S. John, “Localization of light,” Phys. Today 44(5), 32–40 (1991).

[Crossref]

G. Yoon, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “Accuracies of the diffusion approximation and its similarity relations for laser irradiated biological media,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2250–2255 (1989).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

M. Motamedi, S. Rastegar, G. LeCarpentier, A. J. Welch, “Light and temperature distribution in laser irradiated tissue: the influence of anisotropic scattering and refractice index,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2230–2237 (1989).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “Light distributions in artery tissue: Monte Carlo simulations for finite-diameter laser beams,” Laser Surg. Med. 9, 148–154 (1989).

[Crossref]

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, R. Maynard, G. Maret, “Theoretical study of the coherent backscattering of light by disordered media,” J. Phys. (France) 49, 77–98 (1988).

[Crossref]

M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Mark, Ad Lagendijk, “Observation of weak localization of light in a finite slab,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 58, 361–364 (1987).

[Crossref]

B C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, S. T. Flock, “Indirect versus direct techniques for the measurement of the optical properties of tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 46, 601–608 (1987).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

S. Etemad, R. Thompson, M. J. Anderjco, “Weak localization of photons: universal fluctuations and ensemble averaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 575–578 (1986).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, R. Maynard, “Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media; analysis of the peak line shape,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 56, 1471–1474 (1986).

[Crossref]

P. E. Wolf, G. Maret, “Weak localization and coherent backscattering of photons in disordered media,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 55, 2696–2699 (1985).

[Crossref]

Y. A. Kravtsov, A. I. Saichev, “Effects of double passage of waves in randomly inhomogeneous media,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 25, 494–508 (1982).

[Crossref]

D. Marquardt, “An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters,” SIAM J. Appl. Math. 11, 431–441 (1963).

[Crossref]

P. W. Anderson, “Absence of diffusion in certain random lattices,” Phys. Rev. 109, 1492–1505 (1958).

[Crossref]

K. Levenberg, “A method for the solution of certain problems in least squares,” Q. Appl. Math. 2, 164–168 (1944).

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, R. Maynard, G. Maret, “Theoretical study of the coherent backscattering of light by disordered media,” J. Phys. (France) 49, 77–98 (1988).

[Crossref]

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, R. Maynard, “Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media; analysis of the peak line shape,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 56, 1471–1474 (1986).

[Crossref]

S. Etemad, R. Thompson, M. J. Anderjco, “Weak localization of photons: universal fluctuations and ensemble averaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 575–578 (1986).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

P. W. Anderson, “Absence of diffusion in certain random lattices,” Phys. Rev. 109, 1492–1505 (1958).

[Crossref]

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Dover, New York, 1960).

T. Gehrels, T. Coffeen, D. Owings, “Wavelength dependence of polarization III. The lunar surface,” Astron. J. 69, 826–852 (969).

W. Egan, T. Hilgeman, Optical Properties of Inhomogeneous Materials (Academic, New York, 1979), Chap. 7.

S. Etemad, R. Thompson, M. J. Anderjco, “Weak localization of photons: universal fluctuations and ensemble averaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 575–578 (1986).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

B C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, S. T. Flock, “Indirect versus direct techniques for the measurement of the optical properties of tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 46, 601–608 (1987).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

T. Gehrels, T. Coffeen, D. Owings, “Wavelength dependence of polarization III. The lunar surface,” Astron. J. 69, 826–852 (969).

W. Egan, T. Hilgeman, Optical Properties of Inhomogeneous Materials (Academic, New York, 1979), Chap. 7.

M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “Light distributions in artery tissue: Monte Carlo simulations for finite-diameter laser beams,” Laser Surg. Med. 9, 148–154 (1989).

[Crossref]

S. John, “Localization of light,” Phys. Today 44(5), 32–40 (1991).

[Crossref]

M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “Light distributions in artery tissue: Monte Carlo simulations for finite-diameter laser beams,” Laser Surg. Med. 9, 148–154 (1989).

[Crossref]

Y. A. Kravtsov, A. I. Saichev, “Effects of double passage of waves in randomly inhomogeneous media,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 25, 494–508 (1982).

[Crossref]

M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Mark, Ad Lagendijk, “Observation of weak localization of light in a finite slab,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 58, 361–364 (1987).

[Crossref]

K. Levenberg, “A method for the solution of certain problems in least squares,” Q. Appl. Math. 2, 164–168 (1944).

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, R. Maynard, G. Maret, “Theoretical study of the coherent backscattering of light by disordered media,” J. Phys. (France) 49, 77–98 (1988).

[Crossref]

P. E. Wolf, G. Maret, “Weak localization and coherent backscattering of photons in disordered media,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 55, 2696–2699 (1985).

[Crossref]

D. Marquardt, “An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters,” SIAM J. Appl. Math. 11, 431–441 (1963).

[Crossref]

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, R. Maynard, G. Maret, “Theoretical study of the coherent backscattering of light by disordered media,” J. Phys. (France) 49, 77–98 (1988).

[Crossref]

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, R. Maynard, “Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media; analysis of the peak line shape,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 56, 1471–1474 (1986).

[Crossref]

T. Gehrels, T. Coffeen, D. Owings, “Wavelength dependence of polarization III. The lunar surface,” Astron. J. 69, 826–852 (969).

B C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, S. T. Flock, “Indirect versus direct techniques for the measurement of the optical properties of tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 46, 601–608 (1987).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “Light distributions in artery tissue: Monte Carlo simulations for finite-diameter laser beams,” Laser Surg. Med. 9, 148–154 (1989).

[Crossref]

G. Yoon, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “Accuracies of the diffusion approximation and its similarity relations for laser irradiated biological media,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2250–2255 (1989).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

S. A. Prahl, “Light transport in tissue,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Tex., December1988).

Y. A. Kravtsov, A. I. Saichev, “Effects of double passage of waves in randomly inhomogeneous media,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 25, 494–508 (1982).

[Crossref]

S. Etemad, R. Thompson, M. J. Anderjco, “Weak localization of photons: universal fluctuations and ensemble averaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 575–578 (1986).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Mark, Ad Lagendijk, “Observation of weak localization of light in a finite slab,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 58, 361–364 (1987).

[Crossref]

M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Mark, Ad Lagendijk, “Observation of weak localization of light in a finite slab,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 58, 361–364 (1987).

[Crossref]

M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “Light distributions in artery tissue: Monte Carlo simulations for finite-diameter laser beams,” Laser Surg. Med. 9, 148–154 (1989).

[Crossref]

G. Yoon, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “Accuracies of the diffusion approximation and its similarity relations for laser irradiated biological media,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2250–2255 (1989).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

M. Motamedi, S. Rastegar, G. LeCarpentier, A. J. Welch, “Light and temperature distribution in laser irradiated tissue: the influence of anisotropic scattering and refractice index,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2230–2237 (1989).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

G. Yoon, A. J. Welch, “Determination of optical properties for laser-irradiated tissue,” in Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Conference of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1987), pp. 1446–1447.

B C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, S. T. Flock, “Indirect versus direct techniques for the measurement of the optical properties of tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 46, 601–608 (1987).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, R. Maynard, G. Maret, “Theoretical study of the coherent backscattering of light by disordered media,” J. Phys. (France) 49, 77–98 (1988).

[Crossref]

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, R. Maynard, “Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media; analysis of the peak line shape,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 56, 1471–1474 (1986).

[Crossref]

P. E. Wolf, G. Maret, “Weak localization and coherent backscattering of photons in disordered media,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 55, 2696–2699 (1985).

[Crossref]

G. Yoon, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “Accuracies of the diffusion approximation and its similarity relations for laser irradiated biological media,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2250–2255 (1989).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

G. Yoon, A. J. Welch, “Determination of optical properties for laser-irradiated tissue,” in Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Conference of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1987), pp. 1446–1447.

G. Yoon, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “Accuracies of the diffusion approximation and its similarity relations for laser irradiated biological media,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2250–2255 (1989).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

M. Motamedi, S. Rastegar, G. LeCarpentier, A. J. Welch, “Light and temperature distribution in laser irradiated tissue: the influence of anisotropic scattering and refractice index,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2230–2237 (1989).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

K. M. Yoo, G. C. Tang, R. R. Alfano, “Coherent backscattering of light from biological tissues,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3237–3239 (1990).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

T. Gehrels, T. Coffeen, D. Owings, “Wavelength dependence of polarization III. The lunar surface,” Astron. J. 69, 826–852 (969).

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, R. Maynard, G. Maret, “Theoretical study of the coherent backscattering of light by disordered media,” J. Phys. (France) 49, 77–98 (1988).

[Crossref]

M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “Light distributions in artery tissue: Monte Carlo simulations for finite-diameter laser beams,” Laser Surg. Med. 9, 148–154 (1989).

[Crossref]

B C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, S. T. Flock, “Indirect versus direct techniques for the measurement of the optical properties of tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 46, 601–608 (1987).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

P. E. Wolf, G. Maret, “Weak localization and coherent backscattering of photons in disordered media,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 55, 2696–2699 (1985).

[Crossref]

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, R. Maynard, “Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media; analysis of the peak line shape,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 56, 1471–1474 (1986).

[Crossref]

M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Mark, Ad Lagendijk, “Observation of weak localization of light in a finite slab,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 58, 361–364 (1987).

[Crossref]

P. W. Anderson, “Absence of diffusion in certain random lattices,” Phys. Rev. 109, 1492–1505 (1958).

[Crossref]

S. Etemad, R. Thompson, M. J. Anderjco, “Weak localization of photons: universal fluctuations and ensemble averaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 575–578 (1986).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

S. John, “Localization of light,” Phys. Today 44(5), 32–40 (1991).

[Crossref]

K. Levenberg, “A method for the solution of certain problems in least squares,” Q. Appl. Math. 2, 164–168 (1944).

D. Marquardt, “An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters,” SIAM J. Appl. Math. 11, 431–441 (1963).

[Crossref]

Y. A. Kravtsov, A. I. Saichev, “Effects of double passage of waves in randomly inhomogeneous media,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 25, 494–508 (1982).

[Crossref]

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Dover, New York, 1960).

The fluence rate represents the total light energy at a particular position r in the medium. Multiple scattering generates the light of all solid-angle components, which is usually represented by radiance L(r, ŝ), where ŝ is the directional unit vector. Thus the fluence rate is ∫L(r, ŝ)dω. The integral is done over the solid angle ω.

W. Egan, T. Hilgeman, Optical Properties of Inhomogeneous Materials (Academic, New York, 1979), Chap. 7.

G. Yoon, A. J. Welch, “Determination of optical properties for laser-irradiated tissue,” in Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Conference of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1987), pp. 1446–1447.

S. A. Prahl, “Light transport in tissue,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Tex., December1988).