Abstract

Various attenuation mechanisms affecting the absorption of ArF excimer laser light in collagenous tissues have been studied. Temporal distortion of the laser pulse reflected from the cornea has been observed over a range of incident pulse fluences including the ablation threshold. Reflected pulse shortening begins near the ablation threshold and advances with increasing fluence. The measurement of laser light scattered 30° off specular axis from collagen gel targets indicates that the reflected-pulse distortion is partially a result of scattering. Collagen film transmission studies show an increase in 193-nm light transmission in ablation conditions. These nonlinear attenuation mechanisms may impact significantly on the photoablation process.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. M. Taylor, F. A. L’Esperance, J. W. Warner, R. A. Del Pero, A. D. Roberts, J. E. Gigstad, C. Martin, “Experimental corneal studies with the excimer laser,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 15, 384–389 (1989).
    [PubMed]
  2. D. Gartry, M. K. Muir, J. Marshall, “Excimer laser treatment of corneal surface pathology: a laboratory and clinical study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 75, 258–269 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. C. Liu, M. B. McDonald, R. Varnell, H. A. Andrade, “Myopic excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy: an analysis of clinical correlations,” Refract. Corneal Surg. 6, 321–328 (1990).
    [PubMed]
  4. N. A. Sher, R. A. Bowers, R. W. Zabel, J. M. Frantz, R. A. Eiferman, D. C. Brown, J. J. Rowsey, P. Parker, V. Chen, R. L. Lindstrom, “Clinical use of the 193-nm excimer laser in the treatment of corneal scars,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 491–498 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. L. Trokel, R. Srinivasan, B. Braren, “Excimer laser surgery of the cornea,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 710–714 (1983).
    [PubMed]
  6. C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer laser abalation of the cornea and lens,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
    [PubMed]
  7. R. Srinivasan, P. E. Dyer, B. Braren, “Far-ultraviolet laser ablation of the cornea: photoacoustic studies,” Laser Surg. Med. 6, 514–519 (1987).
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    [CrossRef]
  9. G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser corneal ablation: absence of a significant ‘incubation’ effect,” Laser Surg. Med. 11, 411–418 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. A. Puliafito, D. Stern, R. R. Kruger, E. R. Mandel, “High-speed photography of excimer laser ablation of the cornea,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1255–1259 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. Simon, “Time-resolved ablation-site photography of XeCl-laser irradiated polyimid,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 253–256 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. H. Pettit, R. Sauerbrey, “Fluence-dependent transmission of polyimide at 248 nm under ablation conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 793–795 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Paraskevopoulos, D. L. Singleton, R. S. Irwin, R. S. Taylor, “Time resolved reflectivity as a probe of the dynamics of laser ablation of organic polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 1938–1945 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. L. Singleton, G. Paraskevopoulos, R. S. Taylor, “Dynamics of excimer laser ablation of polyimide determined by time-resolved reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 227–230 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Sauerbrey, G. H. Pettit, “Theory for the etching of organic materials by ultraviolet laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 421–423 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. L. Leninger, Biochemistry (Worth, New York, 1975), pp. 135–136.
  21. G. C. Na, “UV spectroscopic characterization of type I collagen,” Collagen Rel. Res. 8, 315–330 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. N. Ediger, G. H. Pettit, “Time-resolved reflectivity of ArF laser irradiated polyimide,” J. Appl Phys. 71, 3510–3514 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (6)

G. H. Pettit, R. Sauerbrey, “Fluence-dependent transmission of polyimide at 248 nm under ablation conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 793–795 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Paraskevopoulos, D. L. Singleton, R. S. Irwin, R. S. Taylor, “Time resolved reflectivity as a probe of the dynamics of laser ablation of organic polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 1938–1945 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Gartry, M. K. Muir, J. Marshall, “Excimer laser treatment of corneal surface pathology: a laboratory and clinical study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 75, 258–269 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Sher, R. A. Bowers, R. W. Zabel, J. M. Frantz, R. A. Eiferman, D. C. Brown, J. J. Rowsey, P. Parker, V. Chen, R. L. Lindstrom, “Clinical use of the 193-nm excimer laser in the treatment of corneal scars,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 491–498 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Kitai, V. L. Popkov, V. A. Semchishen, A. A. Kharizov, “The physics of UV laser cornea ablation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 302–307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser corneal ablation: absence of a significant ‘incubation’ effect,” Laser Surg. Med. 11, 411–418 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

J. C. Liu, M. B. McDonald, R. Varnell, H. A. Andrade, “Myopic excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy: an analysis of clinical correlations,” Refract. Corneal Surg. 6, 321–328 (1990).
[PubMed]

D. L. Singleton, G. Paraskevopoulos, R. S. Taylor, “Dynamics of excimer laser ablation of polyimide determined by time-resolved reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 227–230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

P. Simon, “Time-resolved ablation-site photography of XeCl-laser irradiated polyimid,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 253–256 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. Sauerbrey, G. H. Pettit, “Theory for the etching of organic materials by ultraviolet laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 421–423 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Taylor, F. A. L’Esperance, J. W. Warner, R. A. Del Pero, A. D. Roberts, J. E. Gigstad, C. Martin, “Experimental corneal studies with the excimer laser,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 15, 384–389 (1989).
[PubMed]

1988 (1)

G. C. Na, “UV spectroscopic characterization of type I collagen,” Collagen Rel. Res. 8, 315–330 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

R. Srinivasan, P. E. Dyer, B. Braren, “Far-ultraviolet laser ablation of the cornea: photoacoustic studies,” Laser Surg. Med. 6, 514–519 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Puliafito, D. Stern, R. R. Kruger, E. R. Mandel, “High-speed photography of excimer laser ablation of the cornea,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1255–1259 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer laser abalation of the cornea and lens,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

T. Keyes, R. H. Clarke, J. M. Isner, “Theory of photoablation and its implications for laser phototherapy,” J. Phys. Chem. 89, 4194–4196 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

S. L. Trokel, R. Srinivasan, B. Braren, “Excimer laser surgery of the cornea,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 710–714 (1983).
[PubMed]

1973 (1)

Adler, C. M.

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer laser abalation of the cornea and lens,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

Andrade, H. A.

J. C. Liu, M. B. McDonald, R. Varnell, H. A. Andrade, “Myopic excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy: an analysis of clinical correlations,” Refract. Corneal Surg. 6, 321–328 (1990).
[PubMed]

Bowers, R. A.

N. A. Sher, R. A. Bowers, R. W. Zabel, J. M. Frantz, R. A. Eiferman, D. C. Brown, J. J. Rowsey, P. Parker, V. Chen, R. L. Lindstrom, “Clinical use of the 193-nm excimer laser in the treatment of corneal scars,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 491–498 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braren, B.

R. Srinivasan, P. E. Dyer, B. Braren, “Far-ultraviolet laser ablation of the cornea: photoacoustic studies,” Laser Surg. Med. 6, 514–519 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Trokel, R. Srinivasan, B. Braren, “Excimer laser surgery of the cornea,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 710–714 (1983).
[PubMed]

Brown, D. C.

N. A. Sher, R. A. Bowers, R. W. Zabel, J. M. Frantz, R. A. Eiferman, D. C. Brown, J. J. Rowsey, P. Parker, V. Chen, R. L. Lindstrom, “Clinical use of the 193-nm excimer laser in the treatment of corneal scars,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 491–498 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, V.

N. A. Sher, R. A. Bowers, R. W. Zabel, J. M. Frantz, R. A. Eiferman, D. C. Brown, J. J. Rowsey, P. Parker, V. Chen, R. L. Lindstrom, “Clinical use of the 193-nm excimer laser in the treatment of corneal scars,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 491–498 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clarke, R. H.

T. Keyes, R. H. Clarke, J. M. Isner, “Theory of photoablation and its implications for laser phototherapy,” J. Phys. Chem. 89, 4194–4196 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Dehm, E. J.

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer laser abalation of the cornea and lens,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

Del Pero, R. A.

D. M. Taylor, F. A. L’Esperance, J. W. Warner, R. A. Del Pero, A. D. Roberts, J. E. Gigstad, C. Martin, “Experimental corneal studies with the excimer laser,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 15, 384–389 (1989).
[PubMed]

Deutsch, T. F.

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer laser abalation of the cornea and lens,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

Dyer, P. E.

R. Srinivasan, P. E. Dyer, B. Braren, “Far-ultraviolet laser ablation of the cornea: photoacoustic studies,” Laser Surg. Med. 6, 514–519 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ediger, M. N.

M. N. Ediger, G. H. Pettit, “Time-resolved reflectivity of ArF laser irradiated polyimide,” J. Appl Phys. 71, 3510–3514 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser corneal ablation: absence of a significant ‘incubation’ effect,” Laser Surg. Med. 11, 411–418 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Eiferman, R. A.

N. A. Sher, R. A. Bowers, R. W. Zabel, J. M. Frantz, R. A. Eiferman, D. C. Brown, J. J. Rowsey, P. Parker, V. Chen, R. L. Lindstrom, “Clinical use of the 193-nm excimer laser in the treatment of corneal scars,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 491–498 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frantz, J. M.

N. A. Sher, R. A. Bowers, R. W. Zabel, J. M. Frantz, R. A. Eiferman, D. C. Brown, J. J. Rowsey, P. Parker, V. Chen, R. L. Lindstrom, “Clinical use of the 193-nm excimer laser in the treatment of corneal scars,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 491–498 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gartry, D.

D. Gartry, M. K. Muir, J. Marshall, “Excimer laser treatment of corneal surface pathology: a laboratory and clinical study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 75, 258–269 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gigstad, J. E.

D. M. Taylor, F. A. L’Esperance, J. W. Warner, R. A. Del Pero, A. D. Roberts, J. E. Gigstad, C. Martin, “Experimental corneal studies with the excimer laser,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 15, 384–389 (1989).
[PubMed]

Hale, G. M.

Hillenkamp, F.

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer laser abalation of the cornea and lens,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

Irwin, R. S.

G. Paraskevopoulos, D. L. Singleton, R. S. Irwin, R. S. Taylor, “Time resolved reflectivity as a probe of the dynamics of laser ablation of organic polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 1938–1945 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Isner, J. M.

T. Keyes, R. H. Clarke, J. M. Isner, “Theory of photoablation and its implications for laser phototherapy,” J. Phys. Chem. 89, 4194–4196 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Keyes, T.

T. Keyes, R. H. Clarke, J. M. Isner, “Theory of photoablation and its implications for laser phototherapy,” J. Phys. Chem. 89, 4194–4196 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kharizov, A. A.

M. S. Kitai, V. L. Popkov, V. A. Semchishen, A. A. Kharizov, “The physics of UV laser cornea ablation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 302–307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kitai, M. S.

M. S. Kitai, V. L. Popkov, V. A. Semchishen, A. A. Kharizov, “The physics of UV laser cornea ablation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 302–307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, R. R.

C. A. Puliafito, D. Stern, R. R. Kruger, E. R. Mandel, “High-speed photography of excimer laser ablation of the cornea,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1255–1259 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L’Esperance, F. A.

D. M. Taylor, F. A. L’Esperance, J. W. Warner, R. A. Del Pero, A. D. Roberts, J. E. Gigstad, C. Martin, “Experimental corneal studies with the excimer laser,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 15, 384–389 (1989).
[PubMed]

Leninger, A. L.

A. L. Leninger, Biochemistry (Worth, New York, 1975), pp. 135–136.

Lindstrom, R. L.

N. A. Sher, R. A. Bowers, R. W. Zabel, J. M. Frantz, R. A. Eiferman, D. C. Brown, J. J. Rowsey, P. Parker, V. Chen, R. L. Lindstrom, “Clinical use of the 193-nm excimer laser in the treatment of corneal scars,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 491–498 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J. C.

J. C. Liu, M. B. McDonald, R. Varnell, H. A. Andrade, “Myopic excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy: an analysis of clinical correlations,” Refract. Corneal Surg. 6, 321–328 (1990).
[PubMed]

Mandel, E. R.

C. A. Puliafito, D. Stern, R. R. Kruger, E. R. Mandel, “High-speed photography of excimer laser ablation of the cornea,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1255–1259 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marshall, J.

D. Gartry, M. K. Muir, J. Marshall, “Excimer laser treatment of corneal surface pathology: a laboratory and clinical study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 75, 258–269 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, C.

D. M. Taylor, F. A. L’Esperance, J. W. Warner, R. A. Del Pero, A. D. Roberts, J. E. Gigstad, C. Martin, “Experimental corneal studies with the excimer laser,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 15, 384–389 (1989).
[PubMed]

McDonald, M. B.

J. C. Liu, M. B. McDonald, R. Varnell, H. A. Andrade, “Myopic excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy: an analysis of clinical correlations,” Refract. Corneal Surg. 6, 321–328 (1990).
[PubMed]

Muir, M. K.

D. Gartry, M. K. Muir, J. Marshall, “Excimer laser treatment of corneal surface pathology: a laboratory and clinical study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 75, 258–269 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Na, G. C.

G. C. Na, “UV spectroscopic characterization of type I collagen,” Collagen Rel. Res. 8, 315–330 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Paraskevopoulos, G.

G. Paraskevopoulos, D. L. Singleton, R. S. Irwin, R. S. Taylor, “Time resolved reflectivity as a probe of the dynamics of laser ablation of organic polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 1938–1945 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Singleton, G. Paraskevopoulos, R. S. Taylor, “Dynamics of excimer laser ablation of polyimide determined by time-resolved reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 227–230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Parker, P.

N. A. Sher, R. A. Bowers, R. W. Zabel, J. M. Frantz, R. A. Eiferman, D. C. Brown, J. J. Rowsey, P. Parker, V. Chen, R. L. Lindstrom, “Clinical use of the 193-nm excimer laser in the treatment of corneal scars,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 491–498 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pettit, G. H.

M. N. Ediger, G. H. Pettit, “Time-resolved reflectivity of ArF laser irradiated polyimide,” J. Appl Phys. 71, 3510–3514 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser corneal ablation: absence of a significant ‘incubation’ effect,” Laser Surg. Med. 11, 411–418 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Pettit, R. Sauerbrey, “Fluence-dependent transmission of polyimide at 248 nm under ablation conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 793–795 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Sauerbrey, G. H. Pettit, “Theory for the etching of organic materials by ultraviolet laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 421–423 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Popkov, V. L.

M. S. Kitai, V. L. Popkov, V. A. Semchishen, A. A. Kharizov, “The physics of UV laser cornea ablation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 302–307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

C. A. Puliafito, D. Stern, R. R. Kruger, E. R. Mandel, “High-speed photography of excimer laser ablation of the cornea,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1255–1259 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer laser abalation of the cornea and lens,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

Querry, M. R.

Roberts, A. D.

D. M. Taylor, F. A. L’Esperance, J. W. Warner, R. A. Del Pero, A. D. Roberts, J. E. Gigstad, C. Martin, “Experimental corneal studies with the excimer laser,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 15, 384–389 (1989).
[PubMed]

Rowsey, J. J.

N. A. Sher, R. A. Bowers, R. W. Zabel, J. M. Frantz, R. A. Eiferman, D. C. Brown, J. J. Rowsey, P. Parker, V. Chen, R. L. Lindstrom, “Clinical use of the 193-nm excimer laser in the treatment of corneal scars,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 491–498 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauerbrey, R.

G. H. Pettit, R. Sauerbrey, “Fluence-dependent transmission of polyimide at 248 nm under ablation conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 793–795 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Sauerbrey, G. H. Pettit, “Theory for the etching of organic materials by ultraviolet laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 421–423 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Semchishen, V. A.

M. S. Kitai, V. L. Popkov, V. A. Semchishen, A. A. Kharizov, “The physics of UV laser cornea ablation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 302–307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sher, N. A.

N. A. Sher, R. A. Bowers, R. W. Zabel, J. M. Frantz, R. A. Eiferman, D. C. Brown, J. J. Rowsey, P. Parker, V. Chen, R. L. Lindstrom, “Clinical use of the 193-nm excimer laser in the treatment of corneal scars,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 491–498 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, P.

P. Simon, “Time-resolved ablation-site photography of XeCl-laser irradiated polyimid,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 253–256 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Singleton, D. L.

G. Paraskevopoulos, D. L. Singleton, R. S. Irwin, R. S. Taylor, “Time resolved reflectivity as a probe of the dynamics of laser ablation of organic polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 1938–1945 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Singleton, G. Paraskevopoulos, R. S. Taylor, “Dynamics of excimer laser ablation of polyimide determined by time-resolved reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 227–230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, R.

R. Srinivasan, P. E. Dyer, B. Braren, “Far-ultraviolet laser ablation of the cornea: photoacoustic studies,” Laser Surg. Med. 6, 514–519 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Trokel, R. Srinivasan, B. Braren, “Excimer laser surgery of the cornea,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 710–714 (1983).
[PubMed]

Steinert, R. F.

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer laser abalation of the cornea and lens,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

Stern, D.

C. A. Puliafito, D. Stern, R. R. Kruger, E. R. Mandel, “High-speed photography of excimer laser ablation of the cornea,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1255–1259 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, D. M.

D. M. Taylor, F. A. L’Esperance, J. W. Warner, R. A. Del Pero, A. D. Roberts, J. E. Gigstad, C. Martin, “Experimental corneal studies with the excimer laser,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 15, 384–389 (1989).
[PubMed]

Taylor, R. S.

G. Paraskevopoulos, D. L. Singleton, R. S. Irwin, R. S. Taylor, “Time resolved reflectivity as a probe of the dynamics of laser ablation of organic polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 1938–1945 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Singleton, G. Paraskevopoulos, R. S. Taylor, “Dynamics of excimer laser ablation of polyimide determined by time-resolved reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 227–230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Trokel, S. L.

S. L. Trokel, R. Srinivasan, B. Braren, “Excimer laser surgery of the cornea,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 710–714 (1983).
[PubMed]

Varnell, R.

J. C. Liu, M. B. McDonald, R. Varnell, H. A. Andrade, “Myopic excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy: an analysis of clinical correlations,” Refract. Corneal Surg. 6, 321–328 (1990).
[PubMed]

Warner, J. W.

D. M. Taylor, F. A. L’Esperance, J. W. Warner, R. A. Del Pero, A. D. Roberts, J. E. Gigstad, C. Martin, “Experimental corneal studies with the excimer laser,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 15, 384–389 (1989).
[PubMed]

Weiblinger, R. P.

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser corneal ablation: absence of a significant ‘incubation’ effect,” Laser Surg. Med. 11, 411–418 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zabel, R. W.

N. A. Sher, R. A. Bowers, R. W. Zabel, J. M. Frantz, R. A. Eiferman, D. C. Brown, J. J. Rowsey, P. Parker, V. Chen, R. L. Lindstrom, “Clinical use of the 193-nm excimer laser in the treatment of corneal scars,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 491–498 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. L. Trokel, R. Srinivasan, B. Braren, “Excimer laser surgery of the cornea,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 710–714 (1983).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

P. Simon, “Time-resolved ablation-site photography of XeCl-laser irradiated polyimid,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 253–256 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Singleton, G. Paraskevopoulos, R. S. Taylor, “Dynamics of excimer laser ablation of polyimide determined by time-resolved reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 227–230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. Sauerbrey, G. H. Pettit, “Theory for the etching of organic materials by ultraviolet laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 421–423 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Pettit, R. Sauerbrey, “Fluence-dependent transmission of polyimide at 248 nm under ablation conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 793–795 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (2)

C. A. Puliafito, D. Stern, R. R. Kruger, E. R. Mandel, “High-speed photography of excimer laser ablation of the cornea,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1255–1259 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Sher, R. A. Bowers, R. W. Zabel, J. M. Frantz, R. A. Eiferman, D. C. Brown, J. J. Rowsey, P. Parker, V. Chen, R. L. Lindstrom, “Clinical use of the 193-nm excimer laser in the treatment of corneal scars,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 491–498 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

D. Gartry, M. K. Muir, J. Marshall, “Excimer laser treatment of corneal surface pathology: a laboratory and clinical study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 75, 258–269 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collagen Rel. Res. (1)

G. C. Na, “UV spectroscopic characterization of type I collagen,” Collagen Rel. Res. 8, 315–330 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. S. Kitai, V. L. Popkov, V. A. Semchishen, A. A. Kharizov, “The physics of UV laser cornea ablation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 302–307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl Phys. (1)

M. N. Ediger, G. H. Pettit, “Time-resolved reflectivity of ArF laser irradiated polyimide,” J. Appl Phys. 71, 3510–3514 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Paraskevopoulos, D. L. Singleton, R. S. Irwin, R. S. Taylor, “Time resolved reflectivity as a probe of the dynamics of laser ablation of organic polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 1938–1945 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (1)

D. M. Taylor, F. A. L’Esperance, J. W. Warner, R. A. Del Pero, A. D. Roberts, J. E. Gigstad, C. Martin, “Experimental corneal studies with the excimer laser,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 15, 384–389 (1989).
[PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

T. Keyes, R. H. Clarke, J. M. Isner, “Theory of photoablation and its implications for laser phototherapy,” J. Phys. Chem. 89, 4194–4196 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Laser Surg. Med. (2)

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser corneal ablation: absence of a significant ‘incubation’ effect,” Laser Surg. Med. 11, 411–418 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Srinivasan, P. E. Dyer, B. Braren, “Far-ultraviolet laser ablation of the cornea: photoacoustic studies,” Laser Surg. Med. 6, 514–519 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmology (1)

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer laser abalation of the cornea and lens,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

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J. C. Liu, M. B. McDonald, R. Varnell, H. A. Andrade, “Myopic excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy: an analysis of clinical correlations,” Refract. Corneal Surg. 6, 321–328 (1990).
[PubMed]

Other (2)

R. C. Weast, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 66th ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1985), p. E-368.

A. L. Leninger, Biochemistry (Worth, New York, 1975), pp. 135–136.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup used to study the dynamic reflectivity of bovine corneal samples subjected to ArF laser irradiation. The incident and reflected laser pulse profiles were recorded by a pair of identical fast UV photodiodes. The laser pulse fluence delivered to the tissue was varied over a range including the ablation threshold.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a, Modification of the basic apparatus of Fig. 1 required to detect the scattering of laser light out of the specular direction. Photodiode PD 1 was repositioned 10 cm from a collagen gel sample and aligned to capture light coming from the target 30° off the normal axis. b, Modification of the original setup used to study the transmission of excimer pulses through thin collagen films. Photodiode PD 2 was moved behind the sample to measure the transmitted pulse amplitude and temporal characteristics.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Average pulse-width ratio for ArF laser irradiation of bovine cornea by using the detection scheme of Fig. 1. The dashed Une indicates unity, the expected result for static target reflectivity. The reported ablation threshold for this tissue is ~20 mJ/cm2.6

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflected and scattered laser light signals for ArF laser irradiation of collagen/water gels at one subablative and two ablative incident pulse fluences. The continuous curve in each graph indicates the reflected laser pulse, while the dashed curve is the laser signal observed 30° off the specular direction. The scattered light signal grew relative to the reflected signal with increasing fluence and was coincident with the distortion in the reflected pulse.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmitted laser profiles for varied fluence ArF laser irradiation of a thin collagen film. The finely dashed curve indicates the incident laser pulse profile. The continuous curve labeled 1 is the transmitted signal for the initial irradiation of the film with a laser pulse of subablative fluence (6 mJ/cm2). Curve 2 is the transmitted pulse signal for ablative irradiation of the same site (110-mJ/cm2 fluence). Curve 3 is the repeat low-fluence transmitted signal following the ablation pulse. All three profiles have been scaled relative to the incident pulse intensities to permit comparison of the film attenuation in each case.

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