Abstract

The lasing properties of a number of newly synthesized 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole derivatives copolymerized with methyl methacrylate or dissolved in poly(methyl methacrylate) and pumped with an N2 laser are reported. The radiation mechanism is based on the intramolecular proton-transfer in the electronic excited state. Both the lasing efficiency and the dye photostability increase significantly when the proton-transfer chromophore is covalently bound to the polymeric chain, and energy-conversion efficiencies comparable to those obtained in liquid solution are demonstrated.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. P. Schäfer, “Principles of dye laser operation,” in Dye Lasers, 3rd ed., F. P. Schäfer, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), pp. 1–89.
  2. F. J. Duarte, “Introduction,” in High-Power Dye Lasers, F. J. Duarte, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), pp. 1–6; “Dispersive dye lasers,” ibid, pp. 7–43; C. E. Webb, “High-power dye lasers pumped by copper vapor lasers,” ibid, pp. 166–173.
  3. A. U. Khan, M. Kasha, “Mechanism of four-level laser action in solution excimer and excited-state proton-transfer cases,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 80, 1767–1770 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. U. Acuna, A. Costela, J. M. Munoz, “A proton-transfer laser,” J. Phys. Chem. 90, 2807–2808 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. U. Acuna, F. Amat, J. Catalán, A. Costela, J. M. Figuera, J. M. Munoz, “Pulsed liquid lasers from proton transfer in the excited state,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 132, 567–569 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Costela, F. Amat, J. Catalán, A. Douhal, J. M. Figuera, J. M. Munoz, A. U. Acuna, “Phenylbenzimidazole proton-transfer laser dyes: spectral and operational properties,” Opt. Commun. 64, 457–460 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. M. O’Connell, T. T. Saito, “Plastics for high-power laser applications: a review,” Opt. Eng. 22, 393–399 (1983).
  8. J. C. Altman, R. E. Stone, B. Dunn, F. Nishida, “Solid-state laser using a Rhodamine-doped silica gel compound,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 3, 189–190 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. U. Acuna, F. Amat-Guerri, A. Costela, A. Douhal, J. M. Figuera, F. Florido, R. Sastre, “Proton-transfer lasing from solid organic matrices,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 187, 98–102 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. M. Dyumaev, A. A. Manenkov, A. P. Maslyukov, G. A. Matyushin, V. S. Nechitailo, A. M. Prokhorov, “Dyes in modified polymers: problems of photostability and conversion efficiency at high intensities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 143–151 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. H. Söffer, B. B. McFarland, “Continuously tunable, narrow-band organic dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 266–267 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  12. O. G. Peterson, B. B. Snavely, “Stimulated emission from flashlamp-excited organic dyes in polymethyl methacrylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 238–240 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. A. Bottino, G. Di Pascuale, A. Pollicino, “Synthesis of 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)-2H-benzotriazole monomers and studies of the surface photostabilization of the related copolymers,” Macromolecules 23, 2662–2666 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. P. Ghiggino, A. D. Saully, S. W. Biggen, M. D. Yandell, “Photophysics of polymer-bound 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl-2H-benzotriazole photostabilizérs,” J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Lett. 26, 505–510 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. B. O’Connor, G. W. Scott, D. R. Coulter, A. Gupta, S. P. Webb, S. W. Yeh, J. H. Clark, “Direct observation of the excited-state proton transfer and decay kinetics of internally hydrogen bonded photostabilizérs in copolymer films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 121, 417–422 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Mohajerani, E. Whale, G. R. Mitchell, “Polarisation-sensitive optical phase conjugation in novel polymer films,” Opt. Commun. 92, 403–410 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. A. Velapoldi, K. D. Mielenz, Standard Reference Materials. A Fluorescence Standard Reference Material: Quinine Sulfate Dihydrate, Natl. Bur. Stand. (US) Spec. Publ. 260-64 (1980), Chap. 6, p. 50.
  18. A. Douhal, “Phototautomérisation protonique intramoléculaire à l’état électronique excité: propriétés spectroscopiques et application à la production de radiation stimulée” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Marrakech, Marrakech, Morroco, 1990), Chap. 2, pp. 40–45.
  19. C. M. Orlando, J. G. Wirth, D. R. Heath, “Methyl aryl ether cleavage in benzazole syntheses in polyphosphoric acid,” J. Org. Chem. 35, 3147–3149 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. M. Orlando, J. G. Wirth, D. R. Heath, “Red- and near-infrared-luminiscent benzazole derivatives,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun.1551–1552 (1971).
  21. H. H. L. Wang, L. Gampel, “A simple, efficient plastic dye laser,” Opt. Commun. 18, 444–446 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. A. Gromov, K. M. Dyumaev, A. A. Manenkov, A. P. Maslyukov, G. A. Matyushin, V. S. Nechitailo, A. M. Prokhorov, “Efficient plastic-host dye lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1028–1031 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  23. I. Mita, K. Horie, “Degradation and mobility of polymers,” in Degradation and Stabilization of Polymers, H. H. Jellinek, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1983), p. 418.
  24. K. Horie, I. Mita, “Reactions and photodynamics in polymer solids,” Adv. Polym. Sci. 89, 77–128 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  25. L. Bokobza, “Investigation of local dynamics of polymer chains in the bulk by the excimer fluorescence technique,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 15, 337–360 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. Itagaki, K. Horie, I. Mita, “Luminiscent probe studies of the microstructure and mobility of solid polymers,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 15, 361–424 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1992 (2)

1991 (2)

J. C. Altman, R. E. Stone, B. Dunn, F. Nishida, “Solid-state laser using a Rhodamine-doped silica gel compound,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 3, 189–190 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. U. Acuna, F. Amat-Guerri, A. Costela, A. Douhal, J. M. Figuera, F. Florido, R. Sastre, “Proton-transfer lasing from solid organic matrices,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 187, 98–102 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

F. A. Bottino, G. Di Pascuale, A. Pollicino, “Synthesis of 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)-2H-benzotriazole monomers and studies of the surface photostabilization of the related copolymers,” Macromolecules 23, 2662–2666 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. Bokobza, “Investigation of local dynamics of polymer chains in the bulk by the excimer fluorescence technique,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 15, 337–360 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Itagaki, K. Horie, I. Mita, “Luminiscent probe studies of the microstructure and mobility of solid polymers,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 15, 361–424 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

K. Horie, I. Mita, “Reactions and photodynamics in polymer solids,” Adv. Polym. Sci. 89, 77–128 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

K. P. Ghiggino, A. D. Saully, S. W. Biggen, M. D. Yandell, “Photophysics of polymer-bound 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl-2H-benzotriazole photostabilizérs,” J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Lett. 26, 505–510 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

A. Costela, F. Amat, J. Catalán, A. Douhal, J. M. Figuera, J. M. Munoz, A. U. Acuna, “Phenylbenzimidazole proton-transfer laser dyes: spectral and operational properties,” Opt. Commun. 64, 457–460 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

A. U. Acuna, A. Costela, J. M. Munoz, “A proton-transfer laser,” J. Phys. Chem. 90, 2807–2808 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. U. Acuna, F. Amat, J. Catalán, A. Costela, J. M. Figuera, J. M. Munoz, “Pulsed liquid lasers from proton transfer in the excited state,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 132, 567–569 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

D. B. O’Connor, G. W. Scott, D. R. Coulter, A. Gupta, S. P. Webb, S. W. Yeh, J. H. Clark, “Direct observation of the excited-state proton transfer and decay kinetics of internally hydrogen bonded photostabilizérs in copolymer films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 121, 417–422 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Gromov, K. M. Dyumaev, A. A. Manenkov, A. P. Maslyukov, G. A. Matyushin, V. S. Nechitailo, A. M. Prokhorov, “Efficient plastic-host dye lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1028–1031 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

A. U. Khan, M. Kasha, “Mechanism of four-level laser action in solution excimer and excited-state proton-transfer cases,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 80, 1767–1770 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. M. O’Connell, T. T. Saito, “Plastics for high-power laser applications: a review,” Opt. Eng. 22, 393–399 (1983).

1980 (1)

R. A. Velapoldi, K. D. Mielenz, Standard Reference Materials. A Fluorescence Standard Reference Material: Quinine Sulfate Dihydrate, Natl. Bur. Stand. (US) Spec. Publ. 260-64 (1980), Chap. 6, p. 50.

1976 (1)

H. H. L. Wang, L. Gampel, “A simple, efficient plastic dye laser,” Opt. Commun. 18, 444–446 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

C. M. Orlando, J. G. Wirth, D. R. Heath, “Red- and near-infrared-luminiscent benzazole derivatives,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun.1551–1552 (1971).

1970 (1)

C. M. Orlando, J. G. Wirth, D. R. Heath, “Methyl aryl ether cleavage in benzazole syntheses in polyphosphoric acid,” J. Org. Chem. 35, 3147–3149 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

O. G. Peterson, B. B. Snavely, “Stimulated emission from flashlamp-excited organic dyes in polymethyl methacrylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 238–240 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

B. H. Söffer, B. B. McFarland, “Continuously tunable, narrow-band organic dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 266–267 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Acuna, A. U.

A. U. Acuna, F. Amat-Guerri, A. Costela, A. Douhal, J. M. Figuera, F. Florido, R. Sastre, “Proton-transfer lasing from solid organic matrices,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 187, 98–102 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Costela, F. Amat, J. Catalán, A. Douhal, J. M. Figuera, J. M. Munoz, A. U. Acuna, “Phenylbenzimidazole proton-transfer laser dyes: spectral and operational properties,” Opt. Commun. 64, 457–460 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. U. Acuna, A. Costela, J. M. Munoz, “A proton-transfer laser,” J. Phys. Chem. 90, 2807–2808 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. U. Acuna, F. Amat, J. Catalán, A. Costela, J. M. Figuera, J. M. Munoz, “Pulsed liquid lasers from proton transfer in the excited state,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 132, 567–569 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Altman, J. C.

J. C. Altman, R. E. Stone, B. Dunn, F. Nishida, “Solid-state laser using a Rhodamine-doped silica gel compound,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 3, 189–190 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Amat, F.

A. Costela, F. Amat, J. Catalán, A. Douhal, J. M. Figuera, J. M. Munoz, A. U. Acuna, “Phenylbenzimidazole proton-transfer laser dyes: spectral and operational properties,” Opt. Commun. 64, 457–460 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. U. Acuna, F. Amat, J. Catalán, A. Costela, J. M. Figuera, J. M. Munoz, “Pulsed liquid lasers from proton transfer in the excited state,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 132, 567–569 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Amat-Guerri, F.

A. U. Acuna, F. Amat-Guerri, A. Costela, A. Douhal, J. M. Figuera, F. Florido, R. Sastre, “Proton-transfer lasing from solid organic matrices,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 187, 98–102 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Biggen, S. W.

K. P. Ghiggino, A. D. Saully, S. W. Biggen, M. D. Yandell, “Photophysics of polymer-bound 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl-2H-benzotriazole photostabilizérs,” J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Lett. 26, 505–510 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bokobza, L.

L. Bokobza, “Investigation of local dynamics of polymer chains in the bulk by the excimer fluorescence technique,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 15, 337–360 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bottino, F. A.

F. A. Bottino, G. Di Pascuale, A. Pollicino, “Synthesis of 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)-2H-benzotriazole monomers and studies of the surface photostabilization of the related copolymers,” Macromolecules 23, 2662–2666 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Catalán, J.

A. Costela, F. Amat, J. Catalán, A. Douhal, J. M. Figuera, J. M. Munoz, A. U. Acuna, “Phenylbenzimidazole proton-transfer laser dyes: spectral and operational properties,” Opt. Commun. 64, 457–460 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. U. Acuna, F. Amat, J. Catalán, A. Costela, J. M. Figuera, J. M. Munoz, “Pulsed liquid lasers from proton transfer in the excited state,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 132, 567–569 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Clark, J. H.

D. B. O’Connor, G. W. Scott, D. R. Coulter, A. Gupta, S. P. Webb, S. W. Yeh, J. H. Clark, “Direct observation of the excited-state proton transfer and decay kinetics of internally hydrogen bonded photostabilizérs in copolymer films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 121, 417–422 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Costela, A.

A. U. Acuna, F. Amat-Guerri, A. Costela, A. Douhal, J. M. Figuera, F. Florido, R. Sastre, “Proton-transfer lasing from solid organic matrices,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 187, 98–102 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Costela, F. Amat, J. Catalán, A. Douhal, J. M. Figuera, J. M. Munoz, A. U. Acuna, “Phenylbenzimidazole proton-transfer laser dyes: spectral and operational properties,” Opt. Commun. 64, 457–460 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. U. Acuna, F. Amat, J. Catalán, A. Costela, J. M. Figuera, J. M. Munoz, “Pulsed liquid lasers from proton transfer in the excited state,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 132, 567–569 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. U. Acuna, A. Costela, J. M. Munoz, “A proton-transfer laser,” J. Phys. Chem. 90, 2807–2808 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Coulter, D. R.

D. B. O’Connor, G. W. Scott, D. R. Coulter, A. Gupta, S. P. Webb, S. W. Yeh, J. H. Clark, “Direct observation of the excited-state proton transfer and decay kinetics of internally hydrogen bonded photostabilizérs in copolymer films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 121, 417–422 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Di Pascuale, G.

F. A. Bottino, G. Di Pascuale, A. Pollicino, “Synthesis of 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)-2H-benzotriazole monomers and studies of the surface photostabilization of the related copolymers,” Macromolecules 23, 2662–2666 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Douhal, A.

A. U. Acuna, F. Amat-Guerri, A. Costela, A. Douhal, J. M. Figuera, F. Florido, R. Sastre, “Proton-transfer lasing from solid organic matrices,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 187, 98–102 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Costela, F. Amat, J. Catalán, A. Douhal, J. M. Figuera, J. M. Munoz, A. U. Acuna, “Phenylbenzimidazole proton-transfer laser dyes: spectral and operational properties,” Opt. Commun. 64, 457–460 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Douhal, “Phototautomérisation protonique intramoléculaire à l’état électronique excité: propriétés spectroscopiques et application à la production de radiation stimulée” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Marrakech, Marrakech, Morroco, 1990), Chap. 2, pp. 40–45.

Duarte, F. J.

F. J. Duarte, “Introduction,” in High-Power Dye Lasers, F. J. Duarte, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), pp. 1–6; “Dispersive dye lasers,” ibid, pp. 7–43; C. E. Webb, “High-power dye lasers pumped by copper vapor lasers,” ibid, pp. 166–173.

Dunn, B.

J. C. Altman, R. E. Stone, B. Dunn, F. Nishida, “Solid-state laser using a Rhodamine-doped silica gel compound,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 3, 189–190 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dyumaev, K. M.

Figuera, J. M.

A. U. Acuna, F. Amat-Guerri, A. Costela, A. Douhal, J. M. Figuera, F. Florido, R. Sastre, “Proton-transfer lasing from solid organic matrices,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 187, 98–102 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Costela, F. Amat, J. Catalán, A. Douhal, J. M. Figuera, J. M. Munoz, A. U. Acuna, “Phenylbenzimidazole proton-transfer laser dyes: spectral and operational properties,” Opt. Commun. 64, 457–460 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. U. Acuna, F. Amat, J. Catalán, A. Costela, J. M. Figuera, J. M. Munoz, “Pulsed liquid lasers from proton transfer in the excited state,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 132, 567–569 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Florido, F.

A. U. Acuna, F. Amat-Guerri, A. Costela, A. Douhal, J. M. Figuera, F. Florido, R. Sastre, “Proton-transfer lasing from solid organic matrices,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 187, 98–102 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gampel, L.

H. H. L. Wang, L. Gampel, “A simple, efficient plastic dye laser,” Opt. Commun. 18, 444–446 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ghiggino, K. P.

K. P. Ghiggino, A. D. Saully, S. W. Biggen, M. D. Yandell, “Photophysics of polymer-bound 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl-2H-benzotriazole photostabilizérs,” J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Lett. 26, 505–510 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gromov, D. A.

Gupta, A.

D. B. O’Connor, G. W. Scott, D. R. Coulter, A. Gupta, S. P. Webb, S. W. Yeh, J. H. Clark, “Direct observation of the excited-state proton transfer and decay kinetics of internally hydrogen bonded photostabilizérs in copolymer films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 121, 417–422 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Heath, D. R.

C. M. Orlando, J. G. Wirth, D. R. Heath, “Red- and near-infrared-luminiscent benzazole derivatives,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun.1551–1552 (1971).

C. M. Orlando, J. G. Wirth, D. R. Heath, “Methyl aryl ether cleavage in benzazole syntheses in polyphosphoric acid,” J. Org. Chem. 35, 3147–3149 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Horie, K.

H. Itagaki, K. Horie, I. Mita, “Luminiscent probe studies of the microstructure and mobility of solid polymers,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 15, 361–424 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Horie, I. Mita, “Reactions and photodynamics in polymer solids,” Adv. Polym. Sci. 89, 77–128 (1989).
[CrossRef]

I. Mita, K. Horie, “Degradation and mobility of polymers,” in Degradation and Stabilization of Polymers, H. H. Jellinek, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1983), p. 418.

Itagaki, H.

H. Itagaki, K. Horie, I. Mita, “Luminiscent probe studies of the microstructure and mobility of solid polymers,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 15, 361–424 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kasha, M.

A. U. Khan, M. Kasha, “Mechanism of four-level laser action in solution excimer and excited-state proton-transfer cases,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 80, 1767–1770 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Khan, A. U.

A. U. Khan, M. Kasha, “Mechanism of four-level laser action in solution excimer and excited-state proton-transfer cases,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 80, 1767–1770 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Manenkov, A. A.

Maslyukov, A. P.

Matyushin, G. A.

McFarland, B. B.

B. H. Söffer, B. B. McFarland, “Continuously tunable, narrow-band organic dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 266–267 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Mielenz, K. D.

R. A. Velapoldi, K. D. Mielenz, Standard Reference Materials. A Fluorescence Standard Reference Material: Quinine Sulfate Dihydrate, Natl. Bur. Stand. (US) Spec. Publ. 260-64 (1980), Chap. 6, p. 50.

Mita, I.

H. Itagaki, K. Horie, I. Mita, “Luminiscent probe studies of the microstructure and mobility of solid polymers,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 15, 361–424 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Horie, I. Mita, “Reactions and photodynamics in polymer solids,” Adv. Polym. Sci. 89, 77–128 (1989).
[CrossRef]

I. Mita, K. Horie, “Degradation and mobility of polymers,” in Degradation and Stabilization of Polymers, H. H. Jellinek, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1983), p. 418.

Mitchell, G. R.

E. Mohajerani, E. Whale, G. R. Mitchell, “Polarisation-sensitive optical phase conjugation in novel polymer films,” Opt. Commun. 92, 403–410 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mohajerani, E.

E. Mohajerani, E. Whale, G. R. Mitchell, “Polarisation-sensitive optical phase conjugation in novel polymer films,” Opt. Commun. 92, 403–410 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Munoz, J. M.

A. Costela, F. Amat, J. Catalán, A. Douhal, J. M. Figuera, J. M. Munoz, A. U. Acuna, “Phenylbenzimidazole proton-transfer laser dyes: spectral and operational properties,” Opt. Commun. 64, 457–460 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. U. Acuna, A. Costela, J. M. Munoz, “A proton-transfer laser,” J. Phys. Chem. 90, 2807–2808 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. U. Acuna, F. Amat, J. Catalán, A. Costela, J. M. Figuera, J. M. Munoz, “Pulsed liquid lasers from proton transfer in the excited state,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 132, 567–569 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nechitailo, V. S.

Nishida, F.

J. C. Altman, R. E. Stone, B. Dunn, F. Nishida, “Solid-state laser using a Rhodamine-doped silica gel compound,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 3, 189–190 (1991).
[CrossRef]

O’Connell, R. M.

R. M. O’Connell, T. T. Saito, “Plastics for high-power laser applications: a review,” Opt. Eng. 22, 393–399 (1983).

O’Connor, D. B.

D. B. O’Connor, G. W. Scott, D. R. Coulter, A. Gupta, S. P. Webb, S. W. Yeh, J. H. Clark, “Direct observation of the excited-state proton transfer and decay kinetics of internally hydrogen bonded photostabilizérs in copolymer films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 121, 417–422 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Orlando, C. M.

C. M. Orlando, J. G. Wirth, D. R. Heath, “Red- and near-infrared-luminiscent benzazole derivatives,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun.1551–1552 (1971).

C. M. Orlando, J. G. Wirth, D. R. Heath, “Methyl aryl ether cleavage in benzazole syntheses in polyphosphoric acid,” J. Org. Chem. 35, 3147–3149 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, O. G.

O. G. Peterson, B. B. Snavely, “Stimulated emission from flashlamp-excited organic dyes in polymethyl methacrylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 238–240 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Pollicino, A.

F. A. Bottino, G. Di Pascuale, A. Pollicino, “Synthesis of 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)-2H-benzotriazole monomers and studies of the surface photostabilization of the related copolymers,” Macromolecules 23, 2662–2666 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Prokhorov, A. M.

Saito, T. T.

R. M. O’Connell, T. T. Saito, “Plastics for high-power laser applications: a review,” Opt. Eng. 22, 393–399 (1983).

Sastre, R.

A. U. Acuna, F. Amat-Guerri, A. Costela, A. Douhal, J. M. Figuera, F. Florido, R. Sastre, “Proton-transfer lasing from solid organic matrices,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 187, 98–102 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Saully, A. D.

K. P. Ghiggino, A. D. Saully, S. W. Biggen, M. D. Yandell, “Photophysics of polymer-bound 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl-2H-benzotriazole photostabilizérs,” J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Lett. 26, 505–510 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Schäfer, F. P.

F. P. Schäfer, “Principles of dye laser operation,” in Dye Lasers, 3rd ed., F. P. Schäfer, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), pp. 1–89.

Scott, G. W.

D. B. O’Connor, G. W. Scott, D. R. Coulter, A. Gupta, S. P. Webb, S. W. Yeh, J. H. Clark, “Direct observation of the excited-state proton transfer and decay kinetics of internally hydrogen bonded photostabilizérs in copolymer films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 121, 417–422 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Snavely, B. B.

O. G. Peterson, B. B. Snavely, “Stimulated emission from flashlamp-excited organic dyes in polymethyl methacrylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 238–240 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Söffer, B. H.

B. H. Söffer, B. B. McFarland, “Continuously tunable, narrow-band organic dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 266–267 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Stone, R. E.

J. C. Altman, R. E. Stone, B. Dunn, F. Nishida, “Solid-state laser using a Rhodamine-doped silica gel compound,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 3, 189–190 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Velapoldi, R. A.

R. A. Velapoldi, K. D. Mielenz, Standard Reference Materials. A Fluorescence Standard Reference Material: Quinine Sulfate Dihydrate, Natl. Bur. Stand. (US) Spec. Publ. 260-64 (1980), Chap. 6, p. 50.

Wang, H. H. L.

H. H. L. Wang, L. Gampel, “A simple, efficient plastic dye laser,” Opt. Commun. 18, 444–446 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Webb, S. P.

D. B. O’Connor, G. W. Scott, D. R. Coulter, A. Gupta, S. P. Webb, S. W. Yeh, J. H. Clark, “Direct observation of the excited-state proton transfer and decay kinetics of internally hydrogen bonded photostabilizérs in copolymer films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 121, 417–422 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Whale, E.

E. Mohajerani, E. Whale, G. R. Mitchell, “Polarisation-sensitive optical phase conjugation in novel polymer films,” Opt. Commun. 92, 403–410 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wirth, J. G.

C. M. Orlando, J. G. Wirth, D. R. Heath, “Red- and near-infrared-luminiscent benzazole derivatives,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun.1551–1552 (1971).

C. M. Orlando, J. G. Wirth, D. R. Heath, “Methyl aryl ether cleavage in benzazole syntheses in polyphosphoric acid,” J. Org. Chem. 35, 3147–3149 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Yandell, M. D.

K. P. Ghiggino, A. D. Saully, S. W. Biggen, M. D. Yandell, “Photophysics of polymer-bound 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl-2H-benzotriazole photostabilizérs,” J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Lett. 26, 505–510 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, S. W.

D. B. O’Connor, G. W. Scott, D. R. Coulter, A. Gupta, S. P. Webb, S. W. Yeh, J. H. Clark, “Direct observation of the excited-state proton transfer and decay kinetics of internally hydrogen bonded photostabilizérs in copolymer films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 121, 417–422 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Polym. Sci. (1)

K. Horie, I. Mita, “Reactions and photodynamics in polymer solids,” Adv. Polym. Sci. 89, 77–128 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

B. H. Söffer, B. B. McFarland, “Continuously tunable, narrow-band organic dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 266–267 (1967).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Peterson, B. B. Snavely, “Stimulated emission from flashlamp-excited organic dyes in polymethyl methacrylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 238–240 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (3)

D. B. O’Connor, G. W. Scott, D. R. Coulter, A. Gupta, S. P. Webb, S. W. Yeh, J. H. Clark, “Direct observation of the excited-state proton transfer and decay kinetics of internally hydrogen bonded photostabilizérs in copolymer films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 121, 417–422 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. U. Acuna, F. Amat, J. Catalán, A. Costela, J. M. Figuera, J. M. Munoz, “Pulsed liquid lasers from proton transfer in the excited state,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 132, 567–569 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. U. Acuna, F. Amat-Guerri, A. Costela, A. Douhal, J. M. Figuera, F. Florido, R. Sastre, “Proton-transfer lasing from solid organic matrices,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 187, 98–102 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (1)

J. C. Altman, R. E. Stone, B. Dunn, F. Nishida, “Solid-state laser using a Rhodamine-doped silica gel compound,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 3, 189–190 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. (1)

C. M. Orlando, J. G. Wirth, D. R. Heath, “Red- and near-infrared-luminiscent benzazole derivatives,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun.1551–1552 (1971).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Org. Chem. (1)

C. M. Orlando, J. G. Wirth, D. R. Heath, “Methyl aryl ether cleavage in benzazole syntheses in polyphosphoric acid,” J. Org. Chem. 35, 3147–3149 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

A. U. Acuna, A. Costela, J. M. Munoz, “A proton-transfer laser,” J. Phys. Chem. 90, 2807–2808 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Lett. (1)

K. P. Ghiggino, A. D. Saully, S. W. Biggen, M. D. Yandell, “Photophysics of polymer-bound 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl-2H-benzotriazole photostabilizérs,” J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Lett. 26, 505–510 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

F. A. Bottino, G. Di Pascuale, A. Pollicino, “Synthesis of 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)-2H-benzotriazole monomers and studies of the surface photostabilization of the related copolymers,” Macromolecules 23, 2662–2666 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Natl. Bur. Stand. (US) Spec. Publ. (1)

R. A. Velapoldi, K. D. Mielenz, Standard Reference Materials. A Fluorescence Standard Reference Material: Quinine Sulfate Dihydrate, Natl. Bur. Stand. (US) Spec. Publ. 260-64 (1980), Chap. 6, p. 50.

Opt. Commun. (3)

E. Mohajerani, E. Whale, G. R. Mitchell, “Polarisation-sensitive optical phase conjugation in novel polymer films,” Opt. Commun. 92, 403–410 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Costela, F. Amat, J. Catalán, A. Douhal, J. M. Figuera, J. M. Munoz, A. U. Acuna, “Phenylbenzimidazole proton-transfer laser dyes: spectral and operational properties,” Opt. Commun. 64, 457–460 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. H. L. Wang, L. Gampel, “A simple, efficient plastic dye laser,” Opt. Commun. 18, 444–446 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. M. O’Connell, T. T. Saito, “Plastics for high-power laser applications: a review,” Opt. Eng. 22, 393–399 (1983).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) (1)

A. U. Khan, M. Kasha, “Mechanism of four-level laser action in solution excimer and excited-state proton-transfer cases,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 80, 1767–1770 (1984).
[CrossRef]

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L. Bokobza, “Investigation of local dynamics of polymer chains in the bulk by the excimer fluorescence technique,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 15, 337–360 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Itagaki, K. Horie, I. Mita, “Luminiscent probe studies of the microstructure and mobility of solid polymers,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 15, 361–424 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

I. Mita, K. Horie, “Degradation and mobility of polymers,” in Degradation and Stabilization of Polymers, H. H. Jellinek, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1983), p. 418.

F. P. Schäfer, “Principles of dye laser operation,” in Dye Lasers, 3rd ed., F. P. Schäfer, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), pp. 1–89.

F. J. Duarte, “Introduction,” in High-Power Dye Lasers, F. J. Duarte, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), pp. 1–6; “Dispersive dye lasers,” ibid, pp. 7–43; C. E. Webb, “High-power dye lasers pumped by copper vapor lasers,” ibid, pp. 166–173.

A. Douhal, “Phototautomérisation protonique intramoléculaire à l’état électronique excité: propriétés spectroscopiques et application à la production de radiation stimulée” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Marrakech, Marrakech, Morroco, 1990), Chap. 2, pp. 40–45.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme I: molecular structure of 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole derivatives.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scheme II: molecular structure of copolymers cop-2 and cop-3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption (A), corrected fluorescence (F), and stimulated emission (L) of the copolymer proton-transfer dyes (COP-2 and COP-3) and the solid PMMA solution of the corresponding model dyes Me-2 and Me-3. The broadband lasing profile was obtained by pumping with ~2.6-mJ, ~5-ns pulses from an N2 laser (337 nm).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal profiles of the N2-laser pump radiation and of the proton-transfer solid lasers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of the laser output on the number of pump pulses. E p, pump energy; pump frequency, 1 pulse/7 s.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Laser Parameters a for Copolymer Proton-Transfer Dyes COP-2 and COP-3 and for Solid PMMA Solutions with Me-2 and Me-3

Tables Icon

Table 2 Dependence of the Laser Output on the Number of Pump Pulses a

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