Abstract

An experimental technique for precision measurements of the optical attenuation profile along a propagation path in thin-film waveguides is reported. The method involves a 100% outcoupling of guided light through immersion of the waveguide into a liquid with an index of refraction slightly higher than that of the film. The measurement is simple and nondestructive. The repeatability and accuracy of the measured attenuation per unit length is typically better than 5%, even with losses below 0.1 dB/cm and less than 1-cm-long guiding paths.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. Okamura, S. Yoshinaka, S. Yamamoto, “Measuring mode propagation losses of integrated optical waveguides: a simple method,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3892–3894 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. D. Himel, U. J. Gibson, “Measurement of planar waveguide losses using a coherent fiber bundle,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4413–4416 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. P. Weber, F. A. Dunn, W. N. Leibolt, “Loss measurements in thin-film optical waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 12, 755–757 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984), Chap. 11, Sec. 2.3, pp. 422–424.
  5. H. T. Man, K. Chang, D. Haas, C. C. Teng, H. N. Yoon, “Polymeric materials for high speed electro-optic waveguide modulators,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry, and Applications, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1213, 7–16 (1990).
  6. Ref. 4, Chap. 11, Sec. 10.1, pp. 473–477.

1986 (1)

1983 (1)

1973 (1)

Chang, K.

H. T. Man, K. Chang, D. Haas, C. C. Teng, H. N. Yoon, “Polymeric materials for high speed electro-optic waveguide modulators,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry, and Applications, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1213, 7–16 (1990).

Dunn, F. A.

Gibson, U. J.

Haas, D.

H. T. Man, K. Chang, D. Haas, C. C. Teng, H. N. Yoon, “Polymeric materials for high speed electro-optic waveguide modulators,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry, and Applications, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1213, 7–16 (1990).

Himel, M. D.

Leibolt, W. N.

Man, H. T.

H. T. Man, K. Chang, D. Haas, C. C. Teng, H. N. Yoon, “Polymeric materials for high speed electro-optic waveguide modulators,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry, and Applications, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1213, 7–16 (1990).

Okamura, Y.

Teng, C. C.

H. T. Man, K. Chang, D. Haas, C. C. Teng, H. N. Yoon, “Polymeric materials for high speed electro-optic waveguide modulators,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry, and Applications, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1213, 7–16 (1990).

Weber, H. P.

Yamamoto, S.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984), Chap. 11, Sec. 2.3, pp. 422–424.

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984), Chap. 11, Sec. 2.3, pp. 422–424.

Yoon, H. N.

H. T. Man, K. Chang, D. Haas, C. C. Teng, H. N. Yoon, “Polymeric materials for high speed electro-optic waveguide modulators,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry, and Applications, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1213, 7–16 (1990).

Yoshinaka, S.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Other (3)

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984), Chap. 11, Sec. 2.3, pp. 422–424.

H. T. Man, K. Chang, D. Haas, C. C. Teng, H. N. Yoon, “Polymeric materials for high speed electro-optic waveguide modulators,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry, and Applications, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1213, 7–16 (1990).

Ref. 4, Chap. 11, Sec. 10.1, pp. 473–477.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Emergence of a guided beam after the thin-film waveguide was immersed into a liquid.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic view (side view) of the experimental setup: F, single-mode fiber; FH, fiber holder; D1, photodiode; L1, collimating lens; PO, polarizer; W, wedge glass; R, rotation stage; P, prism coupler; G, glass cell; L2, focusing lens; AP, aperture; D2, photodiode; SR, sliding rail; M, linear actuator. A1–A3, units that contain components joined by the dashed lines; components are stationary within each unit and movable between units.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental data on a 4.6-μm-thick polymethyl methacrylate thin-film waveguide spin coated onto a Si wafer with 2-μm SiO2. The input laser wavelength was 0.83 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical attenuation profile across a defect in a thin-film waveguide.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical attenuation profile across a multiregion thin-film waveguide made by two layers of nonlinear optical polymers: region A, with a Ti bottom electrode; region B, with a Ti bottom electrode and poled; region C, on SiO2 directly.

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