Abstract

A process is described for producing gold black films with high absorptance in the far IR. The optical and electrical properties of these films have been studied with particular emphasis on the absorptance of films at wavelengths as long as 50 μm. A substantial decrease in absorptance near 50 μm has been observed for pure gold black films on aging in air. This degradation can be largely avoided by alloying the gold with a small percentage of copper during the deposition. Preliminary results on two methods for delineating gold black films are also presented.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. H. Pfund, “Bismuth black and its applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1, 397–399 (1930).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. H. Pfund, “The optical properties of metallic and crystalline powders,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 375–378 (1933).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Harris, K. F. Cuff, “Reflectance of gold black deposits and some other materials of low reflectance from 254 mμ to 1100 mμ. The scattering-unit-size in gold black deposits,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 160–163 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
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  9. L. Harris, The Optical Properties of Metal Blacks and Carbon Blacks (The Eppley Foundation for Research, Newport, R.I., 1967), pp. 1–116.
  10. C. Doland, P. O’Neill, A. Ignatiev, “Particulate nature of solar absorbing films: gold black,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 14, 259–262 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  11. O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Butterworth, London, 1955), pp. 177–180.

1977 (1)

C. Doland, P. O’Neill, A. Ignatiev, “Particulate nature of solar absorbing films: gold black,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 14, 259–262 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

1956 (1)

1953 (1)

1952 (1)

1947 (1)

1938 (1)

1933 (1)

1930 (1)

A. H. Pfund, “Bismuth black and its applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1, 397–399 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Beasley, J. K.

Cuff, K. F.

Dennison, D. M.

Doland, C.

C. Doland, P. O’Neill, A. Ignatiev, “Particulate nature of solar absorbing films: gold black,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 14, 259–262 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hadley, L. N.

Harris, L.

Heavens, O. S.

O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Butterworth, London, 1955), pp. 177–180.

Ignatiev, A.

C. Doland, P. O’Neill, A. Ignatiev, “Particulate nature of solar absorbing films: gold black,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 14, 259–262 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Loeb, A. L.

McGinnes, R.

O’Neill, P.

C. Doland, P. O’Neill, A. Ignatiev, “Particulate nature of solar absorbing films: gold black,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 14, 259–262 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Pfund, A. H.

A. H. Pfund, “The optical properties of metallic and crystalline powders,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 375–378 (1933).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Pfund, “Bismuth black and its applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1, 397–399 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, B.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (7)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. Doland, P. O’Neill, A. Ignatiev, “Particulate nature of solar absorbing films: gold black,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 14, 259–262 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. H. Pfund, “Bismuth black and its applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1, 397–399 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

L. Harris, The Optical Properties of Metal Blacks and Carbon Blacks (The Eppley Foundation for Research, Newport, R.I., 1967), pp. 1–116.

O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Butterworth, London, 1955), pp. 177–180.

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Side view of the apparatus used to deposit gold black films.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sample palette showing placement of the area density/resistance sample, the reflectance sample, and additional samples.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

View of shield and gold black filament as seen from the sample palette.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflectance at 50 μm after aging occurs as a function of relative humidity at the time that samples are loaded into the vacuum system.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Resistance as a function of area density for pure gold black.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Resistance as a function of area density for gold black with 1% copper.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Area density as a function of the deposition time for pure gold black.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Area density as a function of the deposition time for gold black with 1% copper.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Thickness as a function of area density for pure gold black.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Thickness as a function of area density for gold black with 1% copper.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Reflectance as a function of area density for pure gold black at a wavelength of 50 μm after aging in air occurs.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Reflectance as a function of area density for gold black with 1% copper at a wavelength of 50 μm after aging in air occurs.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Reflectance as a function of wavelength for a typical aged gold black film with and without 1% copper.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Reflectance as a function of wavelength from 100 to 500 μm for gold black with 3% copper as measured at the Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Karlsruhe.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Comparison of the reflectance of measured and computer-simulated gold black on a highly reflecting substrate as a function of wavelength for the best fit near 50 μm.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Comparison of the reflectance of measured and computer-simulated gold black on a highly reflecting substrate as a function of wavelength for the best fit near 3 μm.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Scanning electron micrograph of a laser-delineated gold black film.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Average Values of Area Density, Thickness, and Resistance Before and After Aging for Pure Gold Black and Gold Black with 1% and 3% Copper

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Table 2 Average Values of Area Density, Thickness, and Resistance Before and After Aging for Gold Black with 3% Copper and Varying Lengths of Gold

Equations (1)

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