Abstract

We detail the technical considerations for producing reconfigurable spot patterns with an integrated two-dimensional acousto-optic deflector. Practical limitations concerning the generation of high-density interconnect arrays are described. Experimental results for 13 × 13, 21 × 21, and 50 × 50 spot arrays are presented.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. J. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network by using symmetric self-electro-optic devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Turunen, E. Tervonen, A. T. Friberg, “Acousto-optic control and modulation of optical coherence by electronically synthesized holographic gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 49–59 (1990)
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Tervonen, A. T. Friberg, J. Westerholm, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Programmable optical interconnections by multilevel synthetic acousto-optical holograms,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1274–1276 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. W. Prather, J. N. Mait, “Acousto-optic generation of two-dimensional spot arrays,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1720–1722 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. C. Huang, W. E. Stephens, T. C. Banwell, L. A. Reith, “Performance of 4 × 4 optical crossbar switch utilizing acousto-optic deflector,” Electron. Lett. 25, 252–253 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. O. Harris, A. VanderLugt, “Acousto-optic photonic switch,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1177–1179 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. VanderLugt, Optical Signal Processing (Wiley, New York, 1992).
  9. N. J. Berg, J. N. Lee, eds., Acousto-Optic Signal Processing (Dekker, New York, 1983).
  10. J. N. Mait, D. W. Prather, R. A. Athale, “Acousto-optic processing with electronic image feedback for morphological filtering,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5688–5699 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Brimrose Corporation of America, 5020 Campbell Boulevard, Baltimore, Md. 21236. A similar unit is available from Isomet Corporation, P.O. Box 1634, 5263 Port Royal Road, Spring-field, Va 22151.
  12. R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).
  13. A. VanderLugt, “Bragg cell diffraction patterns,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1092–1100 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Ohmachi, N. Uchida, N. Niizeki, “Acoustic wave propagation in TeO2 single crystal,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 51, 164–168 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Dammann, K. Gortler, “High-efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 312–315 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1989).

1992 (2)

1991 (2)

1990 (1)

J. Turunen, E. Tervonen, A. T. Friberg, “Acousto-optic control and modulation of optical coherence by electronically synthesized holographic gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 49–59 (1990)
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

P. C. Huang, W. E. Stephens, T. C. Banwell, L. A. Reith, “Performance of 4 × 4 optical crossbar switch utilizing acousto-optic deflector,” Electron. Lett. 25, 252–253 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. O. Harris, A. VanderLugt, “Acousto-optic photonic switch,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1177–1179 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

1972 (2)

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).

Y. Ohmachi, N. Uchida, N. Niizeki, “Acoustic wave propagation in TeO2 single crystal,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 51, 164–168 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

H. Dammann, K. Gortler, “High-efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 312–315 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Athale, R. A.

Banwell, T. C.

P. C. Huang, W. E. Stephens, T. C. Banwell, L. A. Reith, “Performance of 4 × 4 optical crossbar switch utilizing acousto-optic deflector,” Electron. Lett. 25, 252–253 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brubaker, J. L.

Cloonan, T. J.

Dammann, H.

H. Dammann, K. Gortler, “High-efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 312–315 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Friberg, A. T.

E. Tervonen, A. T. Friberg, J. Westerholm, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Programmable optical interconnections by multilevel synthetic acousto-optical holograms,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1274–1276 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Turunen, E. Tervonen, A. T. Friberg, “Acousto-optic control and modulation of optical coherence by electronically synthesized holographic gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 49–59 (1990)
[CrossRef]

Gerchberg, R. W.

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).

Goldberg, D. E.

D. E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1989).

Gortler, K.

H. Dammann, K. Gortler, “High-efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 312–315 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Harris, D. O.

Herron, M. J.

Hinterlong, S. J.

Huang, P. C.

P. C. Huang, W. E. Stephens, T. C. Banwell, L. A. Reith, “Performance of 4 × 4 optical crossbar switch utilizing acousto-optic deflector,” Electron. Lett. 25, 252–253 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

Mait, J. N.

McCormick, F. B.

Morrison, R. L.

Niizeki, N.

Y. Ohmachi, N. Uchida, N. Niizeki, “Acoustic wave propagation in TeO2 single crystal,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 51, 164–168 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ohmachi, Y.

Y. Ohmachi, N. Uchida, N. Niizeki, “Acoustic wave propagation in TeO2 single crystal,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 51, 164–168 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Prather, D. W.

Reith, L. A.

P. C. Huang, W. E. Stephens, T. C. Banwell, L. A. Reith, “Performance of 4 × 4 optical crossbar switch utilizing acousto-optic deflector,” Electron. Lett. 25, 252–253 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sasian, J. M.

Saxton, W. O.

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).

Stephens, W. E.

P. C. Huang, W. E. Stephens, T. C. Banwell, L. A. Reith, “Performance of 4 × 4 optical crossbar switch utilizing acousto-optic deflector,” Electron. Lett. 25, 252–253 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Streibl, N.

N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Taghizadeh, M. R.

Tervonen, E.

E. Tervonen, A. T. Friberg, J. Westerholm, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Programmable optical interconnections by multilevel synthetic acousto-optical holograms,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1274–1276 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Turunen, E. Tervonen, A. T. Friberg, “Acousto-optic control and modulation of optical coherence by electronically synthesized holographic gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 49–59 (1990)
[CrossRef]

Tooley, F. A. P.

Turunen, J.

E. Tervonen, A. T. Friberg, J. Westerholm, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Programmable optical interconnections by multilevel synthetic acousto-optical holograms,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1274–1276 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Turunen, E. Tervonen, A. T. Friberg, “Acousto-optic control and modulation of optical coherence by electronically synthesized holographic gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 49–59 (1990)
[CrossRef]

Uchida, N.

Y. Ohmachi, N. Uchida, N. Niizeki, “Acoustic wave propagation in TeO2 single crystal,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 51, 164–168 (1972).
[CrossRef]

VanderLugt, A.

Walker, S. J.

Westerholm, J.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. C. Huang, W. E. Stephens, T. C. Banwell, L. A. Reith, “Performance of 4 × 4 optical crossbar switch utilizing acousto-optic deflector,” Electron. Lett. 25, 252–253 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

Y. Ohmachi, N. Uchida, N. Niizeki, “Acoustic wave propagation in TeO2 single crystal,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 51, 164–168 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Turunen, E. Tervonen, A. T. Friberg, “Acousto-optic control and modulation of optical coherence by electronically synthesized holographic gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 49–59 (1990)
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Dammann, K. Gortler, “High-efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 312–315 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optik (1)

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).

Other (4)

D. E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1989).

A. VanderLugt, Optical Signal Processing (Wiley, New York, 1992).

N. J. Berg, J. N. Lee, eds., Acousto-Optic Signal Processing (Dekker, New York, 1983).

Brimrose Corporation of America, 5020 Campbell Boulevard, Baltimore, Md. 21236. A similar unit is available from Isomet Corporation, P.O. Box 1634, 5263 Port Royal Road, Spring-field, Va 22151.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement for generating 2-D spot arrays with a 2-D AO deflector: focal length F = 80 mm; laser light with wavelength λ = 532 nm is spatially filtered and expanded before it transluminates the AO deflector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental results of a 13 × 13 spot array: (a) spot pattern, (b) typical intensity profile along a row of the spot array. There is a 4-mm-diameter aperture at the input to the AO deflector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Same as Fig. 2 but for a 21 × 21 spot array.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental results of a 50 × 50 spot array: (a) spot pattern, (b) magnified spot pattern with aperture diameter of 4 mm, (c) magnified spot pattern with aperture diameter of 9.3 mm.

Equations (14)

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r x ( t ) = A cos [ ω c x t + ϕ x ( t ) ] ,
S x ( x ) = A [ Ψ x ( ξ ) comb ( ξ T x ) ] δ ( ξ - ω c x / 2 π ) , ξ = x V / λ F
d x = λ F / T x V = λ F ω x / 2 π V ,
S ( x , y ) = S x ( x ) S y ( y ) ,
r x ( t ) = A { exp ( j ω c x t ) exp [ j ϕ x ( t ) ] + exp ( - j ω c x t ) exp [ - j ϕ x ( t ) ] } / 2.
S x ( x ) = F [ r x ( x / V ) ] = V R x ( ξ ) ,             ξ = V x / λ F ,
R x ( ξ ) = ( A / 2 ) F [ exp ( j ω c x x / V ) ] F { exp [ j ϕ x ( x / V ) ] } = ( A / 2 ) δ ( ξ - ω c x / 2 π ) F { exp [ j ϕ x ( x / V ) ] } .
F { exp [ i ϕ x ( x / V ) ] } = F { exp [ j ψ x ( x / V ) ] } F [ comb ( x / V T x ) ] = V T x Ψ x ( ξ ) comb ( ξ T x ) ,
S x ( x ) = A [ Ψ x ( ξ ) comb ( ξ T x ) ] δ ( ξ - ω c x / 2 π ) ,             ξ = x V / λ F ,
d ( x ) = n = 0 N ( - 1 ) n rect [ x - ( x n + 1 + x n ) / 2 x n + 1 - x n ] ,             0 x 1 ,
d ( x ) = m = - D m exp ( i 2 π m x ) ,
D m = 0 1 d ( x ) exp ( - i 2 π m x ) d x .
D 0 = n = 0 N ( - 1 ) n ( x n + 1 - x n ) ,
D m = n = 0 N ( - 1 ) n { sin ( 2 π m x n + 1 ) - sin ( 2 π m x n ) + i [ cos ( 2 π m x n + 1 ) - cos ( 2 π m x n ) ] } ,             m 0.

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