Abstract

The adjacent thermal and mechanical tissue damage after normal-mode Ho:YAG (pulse length = 250 μs, λ = 2.09 μm), Q-switched Ho:YAG (pulse length = 200 ns, λ = 2.09 μm), and excimer (pulse length = 120 ns, λ = 308 nm) pulsed laser irradiation of human thoracic aorta samples was studied in υitro. Surface temperatures were monitored during laser irradiation with an IR camera in air or a thermocouple in saline. Histological analysis of the irradiated sites was performed to assess thermal and mechanical damage to tissue surrounding the crater. The ablation of aortic tissue with any of the lasers resulted in a temperature buildup inside the tissue; this effect was most significant for the IR wavelength. Mechanical damage was observed in all cases but was most pronounced for the Q-switched Ho:YAG laser. Excimer ablation in air left behind a smooth surface; however, under saline the result was a much rougher surface.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Litvack, N. L. Eigler, J. R. Margolis, W. S. Grundfest, D. Rothbaum, T. Linnemeier, L. B. Hestrin, D. Tsoi, S. L. Cook, D. Krauthamer, “Percutaneous excimer laser coronary angioplasty,” Am. J. Cardiol. 66, 1027–1032 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. R. Karsch, K. K. Haase, W. Voelker, A. Baumbach, M. Mauser, L. Seipel, “Percutaneous coronary excimer laser angioplasty in patients with stable and unstable angina pectoris. Acute results and incidence of restenosis during 6-month followup,” Circulation 81, 1849–1859 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. J. Geschwind, J. L. Dubois Rande, D. Murphy-Chutorian, T. Tomaru, R. Zelinsky, D. Loisance, “Percutaneous coronary angioplasty with mid-infrared laser and a new multi-fiber catheter,” Lancet 336, 245–246 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. M. Cotliar, H. D. Schubert, E. R. Mandel, S. L. Trokel, “Excimer laser radial keratotomy,” Opthalmology 92, 206–208 (1985).
  5. J. S. Marshall, S. L. Trokel, S. Rothery, H. D. Schubert, “An ultrastructural study of corneal incisions induced by an excimer laser at 193 nm,” Opthalmology 92, 749–758 (1985).
  6. U. Keller, R. Hibst, “Experimental studies of the application of the Er:YAG laser on dental hard substances: II. Light microscopic and SEM investigations,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 345–351 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Hofmann, R. Hartung, “Use of pulsed Nd:YAG laser in the ureter,” Urol. Clin. North Am. 15, 369–375 (1988).
    [PubMed]
  8. M. Meller, J. Black, H. Sherk, “Wavelength selection in laser arthroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. Suppl. 3, 50 (1991).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. J. White, S. R. Ramee, T. J. Collins, J. E. Mesa, D. B. Paulsen, J. P. Murgo, “Recanalization of arterial occlusions with a lensed fiber and a holmium:YAG laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 250–256 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. J. Welch, M. Motamedi, S. Rastegar, G. L. LeCarpentier, D. Jansen, “Laser thermal ablation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 815–823 (1991).
    [PubMed]
  12. T. A. Sanborn, S. R. Torre, S. K. Sharma, R. A. Hershman, M. Cohen, W. Sherman, J. A. Ambrose, “Percutaneous coronary excimer laser-assisted balloon angioplasty: initial clinical and quantitative angiographic results in 50 patients,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 17, 94–99 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. S. Feld, J. R. Kramer, “Mutagenicity and the XeCl excimer laser: a relationship of consequence?”Am. Heart J. 122, 1803–1805 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. A. Izatt, D. Albagli, M. Britton, J. M. Jubas, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, “Wavelength dependence of pulsed laser ablation of calcified tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 238–249 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. G. van Leeuwen, M. J. van der Veen, R. M. Verdaasdonk, C. Borst, “Noncontact tissue ablation by holmium: YSGG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 26–34 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
  19. F. C. Henriques, A. R. Moritz, “Studies in thermal injury I. The conduction of heat to and through skin and the temperature attained therein. A theoretical and experimental investigation,” Am. J. Pathol. 23, 531–549 (1947).
  20. J. M. Khosrofian, B. A. Garetz, “Measurement of a Gaussian laser beam diameter through the direct inversion of knife-edge data,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3406–3410 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. J. Geschwind, J. Kvasnicka, F. Nakamura, R. Zelinsky, R. J. L. Dubois-Rande, “Infrared laser coronary angioplasty: initial results,” MedTech 2, 9 (1991).
  22. J. H. Torres, T. A. Springer, A. J. Welch, J. A. Pearce, “Limitations of a thermal camera in measuring temperature of laser-irradiated tissues,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 510–523 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. M. Verdaasdonk, E. D. Jansen, F. C. Holstege, C. Borst, “Temperature along the surface of modified fiber tips for Nd:YAG laser angioplasty,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 213–222 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. A. Izatt, D. Albalgli, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, “Pulsed laser ablation of calcified tissue: physical mechanisms and fundamental parameters,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1202, 133–140 (1990).
  25. S. Thomsen, “Pathologic analysis of photothermal and photomechanical effects of laser-tissue interactions,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 825–835 (1991).
    [PubMed]
  26. G. H. Gijsbers, R. L. Sprangers, D. G. van den Broecke, N. van Wieringe, M. J. Brugmans, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Temperature increase during inυitro 308 nm excimer laser ablation of porcine aortic tissue,” in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Cardiovascular Interventions, G. S. Abela, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1425 (to be published).
  27. F. P. Incropera, D. P. deWitt, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer (Wiley, New York, 1990), App.
  28. P. E. Dyer, R. K. Al-Dhahir, “Transient photoacoustic studies of laser tissue ablation,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1202, 46–60 (1990).
  29. T. J. Flotte, Y. Yashima, S. Watanabe, D. J. McAuliffe, S. L. Jacques, “Morphological studies of laser-induced photo-acoustic damage,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1202, 71–77 (1990).

1992 (1)

T. G. van Leeuwen, L. van Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. Motamedi, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Origin of arterial wall dissections induced by pulsed excimer and mid-infrared laser ablation in the pig,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 19, 1610–1618 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (11)

J. A. Izatt, D. Albagli, M. Britton, J. M. Jubas, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, “Wavelength dependence of pulsed laser ablation of calcified tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 238–249 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. van Leeuwen, M. J. van der Veen, R. M. Verdaasdonk, C. Borst, “Noncontact tissue ablation by holmium: YSGG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 26–34 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. White, S. R. Ramee, T. J. Collins, J. E. Mesa, D. B. Paulsen, J. P. Murgo, “Recanalization of arterial occlusions with a lensed fiber and a holmium:YAG laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 250–256 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Welch, M. Motamedi, S. Rastegar, G. L. LeCarpentier, D. Jansen, “Laser thermal ablation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 815–823 (1991).
[PubMed]

T. A. Sanborn, S. R. Torre, S. K. Sharma, R. A. Hershman, M. Cohen, W. Sherman, J. A. Ambrose, “Percutaneous coronary excimer laser-assisted balloon angioplasty: initial clinical and quantitative angiographic results in 50 patients,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 17, 94–99 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Feld, J. R. Kramer, “Mutagenicity and the XeCl excimer laser: a relationship of consequence?”Am. Heart J. 122, 1803–1805 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lubatschowski, C. Otten, K. Schmiedt, “Laser induced secondary radiation in 193 nm excimer laser photo ablation of corneal, dental, and dermal tissues,” Lasers Surg. Med. Suppl. 3, 9 (1991).

M. Meller, J. Black, H. Sherk, “Wavelength selection in laser arthroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. Suppl. 3, 50 (1991).

H. J. Geschwind, J. Kvasnicka, F. Nakamura, R. Zelinsky, R. J. L. Dubois-Rande, “Infrared laser coronary angioplasty: initial results,” MedTech 2, 9 (1991).

R. M. Verdaasdonk, E. D. Jansen, F. C. Holstege, C. Borst, “Temperature along the surface of modified fiber tips for Nd:YAG laser angioplasty,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 213–222 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Thomsen, “Pathologic analysis of photothermal and photomechanical effects of laser-tissue interactions,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 825–835 (1991).
[PubMed]

1990 (4)

J. H. Torres, T. A. Springer, A. J. Welch, J. A. Pearce, “Limitations of a thermal camera in measuring temperature of laser-irradiated tissues,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 510–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Litvack, N. L. Eigler, J. R. Margolis, W. S. Grundfest, D. Rothbaum, T. Linnemeier, L. B. Hestrin, D. Tsoi, S. L. Cook, D. Krauthamer, “Percutaneous excimer laser coronary angioplasty,” Am. J. Cardiol. 66, 1027–1032 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Karsch, K. K. Haase, W. Voelker, A. Baumbach, M. Mauser, L. Seipel, “Percutaneous coronary excimer laser angioplasty in patients with stable and unstable angina pectoris. Acute results and incidence of restenosis during 6-month followup,” Circulation 81, 1849–1859 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Geschwind, J. L. Dubois Rande, D. Murphy-Chutorian, T. Tomaru, R. Zelinsky, D. Loisance, “Percutaneous coronary angioplasty with mid-infrared laser and a new multi-fiber catheter,” Lancet 336, 245–246 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

U. Keller, R. Hibst, “Experimental studies of the application of the Er:YAG laser on dental hard substances: II. Light microscopic and SEM investigations,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 345–351 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

R. Hofmann, R. Hartung, “Use of pulsed Nd:YAG laser in the ureter,” Urol. Clin. North Am. 15, 369–375 (1988).
[PubMed]

1985 (3)

W. S. Grundfest, F. Litvack, J. S. Forrester, T. Goldenberg, H. J. Swan, L. Morgenstern, M. Fishbein, I. S. McDermid, D. M. Rider, T. J. Pacala, “Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 5, 929–933 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Cotliar, H. D. Schubert, E. R. Mandel, S. L. Trokel, “Excimer laser radial keratotomy,” Opthalmology 92, 206–208 (1985).

J. S. Marshall, S. L. Trokel, S. Rothery, H. D. Schubert, “An ultrastructural study of corneal incisions induced by an excimer laser at 193 nm,” Opthalmology 92, 749–758 (1985).

1983 (1)

1947 (2)

A. R. Moritz, F. C. Henriques, “Studies in thermal injury II. The relative importance of time and surface temperature in the causation of cutaneous burns,” Am. J. Pathol. 23, 695–720 (1947).
[PubMed]

F. C. Henriques, A. R. Moritz, “Studies in thermal injury I. The conduction of heat to and through skin and the temperature attained therein. A theoretical and experimental investigation,” Am. J. Pathol. 23, 531–549 (1947).

Albagli, D.

J. A. Izatt, D. Albagli, M. Britton, J. M. Jubas, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, “Wavelength dependence of pulsed laser ablation of calcified tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 238–249 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albalgli, D.

J. A. Izatt, D. Albalgli, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, “Pulsed laser ablation of calcified tissue: physical mechanisms and fundamental parameters,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1202, 133–140 (1990).

Al-Dhahir, R. K.

P. E. Dyer, R. K. Al-Dhahir, “Transient photoacoustic studies of laser tissue ablation,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1202, 46–60 (1990).

Ambrose, J. A.

T. A. Sanborn, S. R. Torre, S. K. Sharma, R. A. Hershman, M. Cohen, W. Sherman, J. A. Ambrose, “Percutaneous coronary excimer laser-assisted balloon angioplasty: initial clinical and quantitative angiographic results in 50 patients,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 17, 94–99 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumbach, A.

K. R. Karsch, K. K. Haase, W. Voelker, A. Baumbach, M. Mauser, L. Seipel, “Percutaneous coronary excimer laser angioplasty in patients with stable and unstable angina pectoris. Acute results and incidence of restenosis during 6-month followup,” Circulation 81, 1849–1859 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Black, J.

M. Meller, J. Black, H. Sherk, “Wavelength selection in laser arthroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. Suppl. 3, 50 (1991).

Borst, C.

T. G. van Leeuwen, L. van Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. Motamedi, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Origin of arterial wall dissections induced by pulsed excimer and mid-infrared laser ablation in the pig,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 19, 1610–1618 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Verdaasdonk, E. D. Jansen, F. C. Holstege, C. Borst, “Temperature along the surface of modified fiber tips for Nd:YAG laser angioplasty,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 213–222 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. van Leeuwen, M. J. van der Veen, R. M. Verdaasdonk, C. Borst, “Noncontact tissue ablation by holmium: YSGG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 26–34 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Britton, M.

J. A. Izatt, D. Albagli, M. Britton, J. M. Jubas, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, “Wavelength dependence of pulsed laser ablation of calcified tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 238–249 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brugmans, M. J.

G. H. Gijsbers, R. L. Sprangers, D. G. van den Broecke, N. van Wieringe, M. J. Brugmans, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Temperature increase during inυitro 308 nm excimer laser ablation of porcine aortic tissue,” in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Cardiovascular Interventions, G. S. Abela, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1425 (to be published).

Cohen, M.

T. A. Sanborn, S. R. Torre, S. K. Sharma, R. A. Hershman, M. Cohen, W. Sherman, J. A. Ambrose, “Percutaneous coronary excimer laser-assisted balloon angioplasty: initial clinical and quantitative angiographic results in 50 patients,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 17, 94–99 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collins, T. J.

C. J. White, S. R. Ramee, T. J. Collins, J. E. Mesa, D. B. Paulsen, J. P. Murgo, “Recanalization of arterial occlusions with a lensed fiber and a holmium:YAG laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 250–256 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cook, S. L.

F. Litvack, N. L. Eigler, J. R. Margolis, W. S. Grundfest, D. Rothbaum, T. Linnemeier, L. B. Hestrin, D. Tsoi, S. L. Cook, D. Krauthamer, “Percutaneous excimer laser coronary angioplasty,” Am. J. Cardiol. 66, 1027–1032 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cotliar, A. M.

A. M. Cotliar, H. D. Schubert, E. R. Mandel, S. L. Trokel, “Excimer laser radial keratotomy,” Opthalmology 92, 206–208 (1985).

deWitt, D. P.

F. P. Incropera, D. P. deWitt, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer (Wiley, New York, 1990), App.

Dubois Rande, J. L.

H. J. Geschwind, J. L. Dubois Rande, D. Murphy-Chutorian, T. Tomaru, R. Zelinsky, D. Loisance, “Percutaneous coronary angioplasty with mid-infrared laser and a new multi-fiber catheter,” Lancet 336, 245–246 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubois-Rande, R. J. L.

H. J. Geschwind, J. Kvasnicka, F. Nakamura, R. Zelinsky, R. J. L. Dubois-Rande, “Infrared laser coronary angioplasty: initial results,” MedTech 2, 9 (1991).

Dyer, P. E.

P. E. Dyer, R. K. Al-Dhahir, “Transient photoacoustic studies of laser tissue ablation,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1202, 46–60 (1990).

Eigler, N. L.

F. Litvack, N. L. Eigler, J. R. Margolis, W. S. Grundfest, D. Rothbaum, T. Linnemeier, L. B. Hestrin, D. Tsoi, S. L. Cook, D. Krauthamer, “Percutaneous excimer laser coronary angioplasty,” Am. J. Cardiol. 66, 1027–1032 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

M. S. Feld, J. R. Kramer, “Mutagenicity and the XeCl excimer laser: a relationship of consequence?”Am. Heart J. 122, 1803–1805 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, D. Albagli, M. Britton, J. M. Jubas, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, “Wavelength dependence of pulsed laser ablation of calcified tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 238–249 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, D. Albalgli, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, “Pulsed laser ablation of calcified tissue: physical mechanisms and fundamental parameters,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1202, 133–140 (1990).

Fishbein, M.

W. S. Grundfest, F. Litvack, J. S. Forrester, T. Goldenberg, H. J. Swan, L. Morgenstern, M. Fishbein, I. S. McDermid, D. M. Rider, T. J. Pacala, “Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 5, 929–933 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T. J.

T. J. Flotte, Y. Yashima, S. Watanabe, D. J. McAuliffe, S. L. Jacques, “Morphological studies of laser-induced photo-acoustic damage,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1202, 71–77 (1990).

Forrester, J. S.

W. S. Grundfest, F. Litvack, J. S. Forrester, T. Goldenberg, H. J. Swan, L. Morgenstern, M. Fishbein, I. S. McDermid, D. M. Rider, T. J. Pacala, “Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 5, 929–933 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garetz, B. A.

Geschwind, H. J.

H. J. Geschwind, J. Kvasnicka, F. Nakamura, R. Zelinsky, R. J. L. Dubois-Rande, “Infrared laser coronary angioplasty: initial results,” MedTech 2, 9 (1991).

H. J. Geschwind, J. L. Dubois Rande, D. Murphy-Chutorian, T. Tomaru, R. Zelinsky, D. Loisance, “Percutaneous coronary angioplasty with mid-infrared laser and a new multi-fiber catheter,” Lancet 336, 245–246 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gijsbers, G. H.

G. H. Gijsbers, R. L. Sprangers, D. G. van den Broecke, N. van Wieringe, M. J. Brugmans, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Temperature increase during inυitro 308 nm excimer laser ablation of porcine aortic tissue,” in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Cardiovascular Interventions, G. S. Abela, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1425 (to be published).

Goldenberg, T.

W. S. Grundfest, F. Litvack, J. S. Forrester, T. Goldenberg, H. J. Swan, L. Morgenstern, M. Fishbein, I. S. McDermid, D. M. Rider, T. J. Pacala, “Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 5, 929–933 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grundfest, W. S.

F. Litvack, N. L. Eigler, J. R. Margolis, W. S. Grundfest, D. Rothbaum, T. Linnemeier, L. B. Hestrin, D. Tsoi, S. L. Cook, D. Krauthamer, “Percutaneous excimer laser coronary angioplasty,” Am. J. Cardiol. 66, 1027–1032 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Grundfest, F. Litvack, J. S. Forrester, T. Goldenberg, H. J. Swan, L. Morgenstern, M. Fishbein, I. S. McDermid, D. M. Rider, T. J. Pacala, “Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 5, 929–933 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haase, K. K.

K. R. Karsch, K. K. Haase, W. Voelker, A. Baumbach, M. Mauser, L. Seipel, “Percutaneous coronary excimer laser angioplasty in patients with stable and unstable angina pectoris. Acute results and incidence of restenosis during 6-month followup,” Circulation 81, 1849–1859 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartung, R.

R. Hofmann, R. Hartung, “Use of pulsed Nd:YAG laser in the ureter,” Urol. Clin. North Am. 15, 369–375 (1988).
[PubMed]

Henriques, F. C.

F. C. Henriques, A. R. Moritz, “Studies in thermal injury I. The conduction of heat to and through skin and the temperature attained therein. A theoretical and experimental investigation,” Am. J. Pathol. 23, 531–549 (1947).

A. R. Moritz, F. C. Henriques, “Studies in thermal injury II. The relative importance of time and surface temperature in the causation of cutaneous burns,” Am. J. Pathol. 23, 695–720 (1947).
[PubMed]

Hershman, R. A.

T. A. Sanborn, S. R. Torre, S. K. Sharma, R. A. Hershman, M. Cohen, W. Sherman, J. A. Ambrose, “Percutaneous coronary excimer laser-assisted balloon angioplasty: initial clinical and quantitative angiographic results in 50 patients,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 17, 94–99 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hestrin, L. B.

F. Litvack, N. L. Eigler, J. R. Margolis, W. S. Grundfest, D. Rothbaum, T. Linnemeier, L. B. Hestrin, D. Tsoi, S. L. Cook, D. Krauthamer, “Percutaneous excimer laser coronary angioplasty,” Am. J. Cardiol. 66, 1027–1032 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hibst, R.

U. Keller, R. Hibst, “Experimental studies of the application of the Er:YAG laser on dental hard substances: II. Light microscopic and SEM investigations,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 345–351 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofmann, R.

R. Hofmann, R. Hartung, “Use of pulsed Nd:YAG laser in the ureter,” Urol. Clin. North Am. 15, 369–375 (1988).
[PubMed]

Holstege, F. C.

R. M. Verdaasdonk, E. D. Jansen, F. C. Holstege, C. Borst, “Temperature along the surface of modified fiber tips for Nd:YAG laser angioplasty,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 213–222 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Incropera, F. P.

F. P. Incropera, D. P. deWitt, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer (Wiley, New York, 1990), App.

Itzkan, I.

J. A. Izatt, D. Albagli, M. Britton, J. M. Jubas, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, “Wavelength dependence of pulsed laser ablation of calcified tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 238–249 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, D. Albalgli, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, “Pulsed laser ablation of calcified tissue: physical mechanisms and fundamental parameters,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1202, 133–140 (1990).

Izatt, J. A.

J. A. Izatt, D. Albagli, M. Britton, J. M. Jubas, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, “Wavelength dependence of pulsed laser ablation of calcified tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 238–249 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, D. Albalgli, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, “Pulsed laser ablation of calcified tissue: physical mechanisms and fundamental parameters,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1202, 133–140 (1990).

Jacques, S. L.

T. J. Flotte, Y. Yashima, S. Watanabe, D. J. McAuliffe, S. L. Jacques, “Morphological studies of laser-induced photo-acoustic damage,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1202, 71–77 (1990).

Jansen, D.

A. J. Welch, M. Motamedi, S. Rastegar, G. L. LeCarpentier, D. Jansen, “Laser thermal ablation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 815–823 (1991).
[PubMed]

Jansen, E. D.

R. M. Verdaasdonk, E. D. Jansen, F. C. Holstege, C. Borst, “Temperature along the surface of modified fiber tips for Nd:YAG laser angioplasty,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 213–222 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jubas, J. M.

J. A. Izatt, D. Albagli, M. Britton, J. M. Jubas, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, “Wavelength dependence of pulsed laser ablation of calcified tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 238–249 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karsch, K. R.

K. R. Karsch, K. K. Haase, W. Voelker, A. Baumbach, M. Mauser, L. Seipel, “Percutaneous coronary excimer laser angioplasty in patients with stable and unstable angina pectoris. Acute results and incidence of restenosis during 6-month followup,” Circulation 81, 1849–1859 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, U.

U. Keller, R. Hibst, “Experimental studies of the application of the Er:YAG laser on dental hard substances: II. Light microscopic and SEM investigations,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 345–351 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khosrofian, J. M.

Kramer, J. R.

M. S. Feld, J. R. Kramer, “Mutagenicity and the XeCl excimer laser: a relationship of consequence?”Am. Heart J. 122, 1803–1805 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauthamer, D.

F. Litvack, N. L. Eigler, J. R. Margolis, W. S. Grundfest, D. Rothbaum, T. Linnemeier, L. B. Hestrin, D. Tsoi, S. L. Cook, D. Krauthamer, “Percutaneous excimer laser coronary angioplasty,” Am. J. Cardiol. 66, 1027–1032 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kvasnicka, J.

H. J. Geschwind, J. Kvasnicka, F. Nakamura, R. Zelinsky, R. J. L. Dubois-Rande, “Infrared laser coronary angioplasty: initial results,” MedTech 2, 9 (1991).

LeCarpentier, G. L.

A. J. Welch, M. Motamedi, S. Rastegar, G. L. LeCarpentier, D. Jansen, “Laser thermal ablation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 815–823 (1991).
[PubMed]

Linnemeier, T.

F. Litvack, N. L. Eigler, J. R. Margolis, W. S. Grundfest, D. Rothbaum, T. Linnemeier, L. B. Hestrin, D. Tsoi, S. L. Cook, D. Krauthamer, “Percutaneous excimer laser coronary angioplasty,” Am. J. Cardiol. 66, 1027–1032 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Litvack, F.

F. Litvack, N. L. Eigler, J. R. Margolis, W. S. Grundfest, D. Rothbaum, T. Linnemeier, L. B. Hestrin, D. Tsoi, S. L. Cook, D. Krauthamer, “Percutaneous excimer laser coronary angioplasty,” Am. J. Cardiol. 66, 1027–1032 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Grundfest, F. Litvack, J. S. Forrester, T. Goldenberg, H. J. Swan, L. Morgenstern, M. Fishbein, I. S. McDermid, D. M. Rider, T. J. Pacala, “Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 5, 929–933 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loisance, D.

H. J. Geschwind, J. L. Dubois Rande, D. Murphy-Chutorian, T. Tomaru, R. Zelinsky, D. Loisance, “Percutaneous coronary angioplasty with mid-infrared laser and a new multi-fiber catheter,” Lancet 336, 245–246 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lubatschowski, H.

H. Lubatschowski, C. Otten, K. Schmiedt, “Laser induced secondary radiation in 193 nm excimer laser photo ablation of corneal, dental, and dermal tissues,” Lasers Surg. Med. Suppl. 3, 9 (1991).

Mandel, E. R.

A. M. Cotliar, H. D. Schubert, E. R. Mandel, S. L. Trokel, “Excimer laser radial keratotomy,” Opthalmology 92, 206–208 (1985).

Margolis, J. R.

F. Litvack, N. L. Eigler, J. R. Margolis, W. S. Grundfest, D. Rothbaum, T. Linnemeier, L. B. Hestrin, D. Tsoi, S. L. Cook, D. Krauthamer, “Percutaneous excimer laser coronary angioplasty,” Am. J. Cardiol. 66, 1027–1032 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marshall, J. S.

J. S. Marshall, S. L. Trokel, S. Rothery, H. D. Schubert, “An ultrastructural study of corneal incisions induced by an excimer laser at 193 nm,” Opthalmology 92, 749–758 (1985).

Mauser, M.

K. R. Karsch, K. K. Haase, W. Voelker, A. Baumbach, M. Mauser, L. Seipel, “Percutaneous coronary excimer laser angioplasty in patients with stable and unstable angina pectoris. Acute results and incidence of restenosis during 6-month followup,” Circulation 81, 1849–1859 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McAuliffe, D. J.

T. J. Flotte, Y. Yashima, S. Watanabe, D. J. McAuliffe, S. L. Jacques, “Morphological studies of laser-induced photo-acoustic damage,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1202, 71–77 (1990).

McDermid, I. S.

W. S. Grundfest, F. Litvack, J. S. Forrester, T. Goldenberg, H. J. Swan, L. Morgenstern, M. Fishbein, I. S. McDermid, D. M. Rider, T. J. Pacala, “Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 5, 929–933 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meertens, J. H.

T. G. van Leeuwen, L. van Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. Motamedi, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Origin of arterial wall dissections induced by pulsed excimer and mid-infrared laser ablation in the pig,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 19, 1610–1618 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meller, M.

M. Meller, J. Black, H. Sherk, “Wavelength selection in laser arthroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. Suppl. 3, 50 (1991).

Mesa, J. E.

C. J. White, S. R. Ramee, T. J. Collins, J. E. Mesa, D. B. Paulsen, J. P. Murgo, “Recanalization of arterial occlusions with a lensed fiber and a holmium:YAG laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 250–256 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgenstern, L.

W. S. Grundfest, F. Litvack, J. S. Forrester, T. Goldenberg, H. J. Swan, L. Morgenstern, M. Fishbein, I. S. McDermid, D. M. Rider, T. J. Pacala, “Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 5, 929–933 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moritz, A. R.

F. C. Henriques, A. R. Moritz, “Studies in thermal injury I. The conduction of heat to and through skin and the temperature attained therein. A theoretical and experimental investigation,” Am. J. Pathol. 23, 531–549 (1947).

A. R. Moritz, F. C. Henriques, “Studies in thermal injury II. The relative importance of time and surface temperature in the causation of cutaneous burns,” Am. J. Pathol. 23, 695–720 (1947).
[PubMed]

Motamedi, M.

T. G. van Leeuwen, L. van Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. Motamedi, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Origin of arterial wall dissections induced by pulsed excimer and mid-infrared laser ablation in the pig,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 19, 1610–1618 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Welch, M. Motamedi, S. Rastegar, G. L. LeCarpentier, D. Jansen, “Laser thermal ablation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 815–823 (1991).
[PubMed]

Murgo, J. P.

C. J. White, S. R. Ramee, T. J. Collins, J. E. Mesa, D. B. Paulsen, J. P. Murgo, “Recanalization of arterial occlusions with a lensed fiber and a holmium:YAG laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 250–256 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murphy-Chutorian, D.

H. J. Geschwind, J. L. Dubois Rande, D. Murphy-Chutorian, T. Tomaru, R. Zelinsky, D. Loisance, “Percutaneous coronary angioplasty with mid-infrared laser and a new multi-fiber catheter,” Lancet 336, 245–246 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakamura, F.

H. J. Geschwind, J. Kvasnicka, F. Nakamura, R. Zelinsky, R. J. L. Dubois-Rande, “Infrared laser coronary angioplasty: initial results,” MedTech 2, 9 (1991).

Otten, C.

H. Lubatschowski, C. Otten, K. Schmiedt, “Laser induced secondary radiation in 193 nm excimer laser photo ablation of corneal, dental, and dermal tissues,” Lasers Surg. Med. Suppl. 3, 9 (1991).

Pacala, T. J.

W. S. Grundfest, F. Litvack, J. S. Forrester, T. Goldenberg, H. J. Swan, L. Morgenstern, M. Fishbein, I. S. McDermid, D. M. Rider, T. J. Pacala, “Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 5, 929–933 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulsen, D. B.

C. J. White, S. R. Ramee, T. J. Collins, J. E. Mesa, D. B. Paulsen, J. P. Murgo, “Recanalization of arterial occlusions with a lensed fiber and a holmium:YAG laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 250–256 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearce, J. A.

J. H. Torres, T. A. Springer, A. J. Welch, J. A. Pearce, “Limitations of a thermal camera in measuring temperature of laser-irradiated tissues,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 510–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Post, M. J.

T. G. van Leeuwen, L. van Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. Motamedi, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Origin of arterial wall dissections induced by pulsed excimer and mid-infrared laser ablation in the pig,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 19, 1610–1618 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramee, S. R.

C. J. White, S. R. Ramee, T. J. Collins, J. E. Mesa, D. B. Paulsen, J. P. Murgo, “Recanalization of arterial occlusions with a lensed fiber and a holmium:YAG laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 250–256 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rastegar, S.

A. J. Welch, M. Motamedi, S. Rastegar, G. L. LeCarpentier, D. Jansen, “Laser thermal ablation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 815–823 (1991).
[PubMed]

Rider, D. M.

W. S. Grundfest, F. Litvack, J. S. Forrester, T. Goldenberg, H. J. Swan, L. Morgenstern, M. Fishbein, I. S. McDermid, D. M. Rider, T. J. Pacala, “Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 5, 929–933 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rothbaum, D.

F. Litvack, N. L. Eigler, J. R. Margolis, W. S. Grundfest, D. Rothbaum, T. Linnemeier, L. B. Hestrin, D. Tsoi, S. L. Cook, D. Krauthamer, “Percutaneous excimer laser coronary angioplasty,” Am. J. Cardiol. 66, 1027–1032 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rothery, S.

J. S. Marshall, S. L. Trokel, S. Rothery, H. D. Schubert, “An ultrastructural study of corneal incisions induced by an excimer laser at 193 nm,” Opthalmology 92, 749–758 (1985).

Sanborn, T. A.

T. A. Sanborn, S. R. Torre, S. K. Sharma, R. A. Hershman, M. Cohen, W. Sherman, J. A. Ambrose, “Percutaneous coronary excimer laser-assisted balloon angioplasty: initial clinical and quantitative angiographic results in 50 patients,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 17, 94–99 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmiedt, K.

H. Lubatschowski, C. Otten, K. Schmiedt, “Laser induced secondary radiation in 193 nm excimer laser photo ablation of corneal, dental, and dermal tissues,” Lasers Surg. Med. Suppl. 3, 9 (1991).

Schubert, H. D.

J. S. Marshall, S. L. Trokel, S. Rothery, H. D. Schubert, “An ultrastructural study of corneal incisions induced by an excimer laser at 193 nm,” Opthalmology 92, 749–758 (1985).

A. M. Cotliar, H. D. Schubert, E. R. Mandel, S. L. Trokel, “Excimer laser radial keratotomy,” Opthalmology 92, 206–208 (1985).

Seipel, L.

K. R. Karsch, K. K. Haase, W. Voelker, A. Baumbach, M. Mauser, L. Seipel, “Percutaneous coronary excimer laser angioplasty in patients with stable and unstable angina pectoris. Acute results and incidence of restenosis during 6-month followup,” Circulation 81, 1849–1859 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharma, S. K.

T. A. Sanborn, S. R. Torre, S. K. Sharma, R. A. Hershman, M. Cohen, W. Sherman, J. A. Ambrose, “Percutaneous coronary excimer laser-assisted balloon angioplasty: initial clinical and quantitative angiographic results in 50 patients,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 17, 94–99 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sherk, H.

M. Meller, J. Black, H. Sherk, “Wavelength selection in laser arthroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. Suppl. 3, 50 (1991).

Sherman, W.

T. A. Sanborn, S. R. Torre, S. K. Sharma, R. A. Hershman, M. Cohen, W. Sherman, J. A. Ambrose, “Percutaneous coronary excimer laser-assisted balloon angioplasty: initial clinical and quantitative angiographic results in 50 patients,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 17, 94–99 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sprangers, R. L.

G. H. Gijsbers, R. L. Sprangers, D. G. van den Broecke, N. van Wieringe, M. J. Brugmans, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Temperature increase during inυitro 308 nm excimer laser ablation of porcine aortic tissue,” in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Cardiovascular Interventions, G. S. Abela, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1425 (to be published).

Springer, T. A.

J. H. Torres, T. A. Springer, A. J. Welch, J. A. Pearce, “Limitations of a thermal camera in measuring temperature of laser-irradiated tissues,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 510–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swan, H. J.

W. S. Grundfest, F. Litvack, J. S. Forrester, T. Goldenberg, H. J. Swan, L. Morgenstern, M. Fishbein, I. S. McDermid, D. M. Rider, T. J. Pacala, “Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 5, 929–933 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomsen, S.

S. Thomsen, “Pathologic analysis of photothermal and photomechanical effects of laser-tissue interactions,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 825–835 (1991).
[PubMed]

Tomaru, T.

H. J. Geschwind, J. L. Dubois Rande, D. Murphy-Chutorian, T. Tomaru, R. Zelinsky, D. Loisance, “Percutaneous coronary angioplasty with mid-infrared laser and a new multi-fiber catheter,” Lancet 336, 245–246 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torre, S. R.

T. A. Sanborn, S. R. Torre, S. K. Sharma, R. A. Hershman, M. Cohen, W. Sherman, J. A. Ambrose, “Percutaneous coronary excimer laser-assisted balloon angioplasty: initial clinical and quantitative angiographic results in 50 patients,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 17, 94–99 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torres, J. H.

J. H. Torres, T. A. Springer, A. J. Welch, J. A. Pearce, “Limitations of a thermal camera in measuring temperature of laser-irradiated tissues,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 510–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trokel, S. L.

A. M. Cotliar, H. D. Schubert, E. R. Mandel, S. L. Trokel, “Excimer laser radial keratotomy,” Opthalmology 92, 206–208 (1985).

J. S. Marshall, S. L. Trokel, S. Rothery, H. D. Schubert, “An ultrastructural study of corneal incisions induced by an excimer laser at 193 nm,” Opthalmology 92, 749–758 (1985).

Tsoi, D.

F. Litvack, N. L. Eigler, J. R. Margolis, W. S. Grundfest, D. Rothbaum, T. Linnemeier, L. B. Hestrin, D. Tsoi, S. L. Cook, D. Krauthamer, “Percutaneous excimer laser coronary angioplasty,” Am. J. Cardiol. 66, 1027–1032 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van den Broecke, D. G.

G. H. Gijsbers, R. L. Sprangers, D. G. van den Broecke, N. van Wieringe, M. J. Brugmans, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Temperature increase during inυitro 308 nm excimer laser ablation of porcine aortic tissue,” in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Cardiovascular Interventions, G. S. Abela, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1425 (to be published).

van der Veen, M. J.

T. G. van Leeuwen, M. J. van der Veen, R. M. Verdaasdonk, C. Borst, “Noncontact tissue ablation by holmium: YSGG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 26–34 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Erven, L.

T. G. van Leeuwen, L. van Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. Motamedi, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Origin of arterial wall dissections induced by pulsed excimer and mid-infrared laser ablation in the pig,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 19, 1610–1618 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

G. H. Gijsbers, R. L. Sprangers, D. G. van den Broecke, N. van Wieringe, M. J. Brugmans, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Temperature increase during inυitro 308 nm excimer laser ablation of porcine aortic tissue,” in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Cardiovascular Interventions, G. S. Abela, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1425 (to be published).

van Leeuwen, T. G.

T. G. van Leeuwen, L. van Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. Motamedi, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Origin of arterial wall dissections induced by pulsed excimer and mid-infrared laser ablation in the pig,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 19, 1610–1618 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. van Leeuwen, M. J. van der Veen, R. M. Verdaasdonk, C. Borst, “Noncontact tissue ablation by holmium: YSGG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 26–34 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Wieringe, N.

G. H. Gijsbers, R. L. Sprangers, D. G. van den Broecke, N. van Wieringe, M. J. Brugmans, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Temperature increase during inυitro 308 nm excimer laser ablation of porcine aortic tissue,” in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Cardiovascular Interventions, G. S. Abela, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1425 (to be published).

Verdaasdonk, R. M.

T. G. van Leeuwen, M. J. van der Veen, R. M. Verdaasdonk, C. Borst, “Noncontact tissue ablation by holmium: YSGG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 26–34 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Verdaasdonk, E. D. Jansen, F. C. Holstege, C. Borst, “Temperature along the surface of modified fiber tips for Nd:YAG laser angioplasty,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 213–222 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voelker, W.

K. R. Karsch, K. K. Haase, W. Voelker, A. Baumbach, M. Mauser, L. Seipel, “Percutaneous coronary excimer laser angioplasty in patients with stable and unstable angina pectoris. Acute results and incidence of restenosis during 6-month followup,” Circulation 81, 1849–1859 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, S.

T. J. Flotte, Y. Yashima, S. Watanabe, D. J. McAuliffe, S. L. Jacques, “Morphological studies of laser-induced photo-acoustic damage,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1202, 71–77 (1990).

Welch, A. J.

A. J. Welch, M. Motamedi, S. Rastegar, G. L. LeCarpentier, D. Jansen, “Laser thermal ablation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 815–823 (1991).
[PubMed]

J. H. Torres, T. A. Springer, A. J. Welch, J. A. Pearce, “Limitations of a thermal camera in measuring temperature of laser-irradiated tissues,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 510–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, C. J.

C. J. White, S. R. Ramee, T. J. Collins, J. E. Mesa, D. B. Paulsen, J. P. Murgo, “Recanalization of arterial occlusions with a lensed fiber and a holmium:YAG laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 250–256 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yashima, Y.

T. J. Flotte, Y. Yashima, S. Watanabe, D. J. McAuliffe, S. L. Jacques, “Morphological studies of laser-induced photo-acoustic damage,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1202, 71–77 (1990).

Zelinsky, R.

H. J. Geschwind, J. Kvasnicka, F. Nakamura, R. Zelinsky, R. J. L. Dubois-Rande, “Infrared laser coronary angioplasty: initial results,” MedTech 2, 9 (1991).

H. J. Geschwind, J. L. Dubois Rande, D. Murphy-Chutorian, T. Tomaru, R. Zelinsky, D. Loisance, “Percutaneous coronary angioplasty with mid-infrared laser and a new multi-fiber catheter,” Lancet 336, 245–246 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. Heart J. (1)

M. S. Feld, J. R. Kramer, “Mutagenicity and the XeCl excimer laser: a relationship of consequence?”Am. Heart J. 122, 1803–1805 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Cardiol. (1)

F. Litvack, N. L. Eigler, J. R. Margolis, W. S. Grundfest, D. Rothbaum, T. Linnemeier, L. B. Hestrin, D. Tsoi, S. L. Cook, D. Krauthamer, “Percutaneous excimer laser coronary angioplasty,” Am. J. Cardiol. 66, 1027–1032 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Pathol. (2)

A. R. Moritz, F. C. Henriques, “Studies in thermal injury II. The relative importance of time and surface temperature in the causation of cutaneous burns,” Am. J. Pathol. 23, 695–720 (1947).
[PubMed]

F. C. Henriques, A. R. Moritz, “Studies in thermal injury I. The conduction of heat to and through skin and the temperature attained therein. A theoretical and experimental investigation,” Am. J. Pathol. 23, 531–549 (1947).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Circulation (1)

K. R. Karsch, K. K. Haase, W. Voelker, A. Baumbach, M. Mauser, L. Seipel, “Percutaneous coronary excimer laser angioplasty in patients with stable and unstable angina pectoris. Acute results and incidence of restenosis during 6-month followup,” Circulation 81, 1849–1859 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (3)

W. S. Grundfest, F. Litvack, J. S. Forrester, T. Goldenberg, H. J. Swan, L. Morgenstern, M. Fishbein, I. S. McDermid, D. M. Rider, T. J. Pacala, “Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 5, 929–933 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. van Leeuwen, L. van Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. Motamedi, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Origin of arterial wall dissections induced by pulsed excimer and mid-infrared laser ablation in the pig,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 19, 1610–1618 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Sanborn, S. R. Torre, S. K. Sharma, R. A. Hershman, M. Cohen, W. Sherman, J. A. Ambrose, “Percutaneous coronary excimer laser-assisted balloon angioplasty: initial clinical and quantitative angiographic results in 50 patients,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 17, 94–99 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lancet (1)

H. J. Geschwind, J. L. Dubois Rande, D. Murphy-Chutorian, T. Tomaru, R. Zelinsky, D. Loisance, “Percutaneous coronary angioplasty with mid-infrared laser and a new multi-fiber catheter,” Lancet 336, 245–246 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (6)

C. J. White, S. R. Ramee, T. J. Collins, J. E. Mesa, D. B. Paulsen, J. P. Murgo, “Recanalization of arterial occlusions with a lensed fiber and a holmium:YAG laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 250–256 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, R. Hibst, “Experimental studies of the application of the Er:YAG laser on dental hard substances: II. Light microscopic and SEM investigations,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 345–351 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for two-dimensional temperature measurements in air with a thermal camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical temperature response of human aorta irradiated with the pulsed Ho:YAG in the normal mode recorded with the thermal camera. The repetition rate was 3 Hz, and the E/p was 150 mJ/p. The temperature was measured 1.0 mm from the spot center. The thermal camera was not capable of capturing the peak temperatures during the laser pulse but was an excellent device for recording the slower part of the temperature decay after the laser pulse. From this type of curve we measured the baseline temperature rises as displayed in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Baseline temperature rise (just before the next pulse) of the tissue at 1.0 mm from the spot center. The arrows indicate the moment that the laser was shut off. Note the change in the temperature scale between the plots for the holmium and excimer lasers. (a) Temperature caused by excimer irradiation in air at 10 Hz with 6, 10, 15, and 20 mJ/p. (b) Temperature caused by excimer irradiation in air at 20 Hz with 6, 10, 15, and 20 mJ/p. (c) Temperature caused by normal-mode (250-μs) Ho:YAG irradiation in air at 3 Hz with 100, 150, and 200 mJ/p. (d) Temperature caused by normal-mode (250-μs) Ho:YAG irradiation in air at 5 Hz with 100, 150, and 200 mJ/p. (e) Temperature caused by Q-switched (200-ns) Ho:YAG irradiation in air at 3 Hz with 100, 150, and 200 mJ/p. (f) Temperature caused by Q-switched (200-ns) Ho:YAG irradiation in air at 5.4 Hz with 100, 150, and 200 mJ/p.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photomicrographs of cross sections of the laser-induced lesions in human aorta tissue. The total energy delivered was 10.8 J for the holmium laser and 1 J for the excimer laser. (a) Lesion made with the Q-switched Ho:YAG laser at 3 Hz and 100 mJ/p in air; magnification, 100×. (b) Lesion made with the long-pulse Ho:YAG laser at 3 Hz and 150 mJ/p in air; magnification, 100×. (c) Lesion made with the excimer laser at 10 Hz and 10 mJ/p in air; magnification, 100×. (d) Lesion made with the Q-switched Ho:YAG laser at 3 Hz and 100 mJ/p in saline; magnification, 40×. (e) Lesion made with the long-pulse Ho:YAG laser at 3 Hz and 200 mJ/p in saline; magnification, 40×. (f) Lesion made with the excimer laser at 10 Hz and 20 mJ/p in saline; magnification, 100×.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Baseline Temperature Rise at the Moment of Laser Shutoff at 1.0 mm Away From the Spot Center during Irradiation of Human Aorta in Air with Normal and Q-Switched Holmium aser Radiation and Excimer 308-nm Radiation

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Table 2 Baseline Temperature Rise at the Moment of Laser Shutoff Measured with the Thermocouple Just Next to the Fiber (Spot Center to Thermocouple Center = 650 μm) on Top of the Tissue during Irradiation with the Ho:YAG Laser in the Normal Mode (250 μs) of Human Aorta under Saline

Equations (2)

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ln [ C ( 0 ) C ( t ) ] = Ω ( r , z , t ) = 0 t A exp [ E / R T ( r , z , t ) ] d t ,
E = ( E / p ) f t

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