Abstract

An electron-beam writing system that is characterized by a stationary electron beam and a continuously spinning table is proposed and developed for diffractive optic elements with axisymmetric patterns. This system allows us to fabricate continuously concentric or radialized high-density microgratings with effective areas over the electron-beam deflection limits. For a fine electron-dose distribution, we adopted multiple-revolution writing and electron-beam modulation. Several test gratings, including a rotary encoder disk with a 1.57-μm grating pitch and a 15-mm diameter and a blazed micro-Fresnel lens with a 4.5-mm diameter and a N.A. of 0.45, are successfully demonstrated with real-time data processing.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Ogata, H. Sekii, T. Maeda, H. Goto, T. Yamashita, K. Imanaka, “Microcollimated laser diode with low wavefront aberration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 354–355 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Tanigami, S. Ogata, S. Aoyama, T. Yamashita, K. Imanaka, “Low wavefront aberration and high temperature stability molded Fresnel lens,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 384–385 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Nishihara, T. Suhara, “Micro Fresnel lenses,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1987), Vol. 24, pp. 3–27.
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Fujita, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Blazed gratings and Fresnel lenses fabricated by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Lett. 7, 578–580 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Shiono, K. Setsune, O. Yamazaki, K. Wasa, “Computer-controlled electron-beam writing system for thin film micro-optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 5, 33–36 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Aoyama, S. Ogata, T. Inoue, T. Yamashita, “Laser diode source integrating a high diffraction-efficiency micro-Fresnel lens with 0.5 N.A. fabricated by electron-beam lithography,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA 1988 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper THM49.
  7. K. Goto, K. Mori, Y. Higuchi, K. Ueda, “Plastic grating collimating lens,” Jpn. J. Opt. 18, 358–367 (1989).
  8. M. Haruna, M. Takahashi, K. Wakahayashi, H. Nishihara, “Laser beam lithographed micro-Fresnel lenses,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5120–5126 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Tsuyuzaki, N. Shimazu, M. Fujinami, “High speed flat guide ceramic stage for electron beam lithography system,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 4, 280–284 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Enomoto, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Diffraction efficiency of micro Fresnel lenses fabricated by electron-beam lithography,” Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. Tech. Rep. OQE 83-89, 15–22 (1983).
  11. R. W. Hawley, N. C. Gallagher, “An efficient electron beam pattern data format for the production of binary computer generated holograms,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1211, 11–23 (1990).

1990 (1)

1989 (3)

S. Ogata, H. Sekii, T. Maeda, H. Goto, T. Yamashita, K. Imanaka, “Microcollimated laser diode with low wavefront aberration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 354–355 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Tanigami, S. Ogata, S. Aoyama, T. Yamashita, K. Imanaka, “Low wavefront aberration and high temperature stability molded Fresnel lens,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 384–385 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Goto, K. Mori, Y. Higuchi, K. Ueda, “Plastic grating collimating lens,” Jpn. J. Opt. 18, 358–367 (1989).

1987 (1)

T. Shiono, K. Setsune, O. Yamazaki, K. Wasa, “Computer-controlled electron-beam writing system for thin film micro-optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 5, 33–36 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

H. Tsuyuzaki, N. Shimazu, M. Fujinami, “High speed flat guide ceramic stage for electron beam lithography system,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 4, 280–284 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

E. Enomoto, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Diffraction efficiency of micro Fresnel lenses fabricated by electron-beam lithography,” Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. Tech. Rep. OQE 83-89, 15–22 (1983).

1982 (1)

Aoyama, S.

M. Tanigami, S. Ogata, S. Aoyama, T. Yamashita, K. Imanaka, “Low wavefront aberration and high temperature stability molded Fresnel lens,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 384–385 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Aoyama, S. Ogata, T. Inoue, T. Yamashita, “Laser diode source integrating a high diffraction-efficiency micro-Fresnel lens with 0.5 N.A. fabricated by electron-beam lithography,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA 1988 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper THM49.

Enomoto, E.

E. Enomoto, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Diffraction efficiency of micro Fresnel lenses fabricated by electron-beam lithography,” Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. Tech. Rep. OQE 83-89, 15–22 (1983).

Fujinami, M.

H. Tsuyuzaki, N. Shimazu, M. Fujinami, “High speed flat guide ceramic stage for electron beam lithography system,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 4, 280–284 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, T.

Gallagher, N. C.

R. W. Hawley, N. C. Gallagher, “An efficient electron beam pattern data format for the production of binary computer generated holograms,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1211, 11–23 (1990).

Goto, H.

S. Ogata, H. Sekii, T. Maeda, H. Goto, T. Yamashita, K. Imanaka, “Microcollimated laser diode with low wavefront aberration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 354–355 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Goto, K.

K. Goto, K. Mori, Y. Higuchi, K. Ueda, “Plastic grating collimating lens,” Jpn. J. Opt. 18, 358–367 (1989).

Haruna, M.

Hawley, R. W.

R. W. Hawley, N. C. Gallagher, “An efficient electron beam pattern data format for the production of binary computer generated holograms,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1211, 11–23 (1990).

Higuchi, Y.

K. Goto, K. Mori, Y. Higuchi, K. Ueda, “Plastic grating collimating lens,” Jpn. J. Opt. 18, 358–367 (1989).

Imanaka, K.

S. Ogata, H. Sekii, T. Maeda, H. Goto, T. Yamashita, K. Imanaka, “Microcollimated laser diode with low wavefront aberration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 354–355 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Tanigami, S. Ogata, S. Aoyama, T. Yamashita, K. Imanaka, “Low wavefront aberration and high temperature stability molded Fresnel lens,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 384–385 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, T.

S. Aoyama, S. Ogata, T. Inoue, T. Yamashita, “Laser diode source integrating a high diffraction-efficiency micro-Fresnel lens with 0.5 N.A. fabricated by electron-beam lithography,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA 1988 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper THM49.

Koyama, J.

E. Enomoto, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Diffraction efficiency of micro Fresnel lenses fabricated by electron-beam lithography,” Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. Tech. Rep. OQE 83-89, 15–22 (1983).

T. Fujita, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Blazed gratings and Fresnel lenses fabricated by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Lett. 7, 578–580 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maeda, T.

S. Ogata, H. Sekii, T. Maeda, H. Goto, T. Yamashita, K. Imanaka, “Microcollimated laser diode with low wavefront aberration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 354–355 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mori, K.

K. Goto, K. Mori, Y. Higuchi, K. Ueda, “Plastic grating collimating lens,” Jpn. J. Opt. 18, 358–367 (1989).

Nishihara, H.

M. Haruna, M. Takahashi, K. Wakahayashi, H. Nishihara, “Laser beam lithographed micro-Fresnel lenses,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5120–5126 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Enomoto, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Diffraction efficiency of micro Fresnel lenses fabricated by electron-beam lithography,” Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. Tech. Rep. OQE 83-89, 15–22 (1983).

T. Fujita, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Blazed gratings and Fresnel lenses fabricated by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Lett. 7, 578–580 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Nishihara, T. Suhara, “Micro Fresnel lenses,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1987), Vol. 24, pp. 3–27.
[CrossRef]

Ogata, S.

M. Tanigami, S. Ogata, S. Aoyama, T. Yamashita, K. Imanaka, “Low wavefront aberration and high temperature stability molded Fresnel lens,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 384–385 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Ogata, H. Sekii, T. Maeda, H. Goto, T. Yamashita, K. Imanaka, “Microcollimated laser diode with low wavefront aberration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 354–355 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Aoyama, S. Ogata, T. Inoue, T. Yamashita, “Laser diode source integrating a high diffraction-efficiency micro-Fresnel lens with 0.5 N.A. fabricated by electron-beam lithography,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA 1988 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper THM49.

Sekii, H.

S. Ogata, H. Sekii, T. Maeda, H. Goto, T. Yamashita, K. Imanaka, “Microcollimated laser diode with low wavefront aberration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 354–355 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Setsune, K.

T. Shiono, K. Setsune, O. Yamazaki, K. Wasa, “Computer-controlled electron-beam writing system for thin film micro-optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 5, 33–36 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Shimazu, N.

H. Tsuyuzaki, N. Shimazu, M. Fujinami, “High speed flat guide ceramic stage for electron beam lithography system,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 4, 280–284 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Shiono, T.

T. Shiono, K. Setsune, O. Yamazaki, K. Wasa, “Computer-controlled electron-beam writing system for thin film micro-optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 5, 33–36 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Suhara, T.

H. Nishihara, T. Suhara, “Micro Fresnel lenses,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1987), Vol. 24, pp. 3–27.
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

Tanigami, M.

M. Tanigami, S. Ogata, S. Aoyama, T. Yamashita, K. Imanaka, “Low wavefront aberration and high temperature stability molded Fresnel lens,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 384–385 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tsuyuzaki, H.

H. Tsuyuzaki, N. Shimazu, M. Fujinami, “High speed flat guide ceramic stage for electron beam lithography system,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 4, 280–284 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

K. Goto, K. Mori, Y. Higuchi, K. Ueda, “Plastic grating collimating lens,” Jpn. J. Opt. 18, 358–367 (1989).

Wakahayashi, K.

Wasa, K.

T. Shiono, K. Setsune, O. Yamazaki, K. Wasa, “Computer-controlled electron-beam writing system for thin film micro-optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 5, 33–36 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, T.

M. Tanigami, S. Ogata, S. Aoyama, T. Yamashita, K. Imanaka, “Low wavefront aberration and high temperature stability molded Fresnel lens,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 384–385 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Ogata, H. Sekii, T. Maeda, H. Goto, T. Yamashita, K. Imanaka, “Microcollimated laser diode with low wavefront aberration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 354–355 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Aoyama, S. Ogata, T. Inoue, T. Yamashita, “Laser diode source integrating a high diffraction-efficiency micro-Fresnel lens with 0.5 N.A. fabricated by electron-beam lithography,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA 1988 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper THM49.

Yamazaki, O.

T. Shiono, K. Setsune, O. Yamazaki, K. Wasa, “Computer-controlled electron-beam writing system for thin film micro-optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 5, 33–36 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

S. Ogata, H. Sekii, T. Maeda, H. Goto, T. Yamashita, K. Imanaka, “Microcollimated laser diode with low wavefront aberration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 354–355 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Tanigami, S. Ogata, S. Aoyama, T. Yamashita, K. Imanaka, “Low wavefront aberration and high temperature stability molded Fresnel lens,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 384–385 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. Tech. Rep. (1)

E. Enomoto, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Diffraction efficiency of micro Fresnel lenses fabricated by electron-beam lithography,” Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. Tech. Rep. OQE 83-89, 15–22 (1983).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (2)

T. Shiono, K. Setsune, O. Yamazaki, K. Wasa, “Computer-controlled electron-beam writing system for thin film micro-optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 5, 33–36 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. Tsuyuzaki, N. Shimazu, M. Fujinami, “High speed flat guide ceramic stage for electron beam lithography system,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 4, 280–284 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Opt. (1)

K. Goto, K. Mori, Y. Higuchi, K. Ueda, “Plastic grating collimating lens,” Jpn. J. Opt. 18, 358–367 (1989).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (3)

S. Aoyama, S. Ogata, T. Inoue, T. Yamashita, “Laser diode source integrating a high diffraction-efficiency micro-Fresnel lens with 0.5 N.A. fabricated by electron-beam lithography,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA 1988 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper THM49.

H. Nishihara, T. Suhara, “Micro Fresnel lenses,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1987), Vol. 24, pp. 3–27.
[CrossRef]

R. W. Hawley, N. C. Gallagher, “An efficient electron beam pattern data format for the production of binary computer generated holograms,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1211, 11–23 (1990).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional SEM photograph of a linear blazed micrograting fabricated by our conventional electron-beam writing system. A grating of nearly 1 μm and a high aspect ratio were realized by taking account of electron-beam backward scattering.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparisons between the proposed electron-beam (EB) writing method and the conventional method.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

System configuration of the proposed electron-beam writing system; PZT; piezoelectric transducer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SEM photograph of concentric pattern whose center is the rotating axis of the grating sample.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SEM photographs of the test pattern of modulated concentric circles: (a) center portion, (b) part of outer portion.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SEM photograph of a part of the circles for the evaluation of electron-beam deflection by eddy currents. The radius of these circles is ~20 mm. CW, clockwise; CCW, counterclockwise.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Specifications and configuration of the diffraction-type rotary encoder fabricated in this study; ppr, pulse per rotation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

SEM photograph of microgratings on the encoder disk.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

SEM cross-sectional photographs of the blazed gratings of a fabricated micro-Fresnel lens, with grating periods of (a) 6 μm, (b) 4 μm, (c) 2.5 μm. These profiles are compared with ideal profiles.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Wave-front pattern of the fabricated micro-Fresnel lens analyzed by the Zygo WA8100 wave-front analyzer.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Performance and Specifications of the Developed Electron-Beam Writing System

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