Abstract

Proximity-compensated, as well as uncompensated, blazed transmission gratings with periods of 4, 8, and 16 μm were manufactured with direct-writing, electron-beam lithography in positive resist. The compensated gratings performed better than the uncompensated ones. For the 4-μm compensated grating the measured diffraction efficiency was 67%. It was 35% for the uncompensated grating. The compensation was made by repeated convolutions in the spatial domain with the electron-beam point spread function. We determined this function by retrieving the phase from the measured diffraction pattern of the uncompensated gratings.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Fujita, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Fabrication of microlenses using electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Lett. 6, 613–615 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, B. Nilsson, “Multilevel phase holograms manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Lett. 15, 568–569 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. C. Gallagher, B. Liu, “Method for computing kinoforms that reduces image reconstruction error,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2328–2335 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. A. Carts, “Microelectronic methods push binary optics frontiers,” Laser Focus World 28 (2), 87–95 (1992).
  5. T. H. P. Chang, “Proximity effect in electron-beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 1271–1275 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Owen, “Methods for proximity effect correction in electron lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1889–1892 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Patrick, P. Vettiger, “Optimization of the proximity parameters for the electron-beam exposure of nanometer gate-length GaAs metal-semiconductor field effect transistors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 6, 2037–2041 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).
  9. To improve the accuracy of the EPSF calculation, the ideal grating amplitude has been corrected for the difference between the actual resist sensitivity and the sensitivity assumed when the exposure doses were set.
  10. D. P. Kern, “A novel approach to proximity effect correction,” in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Electron and Ion Beam Science and Technology, R. Bakish, ed. (Electrochemical Society, St. Louis, Mo., 1980), pp. 326–339.
  11. R. Petit, Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).
    [CrossRef]

1992

Y. A. Carts, “Microelectronic methods push binary optics frontiers,” Laser Focus World 28 (2), 87–95 (1992).

1990

G. Owen, “Methods for proximity effect correction in electron lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1889–1892 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, B. Nilsson, “Multilevel phase holograms manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Lett. 15, 568–569 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

W. Patrick, P. Vettiger, “Optimization of the proximity parameters for the electron-beam exposure of nanometer gate-length GaAs metal-semiconductor field effect transistors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 6, 2037–2041 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1981

1975

T. H. P. Chang, “Proximity effect in electron-beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 1271–1275 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973

1972

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).

Carts, Y. A.

Y. A. Carts, “Microelectronic methods push binary optics frontiers,” Laser Focus World 28 (2), 87–95 (1992).

Chang, T. H. P.

T. H. P. Chang, “Proximity effect in electron-beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 1271–1275 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ekberg, M.

Fujita, T.

Gallagher, N. C.

Gerchberg, R. W.

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).

Hård, S.

Kern, D. P.

D. P. Kern, “A novel approach to proximity effect correction,” in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Electron and Ion Beam Science and Technology, R. Bakish, ed. (Electrochemical Society, St. Louis, Mo., 1980), pp. 326–339.

Koyama, J.

Larsson, M.

Liu, B.

Nilsson, B.

Nishihara, H.

Owen, G.

G. Owen, “Methods for proximity effect correction in electron lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1889–1892 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, W.

W. Patrick, P. Vettiger, “Optimization of the proximity parameters for the electron-beam exposure of nanometer gate-length GaAs metal-semiconductor field effect transistors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 6, 2037–2041 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Petit, R.

R. Petit, Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).
[CrossRef]

Saxton, W. O.

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).

Vettiger, P.

W. Patrick, P. Vettiger, “Optimization of the proximity parameters for the electron-beam exposure of nanometer gate-length GaAs metal-semiconductor field effect transistors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 6, 2037–2041 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Vac. Sci. Technol.

T. H. P. Chang, “Proximity effect in electron-beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 1271–1275 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

G. Owen, “Methods for proximity effect correction in electron lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1889–1892 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B

W. Patrick, P. Vettiger, “Optimization of the proximity parameters for the electron-beam exposure of nanometer gate-length GaAs metal-semiconductor field effect transistors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 6, 2037–2041 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Laser Focus World

Y. A. Carts, “Microelectronic methods push binary optics frontiers,” Laser Focus World 28 (2), 87–95 (1992).

Opt. Lett.

Optik

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).

Other

To improve the accuracy of the EPSF calculation, the ideal grating amplitude has been corrected for the difference between the actual resist sensitivity and the sensitivity assumed when the exposure doses were set.

D. P. Kern, “A novel approach to proximity effect correction,” in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Electron and Ion Beam Science and Technology, R. Bakish, ed. (Electrochemical Society, St. Louis, Mo., 1980), pp. 326–339.

R. Petit, Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the EPSF determination. The real profile (b) could not be measured directly. Instead we used profile (d) to calculate the electron transfer function in (e). The symbol represents the Fourier transformation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase profile in the grating plane obtained by inverse Fourier transformation of the measured intensity data P M and the retrieved phases given in Table 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example of an experimentally determined ETF for a grating period of 4.0 μm. The line shows the fitted function exp(−ak) with a = 0.31 μm, where k denotes the grating wave number. Filled squares, phase-retrieved data points.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Proximity-compensated 4-μm-period blazed grating relief. (b) Relief after convolution with measured EPSF. Calculated diffraction efficiency, 69%. Filled circles, calculated values.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Estimated EPSF width (half-width at half-maximum) as a function of the resist thickness for our process. The data are based on the used 0.2-μm incident beam diameter and the EPSF’s measured for two different resist thicknesses (filled squares).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured and Calculated Diffraction Power Fractions (%), P M and P c , and Calculated Phase in Various Diffraction Orders for a 4-μm-Period Blazed Gratinga

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured and Calculated Diffraction Power Fractions (%), P M and P c , for Proximity-Compensated Blazed Gratingsa

Tables Icon

Table 3 Measured and Calculated Diffraction Power Fractions (%), P M and P c , for Uncompensated Blazed Gratingsa

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