Abstract

The optical density of breast tissues without blood is found to be relatively constant from 320 to 800 nm, indicating a relatively independent scattering cross section over this wavelength region.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Special issue on tissue optics, Appl. Opt. 28(12) (1989).
    [PubMed]
  2. R. R. Alfano, B. B. Das, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, E. Celmer, “Light sheds light on cancer—distinguishing malignant tumors from benign tissues and tumors,” Bull. NY Acad. Med. 67, 143–150 (1991).
  3. B. B. Das, W. S. Glassman, R. R. Alfano, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, E. Celmer, S. Lubicz, “UV fluorescence spectroscopic technique in the diagnosis of breast, ovarian, uterus, and cervix cancer,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction II, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1427, 368–373 (1991).
  4. A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978).
  5. L. T. Threadgold, The Ultrastructure of the Animal Cell (Pergamon, New York, 1976).
  6. R. R. Alfano, D. Tata, J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, F. Longo, M. A. Alfano, “Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy from native cancerous and normal tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507–1511 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Lam, D. S. Choy, E. Opher, “Fluorescence spectra from cancerous and normal human breast and lung tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1806–1811 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. E. Petras, R. R. Kortrum, L. Tong, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Feld, M. Sivak, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of colonic adenomas: implications for an endoscopic laser diagnostic system,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 35, 181–182 (1989).
  9. L. I. Deckelbaum, J. K. Lam, H. S. Cabin, K. S. Clubb, M. B. Long, “Discrimination of normal and atherosclerotic aorta by laser induced fluorescence,” Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 330–335 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. S. Anderson, A. Gustafson, U. Stenram, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “Diagnosis of arterial atherosclerosis using laser induced fluorescence,” Lasers Med. Sci. 2, 261–266 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

1991

R. R. Alfano, B. B. Das, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, E. Celmer, “Light sheds light on cancer—distinguishing malignant tumors from benign tissues and tumors,” Bull. NY Acad. Med. 67, 143–150 (1991).

1989

Special issue on tissue optics, Appl. Opt. 28(12) (1989).
[PubMed]

R. E. Petras, R. R. Kortrum, L. Tong, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Feld, M. Sivak, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of colonic adenomas: implications for an endoscopic laser diagnostic system,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 35, 181–182 (1989).

1987

L. I. Deckelbaum, J. K. Lam, H. S. Cabin, K. S. Clubb, M. B. Long, “Discrimination of normal and atherosclerotic aorta by laser induced fluorescence,” Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 330–335 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Anderson, A. Gustafson, U. Stenram, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “Diagnosis of arterial atherosclerosis using laser induced fluorescence,” Lasers Med. Sci. 2, 261–266 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Lam, D. S. Choy, E. Opher, “Fluorescence spectra from cancerous and normal human breast and lung tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1806–1811 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984

R. R. Alfano, D. Tata, J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, F. Longo, M. A. Alfano, “Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy from native cancerous and normal tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507–1511 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, M. A.

R. R. Alfano, D. Tata, J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, F. Longo, M. A. Alfano, “Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy from native cancerous and normal tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507–1511 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

R. R. Alfano, B. B. Das, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, E. Celmer, “Light sheds light on cancer—distinguishing malignant tumors from benign tissues and tumors,” Bull. NY Acad. Med. 67, 143–150 (1991).

R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Lam, D. S. Choy, E. Opher, “Fluorescence spectra from cancerous and normal human breast and lung tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1806–1811 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano, D. Tata, J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, F. Longo, M. A. Alfano, “Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy from native cancerous and normal tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507–1511 (1984).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Das, W. S. Glassman, R. R. Alfano, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, E. Celmer, S. Lubicz, “UV fluorescence spectroscopic technique in the diagnosis of breast, ovarian, uterus, and cervix cancer,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction II, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1427, 368–373 (1991).

Anderson, P. S.

P. S. Anderson, A. Gustafson, U. Stenram, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “Diagnosis of arterial atherosclerosis using laser induced fluorescence,” Lasers Med. Sci. 2, 261–266 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cabin, H. S.

L. I. Deckelbaum, J. K. Lam, H. S. Cabin, K. S. Clubb, M. B. Long, “Discrimination of normal and atherosclerotic aorta by laser induced fluorescence,” Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 330–335 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Celmer, E.

R. R. Alfano, B. B. Das, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, E. Celmer, “Light sheds light on cancer—distinguishing malignant tumors from benign tissues and tumors,” Bull. NY Acad. Med. 67, 143–150 (1991).

B. B. Das, W. S. Glassman, R. R. Alfano, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, E. Celmer, S. Lubicz, “UV fluorescence spectroscopic technique in the diagnosis of breast, ovarian, uterus, and cervix cancer,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction II, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1427, 368–373 (1991).

Choy, D. S.

R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Lam, D. S. Choy, E. Opher, “Fluorescence spectra from cancerous and normal human breast and lung tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1806–1811 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cleary, J.

R. R. Alfano, B. B. Das, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, E. Celmer, “Light sheds light on cancer—distinguishing malignant tumors from benign tissues and tumors,” Bull. NY Acad. Med. 67, 143–150 (1991).

B. B. Das, W. S. Glassman, R. R. Alfano, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, E. Celmer, S. Lubicz, “UV fluorescence spectroscopic technique in the diagnosis of breast, ovarian, uterus, and cervix cancer,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction II, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1427, 368–373 (1991).

Clubb, K. S.

L. I. Deckelbaum, J. K. Lam, H. S. Cabin, K. S. Clubb, M. B. Long, “Discrimination of normal and atherosclerotic aorta by laser induced fluorescence,” Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 330–335 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cordero, J.

R. R. Alfano, D. Tata, J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, F. Longo, M. A. Alfano, “Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy from native cancerous and normal tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507–1511 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Das, B. B.

R. R. Alfano, B. B. Das, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, E. Celmer, “Light sheds light on cancer—distinguishing malignant tumors from benign tissues and tumors,” Bull. NY Acad. Med. 67, 143–150 (1991).

B. B. Das, W. S. Glassman, R. R. Alfano, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, E. Celmer, S. Lubicz, “UV fluorescence spectroscopic technique in the diagnosis of breast, ovarian, uterus, and cervix cancer,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction II, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1427, 368–373 (1991).

Deckelbaum, L. I.

L. I. Deckelbaum, J. K. Lam, H. S. Cabin, K. S. Clubb, M. B. Long, “Discrimination of normal and atherosclerotic aorta by laser induced fluorescence,” Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 330–335 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M.

R. E. Petras, R. R. Kortrum, L. Tong, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Feld, M. Sivak, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of colonic adenomas: implications for an endoscopic laser diagnostic system,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 35, 181–182 (1989).

Fitzmaurice, M.

R. E. Petras, R. R. Kortrum, L. Tong, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Feld, M. Sivak, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of colonic adenomas: implications for an endoscopic laser diagnostic system,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 35, 181–182 (1989).

Glassman, W. S.

B. B. Das, W. S. Glassman, R. R. Alfano, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, E. Celmer, S. Lubicz, “UV fluorescence spectroscopic technique in the diagnosis of breast, ovarian, uterus, and cervix cancer,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction II, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1427, 368–373 (1991).

Gustafson, A.

P. S. Anderson, A. Gustafson, U. Stenram, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “Diagnosis of arterial atherosclerosis using laser induced fluorescence,” Lasers Med. Sci. 2, 261–266 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ishimaru, A.

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978).

Kortrum, R. R.

R. E. Petras, R. R. Kortrum, L. Tong, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Feld, M. Sivak, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of colonic adenomas: implications for an endoscopic laser diagnostic system,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 35, 181–182 (1989).

Lam, J. K.

L. I. Deckelbaum, J. K. Lam, H. S. Cabin, K. S. Clubb, M. B. Long, “Discrimination of normal and atherosclerotic aorta by laser induced fluorescence,” Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 330–335 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lam, W.

R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Lam, D. S. Choy, E. Opher, “Fluorescence spectra from cancerous and normal human breast and lung tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1806–1811 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Long, M. B.

L. I. Deckelbaum, J. K. Lam, H. S. Cabin, K. S. Clubb, M. B. Long, “Discrimination of normal and atherosclerotic aorta by laser induced fluorescence,” Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 330–335 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Longo, F.

R. R. Alfano, D. Tata, J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, F. Longo, M. A. Alfano, “Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy from native cancerous and normal tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507–1511 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lubicz, S.

B. B. Das, W. S. Glassman, R. R. Alfano, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, E. Celmer, S. Lubicz, “UV fluorescence spectroscopic technique in the diagnosis of breast, ovarian, uterus, and cervix cancer,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction II, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1427, 368–373 (1991).

Opher, E.

R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Lam, D. S. Choy, E. Opher, “Fluorescence spectra from cancerous and normal human breast and lung tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1806–1811 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Petras, R. E.

R. E. Petras, R. R. Kortrum, L. Tong, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Feld, M. Sivak, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of colonic adenomas: implications for an endoscopic laser diagnostic system,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 35, 181–182 (1989).

Pradhan, A.

R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Lam, D. S. Choy, E. Opher, “Fluorescence spectra from cancerous and normal human breast and lung tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1806–1811 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Prudente, R.

R. R. Alfano, B. B. Das, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, E. Celmer, “Light sheds light on cancer—distinguishing malignant tumors from benign tissues and tumors,” Bull. NY Acad. Med. 67, 143–150 (1991).

B. B. Das, W. S. Glassman, R. R. Alfano, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, E. Celmer, S. Lubicz, “UV fluorescence spectroscopic technique in the diagnosis of breast, ovarian, uterus, and cervix cancer,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction II, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1427, 368–373 (1991).

Sivak, M.

R. E. Petras, R. R. Kortrum, L. Tong, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Feld, M. Sivak, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of colonic adenomas: implications for an endoscopic laser diagnostic system,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 35, 181–182 (1989).

Stenram, U.

P. S. Anderson, A. Gustafson, U. Stenram, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “Diagnosis of arterial atherosclerosis using laser induced fluorescence,” Lasers Med. Sci. 2, 261–266 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, K.

P. S. Anderson, A. Gustafson, U. Stenram, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “Diagnosis of arterial atherosclerosis using laser induced fluorescence,” Lasers Med. Sci. 2, 261–266 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, S.

P. S. Anderson, A. Gustafson, U. Stenram, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “Diagnosis of arterial atherosclerosis using laser induced fluorescence,” Lasers Med. Sci. 2, 261–266 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tang, G. C.

R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Lam, D. S. Choy, E. Opher, “Fluorescence spectra from cancerous and normal human breast and lung tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1806–1811 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tata, D.

R. R. Alfano, D. Tata, J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, F. Longo, M. A. Alfano, “Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy from native cancerous and normal tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507–1511 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Threadgold, L. T.

L. T. Threadgold, The Ultrastructure of the Animal Cell (Pergamon, New York, 1976).

Tomashefsky, P.

R. R. Alfano, D. Tata, J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, F. Longo, M. A. Alfano, “Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy from native cancerous and normal tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507–1511 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tong, L.

R. E. Petras, R. R. Kortrum, L. Tong, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Feld, M. Sivak, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of colonic adenomas: implications for an endoscopic laser diagnostic system,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 35, 181–182 (1989).

Appl. Opt.

Special issue on tissue optics, Appl. Opt. 28(12) (1989).
[PubMed]

Bull. NY Acad. Med.

R. R. Alfano, B. B. Das, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, E. Celmer, “Light sheds light on cancer—distinguishing malignant tumors from benign tissues and tumors,” Bull. NY Acad. Med. 67, 143–150 (1991).

Gastrointest. Endosc.

R. E. Petras, R. R. Kortrum, L. Tong, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Feld, M. Sivak, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of colonic adenomas: implications for an endoscopic laser diagnostic system,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 35, 181–182 (1989).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. R. Alfano, D. Tata, J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, F. Longo, M. A. Alfano, “Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy from native cancerous and normal tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507–1511 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Lam, D. S. Choy, E. Opher, “Fluorescence spectra from cancerous and normal human breast and lung tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1806–1811 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Med. Sci.

P. S. Anderson, A. Gustafson, U. Stenram, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “Diagnosis of arterial atherosclerosis using laser induced fluorescence,” Lasers Med. Sci. 2, 261–266 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med.

L. I. Deckelbaum, J. K. Lam, H. S. Cabin, K. S. Clubb, M. B. Long, “Discrimination of normal and atherosclerotic aorta by laser induced fluorescence,” Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 330–335 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

B. B. Das, W. S. Glassman, R. R. Alfano, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, E. Celmer, S. Lubicz, “UV fluorescence spectroscopic technique in the diagnosis of breast, ovarian, uterus, and cervix cancer,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction II, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1427, 368–373 (1991).

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978).

L. T. Threadgold, The Ultrastructure of the Animal Cell (Pergamon, New York, 1976).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical-density spectra for latex-bead suspension in water for different bead diameters: (a) 11 μm, (b) 2.9 μm, (c) 0.46 μm, and (d) 0.09 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Optical-density spectra for three thin breast-tissue sections. Curves 1 and 2 are for malignant samples, and curve 3 is for a benign sample. (b) Optical-density curves for a malignant breast-tissue sample with blood. Spectrum 1 (spectrum 2) is before (after) blood has been extracted from the sample. Spectrum 1 shows the absorption peaks of blood.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scattering coefficient versus wavelength for different latex-bead suspensions in water computed by using Mie theory: bead diameter d = (a) 11 μm, (b) 2.9 μm, (c) 0.46 μm, and (d) 0.09 μm.

Equations (2)

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I = I 0 exp { [ ( Σ a + Σ s ) z ] } ,
OD = log ( I 0 / I ) .

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