Abstract

Condensed Monte Carlo simulation results have been used for calculating absorption and reduced scattering coefficients from the literature data on the measured total transmittance and total reflectance of samples of the human skin in υitro. The results of several measuring methods have been compared. We have also estimated the range for absorption coefficients and reduced scattering coefficients at 660 and 940 nm from measured intensities at the skin surface as a function of the distance from the location where the light enters the skin by using condensed Monte Carlo simulations for a homogeneous semi-infinite medium. The in υiυo values for the absorption coefficients and the reduced scattering coefficients appear to be much smaller than the values from the in υitro measurements, that have been assumed until now. The discrepancies have been discussed in detail. Our in υiυo results are in agreement with other in υiυo measurements that are available in the literature.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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1993

1992

1991

1990

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, G. L. Frank, “Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared,” Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1317–1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, W. G. Zijlstra, P. Heida, F. F. M. de Mul, M. H. Koelink, J. Greve, “Reflection pulse oximetry depends on source-detector distance,” Intensive Care Med. 16, S99 (1990).

J. M. Schmitt, G. X. Zhou, E. C. Walker, R. T. Wall, “Multilayer model for photon diffusion in skin,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 2141–2153 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1988

M. Keijzer, W. M. Star, P. R. M. Storchi, “Optical diffusion in layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1820–1824 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, G. Holtom, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle,” Anal. Biochem. 174, 698–707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

S. L. Jacques, C. A. Alter, S. A. Prahl, “Angular dependence of He–Ne laser light scattering by human dermis,” Lasers Life Sci, 1, 309–333 (1987).

R. F. Bonner, R. Nossal, S. Havlin, G. H. Weiss, “Model of photon migration in turbid biological media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 423–432 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

P. J. Kolari, “Penetration of unfocused laser light into the skin,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 277, 342–344 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

W. A. G. Bruls, J. C. van der Leun, “Forward scattering properties of human epidermal layers,” Photochem. Photobiol. 40, 231–242 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Gush, T. A. King, M. I. V. Jayson, “Aspects of laser light scattering from skin tissue with applications to laser Doppler blood flow measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 29, 1463–1476 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

S. Wan, R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Analytical modeling for the optical properties of the skin with in υitro and in υiυo applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 34, 493–499 (1981).
[PubMed]

1962

1956

J. D. Hardy, H. T. Hammel, D. Murgatroyd, “Spectral transmission and reflectance of excised human skin,” J. Appl. Physiol. 9, 257–264 (1956).
[PubMed]

1951

Aarnoudse, J. G.

R. Graaff, M. H. Koelink, F. F. M. de Mul, A. C. M. Dassel, W. G. Zijlstra, J. G. Aarnoudse, “Condensed Monte Carlo simulations for the description of light transport,” Appl. Opt. 32, 426–434 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, J. R. Zijp, P. M. A. Sloot, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, M. H. Koelink, “Reduced light scattering properties for mixtures of spherical particles: a simple approximation derived from Mie calculations,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1370–1376 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. M. Dassel, R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, J. M. Elstrodt, P. Heida, M. H. Koelink, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, “Reflectance pulse oximetry in fetal lambs,” Pediatr. Res. 31, 266–269 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, W. G. Zijlstra, P. Heida, F. F. M. de Mul, M. H. Koelink, J. Greve, “Reflection pulse oximetry depends on source-detector distance,” Intensive Care Med. 16, S99 (1990).

R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, F. F. M. de Mul, H. W. Jentink, “Light propagation parameters for anisotropically scattering media, based on a rigorous solution of the transport equation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2273–2279 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, F. F. M. de Mul, H. W. Jentink, “Improved expressions for anisotropic scattering in absorbing media,” in Scattering and Diffraction, H. A. Ferwerda, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1029, 103–110 (1989).

R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, J. G. Aarnoudse, W. G. Zijlstra, P. Heida, F. F. M. de Mul, M. H. Koelink, J. Greve, “Biophysical aspects of reflection pulse oximetry,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Fetal and Neonatal Physiological Measurements, H. N. Lafeber, J. G. Aarnoudse, H. W. Jongsma, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991), 129–134.

M. H. Koelink, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, J. G. Aarnoudse, “Monte Carlo simulations and measurements of signals in laser Doppler flowmetry on human skin,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 63–72 (1991).

Alter, C. A.

S. L. Jacques, C. A. Alter, S. A. Prahl, “Angular dependence of He–Ne laser light scattering by human dermis,” Lasers Life Sci, 1, 309–333 (1987).

Anderson, R. R.

S. Wan, R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Analytical modeling for the optical properties of the skin with in υitro and in υiυo applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 34, 493–499 (1981).
[PubMed]

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Optical properties of human skin,” in The Science of Photomedicine, J. D. Regan, J. A. Parrish, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1982), pp. 147–194.
[CrossRef]

Andreola, S.

Beek, J. F.

Bertoni, A.

Blevin, W. R.

Blokland, P.

Bonner, R. F.

Bosman, S.

Brown, W. J.

Bruls, W. A. G.

W. A. G. Bruls, J. C. van der Leun, “Forward scattering properties of human epidermal layers,” Photochem. Photobiol. 40, 231–242 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, B. C. Wilson, “Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the noninvasive measurement of tissue optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2331–2336 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, G. Holtom, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle,” Anal. Biochem. 174, 698–707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheong, W. F.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Curcio, J. A.

Dassel, A. C. M.

R. Graaff, M. H. Koelink, F. F. M. de Mul, A. C. M. Dassel, W. G. Zijlstra, J. G. Aarnoudse, “Condensed Monte Carlo simulations for the description of light transport,” Appl. Opt. 32, 426–434 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. M. Dassel, R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, J. M. Elstrodt, P. Heida, M. H. Koelink, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, “Reflectance pulse oximetry in fetal lambs,” Pediatr. Res. 31, 266–269 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, J. G. Aarnoudse, W. G. Zijlstra, P. Heida, F. F. M. de Mul, M. H. Koelink, J. Greve, “Biophysical aspects of reflection pulse oximetry,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Fetal and Neonatal Physiological Measurements, H. N. Lafeber, J. G. Aarnoudse, H. W. Jongsma, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991), 129–134.

M. H. Koelink, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, J. G. Aarnoudse, “Monte Carlo simulations and measurements of signals in laser Doppler flowmetry on human skin,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 63–72 (1991).

de Cuyper, H. J.

H. J. de Cuyper, H. L. Lambert, “Assessment of the penetration depth of IR laser light in υiυo—a comparative study,” in Proceedings of the North Sea Conference on Biomedical Engineering, J. Cornelis, S. Peeters, eds. (Int. Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering, Antwerpen, Belgium, 1990).

de Mul, F. F. M.

R. Graaff, M. H. Koelink, F. F. M. de Mul, A. C. M. Dassel, W. G. Zijlstra, J. G. Aarnoudse, “Condensed Monte Carlo simulations for the description of light transport,” Appl. Opt. 32, 426–434 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, J. R. Zijp, P. M. A. Sloot, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, M. H. Koelink, “Reduced light scattering properties for mixtures of spherical particles: a simple approximation derived from Mie calculations,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1370–1376 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. M. Dassel, R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, J. M. Elstrodt, P. Heida, M. H. Koelink, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, “Reflectance pulse oximetry in fetal lambs,” Pediatr. Res. 31, 266–269 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, W. G. Zijlstra, P. Heida, F. F. M. de Mul, M. H. Koelink, J. Greve, “Reflection pulse oximetry depends on source-detector distance,” Intensive Care Med. 16, S99 (1990).

R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, F. F. M. de Mul, H. W. Jentink, “Light propagation parameters for anisotropically scattering media, based on a rigorous solution of the transport equation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2273–2279 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, F. F. M. de Mul, H. W. Jentink, “Improved expressions for anisotropic scattering in absorbing media,” in Scattering and Diffraction, H. A. Ferwerda, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1029, 103–110 (1989).

R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, J. G. Aarnoudse, W. G. Zijlstra, P. Heida, F. F. M. de Mul, M. H. Koelink, J. Greve, “Biophysical aspects of reflection pulse oximetry,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Fetal and Neonatal Physiological Measurements, H. N. Lafeber, J. G. Aarnoudse, H. W. Jongsma, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991), 129–134.

M. H. Koelink, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, J. G. Aarnoudse, “Monte Carlo simulations and measurements of signals in laser Doppler flowmetry on human skin,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 63–72 (1991).

Devir, A. D.

Elstrodt, J. M.

A. C. M. Dassel, R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, J. M. Elstrodt, P. Heida, M. H. Koelink, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, “Reflectance pulse oximetry in fetal lambs,” Pediatr. Res. 31, 266–269 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fountain, M.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, G. Holtom, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle,” Anal. Biochem. 174, 698–707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frank, G. L.

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, G. L. Frank, “Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared,” Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1317–1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graaff, R.

R. Graaff, M. H. Koelink, F. F. M. de Mul, A. C. M. Dassel, W. G. Zijlstra, J. G. Aarnoudse, “Condensed Monte Carlo simulations for the description of light transport,” Appl. Opt. 32, 426–434 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, J. R. Zijp, P. M. A. Sloot, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, M. H. Koelink, “Reduced light scattering properties for mixtures of spherical particles: a simple approximation derived from Mie calculations,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1370–1376 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. M. Dassel, R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, J. M. Elstrodt, P. Heida, M. H. Koelink, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, “Reflectance pulse oximetry in fetal lambs,” Pediatr. Res. 31, 266–269 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, W. G. Zijlstra, P. Heida, F. F. M. de Mul, M. H. Koelink, J. Greve, “Reflection pulse oximetry depends on source-detector distance,” Intensive Care Med. 16, S99 (1990).

R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, F. F. M. de Mul, H. W. Jentink, “Light propagation parameters for anisotropically scattering media, based on a rigorous solution of the transport equation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2273–2279 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, F. F. M. de Mul, H. W. Jentink, “Improved expressions for anisotropic scattering in absorbing media,” in Scattering and Diffraction, H. A. Ferwerda, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1029, 103–110 (1989).

R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, J. G. Aarnoudse, W. G. Zijlstra, P. Heida, F. F. M. de Mul, M. H. Koelink, J. Greve, “Biophysical aspects of reflection pulse oximetry,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Fetal and Neonatal Physiological Measurements, H. N. Lafeber, J. G. Aarnoudse, H. W. Jongsma, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991), 129–134.

M. H. Koelink, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, J. G. Aarnoudse, “Monte Carlo simulations and measurements of signals in laser Doppler flowmetry on human skin,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 63–72 (1991).

Greenfeld, R.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, G. Holtom, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle,” Anal. Biochem. 174, 698–707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greve, J.

A. C. M. Dassel, R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, J. M. Elstrodt, P. Heida, M. H. Koelink, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, “Reflectance pulse oximetry in fetal lambs,” Pediatr. Res. 31, 266–269 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, J. R. Zijp, P. M. A. Sloot, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, M. H. Koelink, “Reduced light scattering properties for mixtures of spherical particles: a simple approximation derived from Mie calculations,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1370–1376 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, W. G. Zijlstra, P. Heida, F. F. M. de Mul, M. H. Koelink, J. Greve, “Reflection pulse oximetry depends on source-detector distance,” Intensive Care Med. 16, S99 (1990).

R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, J. G. Aarnoudse, W. G. Zijlstra, P. Heida, F. F. M. de Mul, M. H. Koelink, J. Greve, “Biophysical aspects of reflection pulse oximetry,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Fetal and Neonatal Physiological Measurements, H. N. Lafeber, J. G. Aarnoudse, H. W. Jongsma, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991), 129–134.

M. H. Koelink, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, J. G. Aarnoudse, “Monte Carlo simulations and measurements of signals in laser Doppler flowmetry on human skin,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 63–72 (1991).

Gush, R. J.

R. J. Gush, T. A. King, M. I. V. Jayson, “Aspects of laser light scattering from skin tissue with applications to laser Doppler blood flow measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 29, 1463–1476 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammel, H. T.

J. D. Hardy, H. T. Hammel, D. Murgatroyd, “Spectral transmission and reflectance of excised human skin,” J. Appl. Physiol. 9, 257–264 (1956).
[PubMed]

Hardy, J. D.

J. D. Hardy, H. T. Hammel, D. Murgatroyd, “Spectral transmission and reflectance of excised human skin,” J. Appl. Physiol. 9, 257–264 (1956).
[PubMed]

Havlin, S.

Heida, P.

A. C. M. Dassel, R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, J. M. Elstrodt, P. Heida, M. H. Koelink, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, “Reflectance pulse oximetry in fetal lambs,” Pediatr. Res. 31, 266–269 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, W. G. Zijlstra, P. Heida, F. F. M. de Mul, M. H. Koelink, J. Greve, “Reflection pulse oximetry depends on source-detector distance,” Intensive Care Med. 16, S99 (1990).

R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, J. G. Aarnoudse, W. G. Zijlstra, P. Heida, F. F. M. de Mul, M. H. Koelink, J. Greve, “Biophysical aspects of reflection pulse oximetry,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Fetal and Neonatal Physiological Measurements, H. N. Lafeber, J. G. Aarnoudse, H. W. Jongsma, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991), 129–134.

Holtom, G.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, G. Holtom, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle,” Anal. Biochem. 174, 698–707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

M. J. C. Van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, W. M. Star, “Skin optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146–1154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, C. A. Alter, S. A. Prahl, “Angular dependence of He–Ne laser light scattering by human dermis,” Lasers Life Sci, 1, 309–333 (1987).

S. L. Jacques, M. Keijzer, “Dosimetry for lasers and light in dermatology: Monte Carlo simulations of 577-nm pulsed laser penetration into cutaneous vessels,” in Lasers in Dermatology and Tissue Welding, O. T. Tan, R. A. White, J. V. White, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1422, 2–13 (1991).

Jayson, M. I. V.

R. J. Gush, T. A. King, M. I. V. Jayson, “Aspects of laser light scattering from skin tissue with applications to laser Doppler blood flow measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 29, 1463–1476 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jentink, H. W.

R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, F. F. M. de Mul, H. W. Jentink, “Light propagation parameters for anisotropically scattering media, based on a rigorous solution of the transport equation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2273–2279 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, F. F. M. de Mul, H. W. Jentink, “Improved expressions for anisotropic scattering in absorbing media,” in Scattering and Diffraction, H. A. Ferwerda, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1029, 103–110 (1989).

Keijzer, M.

M. Keijzer, W. M. Star, P. R. M. Storchi, “Optical diffusion in layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1820–1824 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, M. Keijzer, “Dosimetry for lasers and light in dermatology: Monte Carlo simulations of 577-nm pulsed laser penetration into cutaneous vessels,” in Lasers in Dermatology and Tissue Welding, O. T. Tan, R. A. White, J. V. White, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1422, 2–13 (1991).

Kent, J.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, G. Holtom, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle,” Anal. Biochem. 174, 698–707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King, T. A.

R. J. Gush, T. A. King, M. I. V. Jayson, “Aspects of laser light scattering from skin tissue with applications to laser Doppler blood flow measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 29, 1463–1476 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koelink, M. H.

R. Graaff, M. H. Koelink, F. F. M. de Mul, A. C. M. Dassel, W. G. Zijlstra, J. G. Aarnoudse, “Condensed Monte Carlo simulations for the description of light transport,” Appl. Opt. 32, 426–434 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, J. R. Zijp, P. M. A. Sloot, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, M. H. Koelink, “Reduced light scattering properties for mixtures of spherical particles: a simple approximation derived from Mie calculations,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1370–1376 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. M. Dassel, R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, J. M. Elstrodt, P. Heida, M. H. Koelink, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, “Reflectance pulse oximetry in fetal lambs,” Pediatr. Res. 31, 266–269 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, W. G. Zijlstra, P. Heida, F. F. M. de Mul, M. H. Koelink, J. Greve, “Reflection pulse oximetry depends on source-detector distance,” Intensive Care Med. 16, S99 (1990).

M. H. Koelink, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, J. G. Aarnoudse, “Monte Carlo simulations and measurements of signals in laser Doppler flowmetry on human skin,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 63–72 (1991).

R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, J. G. Aarnoudse, W. G. Zijlstra, P. Heida, F. F. M. de Mul, M. H. Koelink, J. Greve, “Biophysical aspects of reflection pulse oximetry,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Fetal and Neonatal Physiological Measurements, H. N. Lafeber, J. G. Aarnoudse, H. W. Jongsma, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991), 129–134.

Kolari, P. J.

P. J. Kolari, “Penetration of unfocused laser light into the skin,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 277, 342–344 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lambert, H. L.

H. J. de Cuyper, H. L. Lambert, “Assessment of the penetration depth of IR laser light in υiυo—a comparative study,” in Proceedings of the North Sea Conference on Biomedical Engineering, J. Cornelis, S. Peeters, eds. (Int. Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering, Antwerpen, Belgium, 1990).

Marchesini, R.

McCully, K.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, G. Holtom, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle,” Anal. Biochem. 174, 698–707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melloni, E.

Moes, C. J. M.

Murgatroyd, D.

J. D. Hardy, H. T. Hammel, D. Murgatroyd, “Spectral transmission and reflectance of excised human skin,” J. Appl. Physiol. 9, 257–264 (1956).
[PubMed]

Nioka, S.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, G. Holtom, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle,” Anal. Biochem. 174, 698–707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nossal, R.

Oppenheim, U. P.

Parrish, J. A.

S. Wan, R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Analytical modeling for the optical properties of the skin with in υitro and in υiυo applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 34, 493–499 (1981).
[PubMed]

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Optical properties of human skin,” in The Science of Photomedicine, J. D. Regan, J. A. Parrish, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1982), pp. 147–194.
[CrossRef]

Patterson, M. S.

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, G. L. Frank, “Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared,” Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1317–1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, B. C. Wilson, “Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the noninvasive measurement of tissue optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2331–2336 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peters, V. G.

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, G. L. Frank, “Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared,” Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1317–1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petty, C. C.

Pickering, J. W.

Posthumus, P.

Prahl, S. A.

J. W. Pickering, S. A. Prahl, N. van Wieringen, J. F. Beek, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Double-integrating-sphere system for measuring the optical properties of tissue,” Appl. Opt. 32, 399–410 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Pickering, C. J. M. Moes, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Two integrating spheres with an intervening scattering sample,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 621–631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Van Staveren, C. J. M. Moes, J. van Marle, S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Light scattering in Intralipid-10% in the wavelength range of 400–1100 nm,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4507–4514 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Jacques, C. A. Alter, S. A. Prahl, “Angular dependence of He–Ne laser light scattering by human dermis,” Lasers Life Sci, 1, 309–333 (1987).

S. A. Prahl, “Light transport in tissue,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Austin, Austin, Tex.1988).

S. A. Prahl, Laser Research Center, St. Vincent’s Hospital, 9205 SW Barnes, Portland OR 97225, USA (personal communication, August1992).

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, “Simple photon diffusion analysis of the effects of multiple scattering on pulse oximetry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-38, 1194–1203 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, G. X. Zhou, E. C. Walker, R. T. Wall, “Multilayer model for photon diffusion in skin,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 2141–2153 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheffer, D.

Sichirollo, A. E.

Sloot, P. M. A.

Star, W. M.

M. J. C. Van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, W. M. Star, “Skin optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146–1154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Keijzer, W. M. Star, P. R. M. Storchi, “Optical diffusion in layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1820–1824 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

Storchi, P. R. M.

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Multiple Light Scattering (Academic, New York, 1980).

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

van der Leun, J. C.

W. A. G. Bruls, J. C. van der Leun, “Forward scattering properties of human epidermal layers,” Photochem. Photobiol. 40, 231–242 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

van Marle, J.

Van Staveren, H. J.

van Wieringen, N.

Walker, E. C.

Wall, R. T.

Wan, S.

S. Wan, R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Analytical modeling for the optical properties of the skin with in υitro and in υiυo applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 34, 493–499 (1981).
[PubMed]

Weiss, G. H.

Welch, A. J.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. C.

Wyman, D. R.

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, G. L. Frank, “Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared,” Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1317–1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, G. X.

Zijlstra, W. G.

R. Graaff, M. H. Koelink, F. F. M. de Mul, A. C. M. Dassel, W. G. Zijlstra, J. G. Aarnoudse, “Condensed Monte Carlo simulations for the description of light transport,” Appl. Opt. 32, 426–434 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, W. G. Zijlstra, P. Heida, F. F. M. de Mul, M. H. Koelink, J. Greve, “Reflection pulse oximetry depends on source-detector distance,” Intensive Care Med. 16, S99 (1990).

R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, J. G. Aarnoudse, W. G. Zijlstra, P. Heida, F. F. M. de Mul, M. H. Koelink, J. Greve, “Biophysical aspects of reflection pulse oximetry,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Fetal and Neonatal Physiological Measurements, H. N. Lafeber, J. G. Aarnoudse, H. W. Jongsma, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991), 129–134.

W. G. Zijlstra, “History of oximetry,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Fetal and Neonatal Physiological Measurements, H. N. Lafeber, J. G. Aarnoudse, H. W. Jongsma, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991), 97–102.

Zijp, J. R.

Anal. Biochem.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, G. Holtom, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle,” Anal. Biochem. 174, 698–707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

J. W. Pickering, S. Bosman, P. Posthumus, P. Blokland, J. F. Beek, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Changes in the optical properties (at 632.8 nm) of slowly heated myocardium,” Appl. Opt. 32, 367–371 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Keijzer, W. M. Star, P. R. M. Storchi, “Optical diffusion in layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1820–1824 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, M. H. Koelink, F. F. M. de Mul, A. C. M. Dassel, W. G. Zijlstra, J. G. Aarnoudse, “Condensed Monte Carlo simulations for the description of light transport,” Appl. Opt. 32, 426–434 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, F. F. M. de Mul, H. W. Jentink, “Light propagation parameters for anisotropically scattering media, based on a rigorous solution of the transport equation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2273–2279 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, J. R. Zijp, P. M. A. Sloot, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, M. H. Koelink, “Reduced light scattering properties for mixtures of spherical particles: a simple approximation derived from Mie calculations,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1370–1376 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Van Staveren, C. J. M. Moes, J. van Marle, S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Light scattering in Intralipid-10% in the wavelength range of 400–1100 nm,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4507–4514 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Marchesini, A. Bertoni, S. Andreola, E. Melloni, A. E. Sichirollo, “Extinction and absorption coefficients and scattering phase functions of human tissues in υitro,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2318–2324 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sheffer, U. P. Oppenheim, A. D. Devir, “Absolute measurement of diffuse reflectance in the α°/d configuration,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3181–3185 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Pickering, S. A. Prahl, N. van Wieringen, J. F. Beek, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Double-integrating-sphere system for measuring the optical properties of tissue,” Appl. Opt. 32, 399–410 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, B. C. Wilson, “Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the noninvasive measurement of tissue optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2331–2336 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Dermatol. Res.

P. J. Kolari, “Penetration of unfocused laser light into the skin,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 277, 342–344 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

M. J. C. Van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, W. M. Star, “Skin optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146–1154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, “Simple photon diffusion analysis of the effects of multiple scattering on pulse oximetry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-38, 1194–1203 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Intensive Care Med.

R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, W. G. Zijlstra, P. Heida, F. F. M. de Mul, M. H. Koelink, J. Greve, “Reflection pulse oximetry depends on source-detector distance,” Intensive Care Med. 16, S99 (1990).

J. Appl. Physiol.

J. D. Hardy, H. T. Hammel, D. Murgatroyd, “Spectral transmission and reflectance of excised human skin,” J. Appl. Physiol. 9, 257–264 (1956).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Lasers Life Sci

S. L. Jacques, C. A. Alter, S. A. Prahl, “Angular dependence of He–Ne laser light scattering by human dermis,” Lasers Life Sci, 1, 309–333 (1987).

Pediatr. Res.

A. C. M. Dassel, R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, J. M. Elstrodt, P. Heida, M. H. Koelink, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, “Reflectance pulse oximetry in fetal lambs,” Pediatr. Res. 31, 266–269 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Photochem. Photobiol.

W. A. G. Bruls, J. C. van der Leun, “Forward scattering properties of human epidermal layers,” Photochem. Photobiol. 40, 231–242 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wan, R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Analytical modeling for the optical properties of the skin with in υitro and in υiυo applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 34, 493–499 (1981).
[PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol.

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, G. L. Frank, “Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared,” Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1317–1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Gush, T. A. King, M. I. V. Jayson, “Aspects of laser light scattering from skin tissue with applications to laser Doppler blood flow measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 29, 1463–1476 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

S. L. Jacques, M. Keijzer, “Dosimetry for lasers and light in dermatology: Monte Carlo simulations of 577-nm pulsed laser penetration into cutaneous vessels,” in Lasers in Dermatology and Tissue Welding, O. T. Tan, R. A. White, J. V. White, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1422, 2–13 (1991).

S. A. Prahl, “Light transport in tissue,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Austin, Austin, Tex.1988).

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Optical properties of human skin,” in The Science of Photomedicine, J. D. Regan, J. A. Parrish, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1982), pp. 147–194.
[CrossRef]

W. G. Zijlstra, “History of oximetry,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Fetal and Neonatal Physiological Measurements, H. N. Lafeber, J. G. Aarnoudse, H. W. Jongsma, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991), 97–102.

R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, J. G. Aarnoudse, W. G. Zijlstra, P. Heida, F. F. M. de Mul, M. H. Koelink, J. Greve, “Biophysical aspects of reflection pulse oximetry,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Fetal and Neonatal Physiological Measurements, H. N. Lafeber, J. G. Aarnoudse, H. W. Jongsma, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991), 129–134.

M. H. Koelink, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, J. G. Aarnoudse, “Monte Carlo simulations and measurements of signals in laser Doppler flowmetry on human skin,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 63–72 (1991).

H. J. de Cuyper, H. L. Lambert, “Assessment of the penetration depth of IR laser light in υiυo—a comparative study,” in Proceedings of the North Sea Conference on Biomedical Engineering, J. Cornelis, S. Peeters, eds. (Int. Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering, Antwerpen, Belgium, 1990).

S. A. Prahl, Laser Research Center, St. Vincent’s Hospital, 9205 SW Barnes, Portland OR 97225, USA (personal communication, August1992).

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

H. C. van de Hulst, Multiple Light Scattering (Academic, New York, 1980).

R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, F. F. M. de Mul, H. W. Jentink, “Improved expressions for anisotropic scattering in absorbing media,” in Scattering and Diffraction, H. A. Ferwerda, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1029, 103–110 (1989).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Wavelength dependence of the scattering coefficient for Rayleigh scatterers (small scatterers) and Rayleigh–Gans scatterers with x = 5 at 633 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Asymmetry factor g as a function of wavelength. Measured values for the dermis from Jacques et al.11 (□) and data derived by Van Gemert et al.10 from the measurements of Bruls and Van der Leun9 on the epidermis (♦). Calculations are from Eqs. (2) and (3). gRG(633 nm) = 0.91, and β(633 nm) = 0, 0.10, and 0.20.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Configuration for Monte Carlo simulations with an absorbing layer added to simulate the epidermis.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reduced scattering coefficient μs′ as a function of wavelength. The values were deduced from Jacques et al. (Δ), Hardy et al. (○), and Prahl (+). Calculations are from Eqs. (4) and (5), gRG(633 nm) = 0.91, and β(633 nm) = 0, 0.05, and 0.10.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Applied measuring probe.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Total reflectance for a semi-infinite medium as a function of the reduced albedo c′. Monte Carlo simulations with nrefr = 1.4 for isotropic scattering, g = 0, and for Henyey–Greenstein scattering, gHG = 0.875. The data for isotropic scattering from Blevin and Brown35 are for nrefr = 1.333 (♦) and nrefr = 1.46 (⋄).

Tables (9)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical Properties of Human Dermis Samples (633 nm) Obtained from Reflectance and Transmittance Measurements of Jacques et al.a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Optical Properties of Human Dermis Samples Obtained from Reflectance and Transmittance Data Measured by Hardy et al.a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Optical Properties of Human Dermis Samples at 633 nma

Tables Icon

Table 4 Rayleigh and Rayleigh–Gans Contributions to μs′ for the in Vitro Results at 633 nm for Different Values of β(633 nm)

Tables Icon

Table 5 Intensities I1, I2, and I3 of Remitted Light of Five Male Caucasians as Measured at the Skin Surface at 4.1, 6.9, and 9.4 mm from the Light Source, Respectivelya

Tables Icon

Table 6 Effect of Additional Shielding of the LED’s and Application of Refractive-Index Matching Oila

Tables Icon

Table 7 Monte Carlo Simulation of Measured Intensities with the Reflectance Pulse Oximeter Probe when a Semi-infinite Medium is Assumeda

Tables Icon

Table 8 Estimated Range for Average Absorption and Reduced Scattering Coefficients for the Human Dermis in vivo Based on Average Values: I2/I1 = 0.24 and 0.21 for 660 and 940 nm, Respectivelya

Tables Icon

Table 9 Results for the Wavelength Dependence of μs,RG′ and Rayleigh Scattering

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( θ ) = I ( 0 ) { β + ( 1 β ) 1 g H G 2 [ 1 + g H G 2 2 g H G 2 cos ( θ ) ] 3 / 2 } ,
β ( λ ) = μ s , R ( λ ) μ s , R ( λ ) + μ s , R G ( λ ) ,
g ( λ ) = μ s g μ s = μ s , R G ( λ ) g R G ( λ ) + 0 μ s , R G ( λ ) + μ s , R ( λ ) = [ 1 β ( λ ) ] g R G ( λ ) .
μ s ( λ ) = μ s , R ( λ ) + μ s , R G ( λ ) = μ s , R ( λ 0 ) ( λ λ 0 ) 4 + μ s , R G ( λ 0 ) μ s , R G ( λ ) μ s , R G ( λ 0 ) .
μ s ( λ ) μ s ( λ 0 ) = [ 1 f 2 ( λ 0 ) ] μ s , R G ( λ ) μ s , R G ( λ 0 ) + f 2 ( λ 0 ) ( λ λ 0 ) 4 .
f 2 ( λ 0 ) = β ( λ 0 ) 1 [ 1 β ( λ 0 ) ] g R G ( λ 0 ) = β ( λ 0 ) 1 g ( λ 0 ) .
x = x ( λ 0 ) λ 0 λ .

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