (dashed curve). The substrate has not been considered for the calculations of the presented aspects. The theoretical p transmission of the polarizer excluding the silicon substrate is Tp = tp2 = 0.22 at the position of the maximum of the ratio tp/ts.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reflectivity measured (dots) versus angle of grazing incidence with a photon energy of 1400 eV at a witness sample simultaneously produced with the polarizer filter. The solid curve is the calculation for an ideal sample without interface roughness and with an experimental background level of 0.002 added.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of the measured (circles) and calculated (solid curve) photon-flux distribution versus the vertical offset angle Ψ for the SX700/3 monochromator tuned to a photon energy of 265 eV. Experimental and theoretical intensities are given in arbitrary units, and they are adjusted to each other close to the orbit plane.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured (circles) and calculated (solid curves and lines) Stokes parameters S1, S2, S3, and P of the radiation of the exit slit of the SX700/3 as a function of the vertical offset angle Ψ at a photon energy of 265 eV. An additional offset of +0.07 mrad was added to the solid curves and lines (see text).

Equations (5)

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S 0 = I ( 0 ° , 0 ° ) + I ( 90 ° , 0 ° ) , S 1 = I ( 0 ° , 0 ° ) I ( 90 ° , 0 ° ) , S 2 = I ( 45 ° , 0 ° ) I ( 135 ° , 0 ° ) , S 3 = I ( 45 ° , 90 ° ) I ( 135 ° , 90 ° ) .
[ ( S 1 2 + S 2 2 + S 3 2 ) / S 0 2 ] 1 / 2 = P 1 ,
S 3 2 = 1 S 1 2 .
e i j = exp { ½ [ k 1 + ( 1 ) i + j + 1 k 2 ] 2 σ 2 } ,
k i = 2 π λ ( n i 2 cos 2 ϕ ) 1 / 2 ,

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