Abstract

We have determined the spectral dependence of the temporal point spread functions of human tissues experimentally between 740 and 840 nm in transmittance measurements on the adult head, forearm, and calf (in υivo) and the infant head (post mortem) by using picosecond laser pulses and a streak camera detector. Two parameters are extracted from the temporal point spread function; the differential path-length factor (DPF), calculated from the mean time, and the slope of the logarithmic intensity decay. In all tissues the DPF and the logarithmic slope show a reciprocal relationship and exhibit characteristics of the absorption spectra of hemoglobin. The DPF falls with increasing wavelength, the variation being typically 12%, while the logarithmic slope increases with wavelength. A quantitative analysis of the logarithmic slope spectrum significantly underestimated expected tissue chromophore concentrations. The absolute magnitudes of the DPF showed considerable intersubject variation, but the variation with wavelength was consistent and thus may be used in the correction of tissue attenuation spectra.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, C. E. Richardson, D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Cotside measurements of cerebral blood flow in ill newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” Lancet ii, 770–771 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  36. J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, C. E. Richardson, A. D. Edwards, S. C. Wray, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Quantitation of cerebral blood volume in newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Physiol. 68(3), 1086–1091 (1990).
    [PubMed]

1991 (2)

G. C. Brown, M. Crompton, S. Wray, “Cytochrome oxidase content of rat brain during development,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1057, 273–275 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. W. McCormick, M. Stewart, M. G. Goetting, M. Dujovny, G. Lewis, J. I. Ausman, “Noninvasive cerebral optical spectroscopy for monitoring cerebral oxygen delivery and hemodynamics,” Crit. Care Med. 19, 89–97 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (4)

J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, C. E. Richardson, A. D. Edwards, S. C. Wray, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Quantitation of cerebral blood volume in newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Physiol. 68(3), 1086–1091 (1990).
[PubMed]

J. R. Lakowicz, K. Berndt, “Frequency domain measurements of photon migration in tissues,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 166, 246–252 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “The effect of optode positioning on optical pathlength in near infrared spectroscopy of brain,” Adv. Exp. Med Biol. 277, 79–84 (1990).
[PubMed]

J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, A. D. Edwards, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Measurement of optical pathlength for cerebral near infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” Dev. Neurosci. 12, 140–144 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (6)

D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, A. D. Edwards, E. O. R. Reynolds, C. E. Richardson, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, P. van der Zee, “Quantitation of pathlength in optical spectroscopy,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 248, 41–46 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, E. O. R. Reynolds, “A CCD spectrometer to quantitate the concentration of chromophores in living tissue utilising the absorption peak of water at 975 nm,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 248, 33–40 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, M. J. C. van Gemert, W. Kamphorst, J. G. Wolbers, W. Hogervorst, “The spectral dependence of the optical properties of human brain,” Lasers Med. Sci. 4, 221–227 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Bolin, L. E. Preuss, R. C. Taylor, R. Ference, “Refractive index of some mammalian tissues using a fiber optic cladding method,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2297–2302 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Karagiannes, Z. Zhang, B. Grossweiner, L. I. Grossweiner, “Applications of the 1-D diffusion approximation to the optics of tissues and tissue phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2311–2317 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Marchesini, A. Bertoni, S. Andreola, E. Melloni, A. E. Sichirollo, “Extinction and absorption coefficients and scattering phase functions of human tissues inυitro,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2318–2324 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (6)

A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, C. E. Richardson, D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Cotside measurements of cerebral blood flow in ill newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” Lancet ii, 770–771 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and hemoglobin for the noninvasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184–192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohne, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time resolved and unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain.”Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, G. Holtom, “Time resolved spectroscopy of haemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischaemic muscle,” Anal. Biochem. 174, 698–707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “A system for long term measurement of cerebral blood and tissue oxygenation in newborn infants by near infrared transillumination,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 26, 289–294 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

P. A. Rea, J. Crowe, Y. Wickramsinghe, P. Rolfe, “Non invasive optical methods for the study of cerebral metabolism in the human newborn: a technique for the future?” J. Med. Eng Technol. 9, 160–166 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Sakai, K. Nakazawa, Y. Tazaki, K. Ishii, H. Hidetada, H. Igarashi, T. Kanda, “Regional cerebral blood volume and hematocrit measured in normal human volunteers by single-proton emission computed tomography,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 5, 207–213 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

R. J. Maughan, J. S. Watson, J. Weir, “The relative proportions of fat, muscle and bone in the normal human forearm as determined by computer assisted tomography,” Clin. Sci, 66, 683–689 (1984).
[PubMed]

1982 (1)

I. Giannini, M. Ferrari, A. Carpi, P. Fasella, “Rat brain monitoring by near infrared spectroscopy: an assessment of possible clinical significance,” Physiol. Chem. Phys. 14, 295–305 (1982).
[PubMed]

1977 (1)

F. F. Jöbsis, “Non invasive, infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters,” Science 198, 1264–1267 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1949 (1)

G. Brant, “Studies on lipids in the nervous system with special reference to quantitative chemical determination and topical distribution,” Acta. Physiol. Scand. 18 Suppl. 63, 1–189. (1949).

Andreola, S.

Antonini, E.

M. Brunori, E. Antonini, M. T. Wilson, “Cytochrome c oxidase: an overview of recent work,” in Metal Ions in Biological Systems XIII, H. Siegel, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1981).

Arridge, S. R.

P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “The effect of optode positioning on optical pathlength in near infrared spectroscopy of brain,” Adv. Exp. Med Biol. 277, 79–84 (1990).
[PubMed]

J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, A. D. Edwards, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Measurement of optical pathlength for cerebral near infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” Dev. Neurosci. 12, 140–144 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, A. D. Edwards, E. O. R. Reynolds, C. E. Richardson, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, P. van der Zee, “Quantitation of pathlength in optical spectroscopy,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 248, 41–46 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cope, P. van der Zee, M. Essenpreis, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Data analysis methods for near infrared spectroscopy of tissue: problems in determining the relative cytochrome aa3 concentration,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 251–262 (1991).

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of interoptode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Ausman, J. I.

P. W. McCormick, M. Stewart, M. G. Goetting, M. Dujovny, G. Lewis, J. I. Ausman, “Noninvasive cerebral optical spectroscopy for monitoring cerebral oxygen delivery and hemodynamics,” Crit. Care Med. 19, 89–97 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barilli, M.

M. Ferrari, R. A. De Blasi, P. Bruscaglioni, M. Barilli, L. Carraresi, M. Gurioli, E. Quaglia, G. Zaccanti, “Near infrared time-resolved spectroscopy and fast scanning spectrophotometry in ischemic human forearm,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 276–283 (1991).

Berndt, K.

J. R. Lakowicz, K. Berndt, “Frequency domain measurements of photon migration in tissues,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 166, 246–252 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bertoni, A.

Bolin, F. P.

Bonner, R. F.

R. Nossal, R. F. Bonner, “Differential time-resolved detection of absorbance changes in composite structures,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 21–28 (1991).

Boretsky, R.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohne, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time resolved and unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain.”Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brant, G.

G. Brant, “Studies on lipids in the nervous system with special reference to quantitative chemical determination and topical distribution,” Acta. Physiol. Scand. 18 Suppl. 63, 1–189. (1949).

Brown, G. C.

G. C. Brown, M. Crompton, S. Wray, “Cytochrome oxidase content of rat brain during development,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1057, 273–275 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunori, M.

M. Brunori, E. Antonini, M. T. Wilson, “Cytochrome c oxidase: an overview of recent work,” in Metal Ions in Biological Systems XIII, H. Siegel, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1981).

Bruscaglioni, P.

M. Ferrari, R. A. De Blasi, P. Bruscaglioni, M. Barilli, L. Carraresi, M. Gurioli, E. Quaglia, G. Zaccanti, “Near infrared time-resolved spectroscopy and fast scanning spectrophotometry in ischemic human forearm,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 276–283 (1991).

Carpi, A.

I. Giannini, M. Ferrari, A. Carpi, P. Fasella, “Rat brain monitoring by near infrared spectroscopy: an assessment of possible clinical significance,” Physiol. Chem. Phys. 14, 295–305 (1982).
[PubMed]

Carraresi, L.

M. Ferrari, R. A. De Blasi, P. Bruscaglioni, M. Barilli, L. Carraresi, M. Gurioli, E. Quaglia, G. Zaccanti, “Near infrared time-resolved spectroscopy and fast scanning spectrophotometry in ischemic human forearm,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 276–283 (1991).

Chance, B.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohne, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time resolved and unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain.”Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, G. Holtom, “Time resolved spectroscopy of haemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischaemic muscle,” Anal. Biochem. 174, 698–707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Patterson, J. D. Moulton, B. C. Wilson, B. Chance, “Applications of time resolved light scattering measurements to photodynamic therapy dosimetry,” in Photodynamic Therapy: Mechanisms II, T. J. Dougherty, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1203, 62–75 (1990).

E. M. Sevick, B. Chance, “Photon migration in a model of the head measured using time and frequency domain techniques: potentials of spectroscopy and imaging,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 84–96 (1991).

Cohne, P.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohne, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time resolved and unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain.”Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cope, M.

P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “The effect of optode positioning on optical pathlength in near infrared spectroscopy of brain,” Adv. Exp. Med Biol. 277, 79–84 (1990).
[PubMed]

J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, A. D. Edwards, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Measurement of optical pathlength for cerebral near infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” Dev. Neurosci. 12, 140–144 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, C. E. Richardson, A. D. Edwards, S. C. Wray, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Quantitation of cerebral blood volume in newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Physiol. 68(3), 1086–1091 (1990).
[PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, A. D. Edwards, E. O. R. Reynolds, C. E. Richardson, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, P. van der Zee, “Quantitation of pathlength in optical spectroscopy,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 248, 41–46 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, E. O. R. Reynolds, “A CCD spectrometer to quantitate the concentration of chromophores in living tissue utilising the absorption peak of water at 975 nm,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 248, 33–40 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and hemoglobin for the noninvasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184–192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “A system for long term measurement of cerebral blood and tissue oxygenation in newborn infants by near infrared transillumination,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 26, 289–294 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, C. E. Richardson, D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Cotside measurements of cerebral blood flow in ill newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” Lancet ii, 770–771 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Cope, “The development of a near infrared spectroscopy system and its application for non invasive monitoring of cerebral blood and tissue oxygenation in the newborn infant, Ph.D. dissertation (University of London, London, 1991).

M. Cope, P. van der Zee, M. Essenpreis, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Data analysis methods for near infrared spectroscopy of tissue: problems in determining the relative cytochrome aa3 concentration,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 251–262 (1991).

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of interoptode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (to be published).
[PubMed]

P. van der Zee, M. Essenpreis, D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, “Accurate determination of the optical properties of biological tissues using a Monte Carlo inversion technique,” presented at the International Commission for Optics Meeting on Atmospheric, Volume and Surface Scattering and Propagation, Florence, Italy, 27–30 August 1991.

Crompton, M.

G. C. Brown, M. Crompton, S. Wray, “Cytochrome oxidase content of rat brain during development,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1057, 273–275 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crowe, J.

P. A. Rea, J. Crowe, Y. Wickramsinghe, P. Rolfe, “Non invasive optical methods for the study of cerebral metabolism in the human newborn: a technique for the future?” J. Med. Eng Technol. 9, 160–166 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Blasi, R. A.

M. Ferrari, R. A. De Blasi, P. Bruscaglioni, M. Barilli, L. Carraresi, M. Gurioli, E. Quaglia, G. Zaccanti, “Near infrared time-resolved spectroscopy and fast scanning spectrophotometry in ischemic human forearm,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 276–283 (1991).

Delpy, D. T.

J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, A. D. Edwards, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Measurement of optical pathlength for cerebral near infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” Dev. Neurosci. 12, 140–144 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “The effect of optode positioning on optical pathlength in near infrared spectroscopy of brain,” Adv. Exp. Med Biol. 277, 79–84 (1990).
[PubMed]

J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, C. E. Richardson, A. D. Edwards, S. C. Wray, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Quantitation of cerebral blood volume in newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Physiol. 68(3), 1086–1091 (1990).
[PubMed]

M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, E. O. R. Reynolds, “A CCD spectrometer to quantitate the concentration of chromophores in living tissue utilising the absorption peak of water at 975 nm,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 248, 33–40 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, A. D. Edwards, E. O. R. Reynolds, C. E. Richardson, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, P. van der Zee, “Quantitation of pathlength in optical spectroscopy,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 248, 41–46 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, C. E. Richardson, D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Cotside measurements of cerebral blood flow in ill newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” Lancet ii, 770–771 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and hemoglobin for the noninvasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184–192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “A system for long term measurement of cerebral blood and tissue oxygenation in newborn infants by near infrared transillumination,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 26, 289–294 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cope, P. van der Zee, M. Essenpreis, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Data analysis methods for near infrared spectroscopy of tissue: problems in determining the relative cytochrome aa3 concentration,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 251–262 (1991).

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of interoptode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (to be published).
[PubMed]

P. van der Zee, M. Essenpreis, D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, “Accurate determination of the optical properties of biological tissues using a Monte Carlo inversion technique,” presented at the International Commission for Optics Meeting on Atmospheric, Volume and Surface Scattering and Propagation, Florence, Italy, 27–30 August 1991.

Dujovny, M.

P. W. McCormick, M. Stewart, M. G. Goetting, M. Dujovny, G. Lewis, J. I. Ausman, “Noninvasive cerebral optical spectroscopy for monitoring cerebral oxygen delivery and hemodynamics,” Crit. Care Med. 19, 89–97 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edwards, A. D.

J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, A. D. Edwards, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Measurement of optical pathlength for cerebral near infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” Dev. Neurosci. 12, 140–144 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, C. E. Richardson, A. D. Edwards, S. C. Wray, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Quantitation of cerebral blood volume in newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Physiol. 68(3), 1086–1091 (1990).
[PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, A. D. Edwards, E. O. R. Reynolds, C. E. Richardson, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, P. van der Zee, “Quantitation of pathlength in optical spectroscopy,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 248, 41–46 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, C. E. Richardson, D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Cotside measurements of cerebral blood flow in ill newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” Lancet ii, 770–771 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of interoptode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Essenpreis, M.

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of interoptode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (to be published).
[PubMed]

M. Cope, P. van der Zee, M. Essenpreis, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Data analysis methods for near infrared spectroscopy of tissue: problems in determining the relative cytochrome aa3 concentration,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 251–262 (1991).

P. van der Zee, M. Essenpreis, D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, “Accurate determination of the optical properties of biological tissues using a Monte Carlo inversion technique,” presented at the International Commission for Optics Meeting on Atmospheric, Volume and Surface Scattering and Propagation, Florence, Italy, 27–30 August 1991.

Fasella, P.

I. Giannini, M. Ferrari, A. Carpi, P. Fasella, “Rat brain monitoring by near infrared spectroscopy: an assessment of possible clinical significance,” Physiol. Chem. Phys. 14, 295–305 (1982).
[PubMed]

Ference, R.

Ferrari, M.

I. Giannini, M. Ferrari, A. Carpi, P. Fasella, “Rat brain monitoring by near infrared spectroscopy: an assessment of possible clinical significance,” Physiol. Chem. Phys. 14, 295–305 (1982).
[PubMed]

M. Ferrari, R. A. De Blasi, P. Bruscaglioni, M. Barilli, L. Carraresi, M. Gurioli, E. Quaglia, G. Zaccanti, “Near infrared time-resolved spectroscopy and fast scanning spectrophotometry in ischemic human forearm,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 276–283 (1991).

Finander, M.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohne, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time resolved and unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain.”Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flock, S. T.

S. L. Jacques, S. T. Flock, “Effect of surface boundary on time resolved reflectance: measurement with a prototype endoscopic catheter,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 12–20 (1991).

Fountain, M.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, G. Holtom, “Time resolved spectroscopy of haemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischaemic muscle,” Anal. Biochem. 174, 698–707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giannini, I.

I. Giannini, M. Ferrari, A. Carpi, P. Fasella, “Rat brain monitoring by near infrared spectroscopy: an assessment of possible clinical significance,” Physiol. Chem. Phys. 14, 295–305 (1982).
[PubMed]

Goetting, M. G.

P. W. McCormick, M. Stewart, M. G. Goetting, M. Dujovny, G. Lewis, J. I. Ausman, “Noninvasive cerebral optical spectroscopy for monitoring cerebral oxygen delivery and hemodynamics,” Crit. Care Med. 19, 89–97 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenfeld, R.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, G. Holtom, “Time resolved spectroscopy of haemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischaemic muscle,” Anal. Biochem. 174, 698–707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohne, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time resolved and unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain.”Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grossweiner, B.

Grossweiner, L. I.

Gurioli, M.

M. Ferrari, R. A. De Blasi, P. Bruscaglioni, M. Barilli, L. Carraresi, M. Gurioli, E. Quaglia, G. Zaccanti, “Near infrared time-resolved spectroscopy and fast scanning spectrophotometry in ischemic human forearm,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 276–283 (1991).

Hefetz, Y.

S. J. Madsen, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, Y. D. Park, J. D. Moulton, S. L. Jacques, Y. Hefetz, “Time resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance studies in tissue simulating phantoms: a comparison between theory and experiment,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 42–51 (1991).

Hidetada, H.

F. Sakai, K. Nakazawa, Y. Tazaki, K. Ishii, H. Hidetada, H. Igarashi, T. Kanda, “Regional cerebral blood volume and hematocrit measured in normal human volunteers by single-proton emission computed tomography,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 5, 207–213 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hogervorst, W.

H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, M. J. C. van Gemert, W. Kamphorst, J. G. Wolbers, W. Hogervorst, “The spectral dependence of the optical properties of human brain,” Lasers Med. Sci. 4, 221–227 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Holtom, G.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, G. Holtom, “Time resolved spectroscopy of haemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischaemic muscle,” Anal. Biochem. 174, 698–707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Igarashi, H.

F. Sakai, K. Nakazawa, Y. Tazaki, K. Ishii, H. Hidetada, H. Igarashi, T. Kanda, “Regional cerebral blood volume and hematocrit measured in normal human volunteers by single-proton emission computed tomography,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 5, 207–213 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishii, K.

F. Sakai, K. Nakazawa, Y. Tazaki, K. Ishii, H. Hidetada, H. Igarashi, T. Kanda, “Regional cerebral blood volume and hematocrit measured in normal human volunteers by single-proton emission computed tomography,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 5, 207–213 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

S. J. Madsen, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, Y. D. Park, J. D. Moulton, S. L. Jacques, Y. Hefetz, “Time resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance studies in tissue simulating phantoms: a comparison between theory and experiment,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 42–51 (1991).

S. L. Jacques, S. T. Flock, “Effect of surface boundary on time resolved reflectance: measurement with a prototype endoscopic catheter,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 12–20 (1991).

Jöbsis, F. F.

F. F. Jöbsis, “Non invasive, infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters,” Science 198, 1264–1267 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamphorst, W.

H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, M. J. C. van Gemert, W. Kamphorst, J. G. Wolbers, W. Hogervorst, “The spectral dependence of the optical properties of human brain,” Lasers Med. Sci. 4, 221–227 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kanda, T.

F. Sakai, K. Nakazawa, Y. Tazaki, K. Ishii, H. Hidetada, H. Igarashi, T. Kanda, “Regional cerebral blood volume and hematocrit measured in normal human volunteers by single-proton emission computed tomography,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 5, 207–213 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karagiannes, J. L.

Kaufmann, K.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohne, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time resolved and unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain.”Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kent, J.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, G. Holtom, “Time resolved spectroscopy of haemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischaemic muscle,” Anal. Biochem. 174, 698–707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. R. Lakowicz, K. Berndt, “Frequency domain measurements of photon migration in tissues,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 166, 246–252 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Leigh, J. S.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohne, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time resolved and unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain.”Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levy, W.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohne, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time resolved and unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain.”Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, G.

P. W. McCormick, M. Stewart, M. G. Goetting, M. Dujovny, G. Lewis, J. I. Ausman, “Noninvasive cerebral optical spectroscopy for monitoring cerebral oxygen delivery and hemodynamics,” Crit. Care Med. 19, 89–97 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madsen, S. J.

S. J. Madsen, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, Y. D. Park, J. D. Moulton, S. L. Jacques, Y. Hefetz, “Time resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance studies in tissue simulating phantoms: a comparison between theory and experiment,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 42–51 (1991).

Marchesini, R.

Maughan, R. J.

R. J. Maughan, J. S. Watson, J. Weir, “The relative proportions of fat, muscle and bone in the normal human forearm as determined by computer assisted tomography,” Clin. Sci, 66, 683–689 (1984).
[PubMed]

McCormick, D. C.

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of interoptode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (to be published).
[PubMed]

McCormick, P. W.

P. W. McCormick, M. Stewart, M. G. Goetting, M. Dujovny, G. Lewis, J. I. Ausman, “Noninvasive cerebral optical spectroscopy for monitoring cerebral oxygen delivery and hemodynamics,” Crit. Care Med. 19, 89–97 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCully, K.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, G. Holtom, “Time resolved spectroscopy of haemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischaemic muscle,” Anal. Biochem. 174, 698–707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melloni, E.

Miyake, H.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohne, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time resolved and unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain.”Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moulton, J. D.

M. S. Patterson, J. D. Moulton, B. C. Wilson, B. Chance, “Applications of time resolved light scattering measurements to photodynamic therapy dosimetry,” in Photodynamic Therapy: Mechanisms II, T. J. Dougherty, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1203, 62–75 (1990).

S. J. Madsen, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, Y. D. Park, J. D. Moulton, S. L. Jacques, Y. Hefetz, “Time resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance studies in tissue simulating phantoms: a comparison between theory and experiment,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 42–51 (1991).

Nakazawa, K.

F. Sakai, K. Nakazawa, Y. Tazaki, K. Ishii, H. Hidetada, H. Igarashi, T. Kanda, “Regional cerebral blood volume and hematocrit measured in normal human volunteers by single-proton emission computed tomography,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 5, 207–213 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nioka, S.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohne, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time resolved and unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain.”Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, G. Holtom, “Time resolved spectroscopy of haemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischaemic muscle,” Anal. Biochem. 174, 698–707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nossal, R.

R. Nossal, R. F. Bonner, “Differential time-resolved detection of absorbance changes in composite structures,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 21–28 (1991).

Park, Y. D.

S. J. Madsen, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, Y. D. Park, J. D. Moulton, S. L. Jacques, Y. Hefetz, “Time resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance studies in tissue simulating phantoms: a comparison between theory and experiment,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 42–51 (1991).

Patterson, M. S.

S. J. Madsen, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, Y. D. Park, J. D. Moulton, S. L. Jacques, Y. Hefetz, “Time resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance studies in tissue simulating phantoms: a comparison between theory and experiment,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 42–51 (1991).

M. S. Patterson, J. D. Moulton, B. C. Wilson, B. Chance, “Applications of time resolved light scattering measurements to photodynamic therapy dosimetry,” in Photodynamic Therapy: Mechanisms II, T. J. Dougherty, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1203, 62–75 (1990).

Potter, L. A.

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of interoptode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Preuss, L. E.

Quaglia, E.

M. Ferrari, R. A. De Blasi, P. Bruscaglioni, M. Barilli, L. Carraresi, M. Gurioli, E. Quaglia, G. Zaccanti, “Near infrared time-resolved spectroscopy and fast scanning spectrophotometry in ischemic human forearm,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 276–283 (1991).

Rea, P. A.

P. A. Rea, J. Crowe, Y. Wickramsinghe, P. Rolfe, “Non invasive optical methods for the study of cerebral metabolism in the human newborn: a technique for the future?” J. Med. Eng Technol. 9, 160–166 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reynolds, E. O. R.

J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, A. D. Edwards, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Measurement of optical pathlength for cerebral near infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” Dev. Neurosci. 12, 140–144 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, C. E. Richardson, A. D. Edwards, S. C. Wray, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Quantitation of cerebral blood volume in newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Physiol. 68(3), 1086–1091 (1990).
[PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, A. D. Edwards, E. O. R. Reynolds, C. E. Richardson, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, P. van der Zee, “Quantitation of pathlength in optical spectroscopy,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 248, 41–46 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, E. O. R. Reynolds, “A CCD spectrometer to quantitate the concentration of chromophores in living tissue utilising the absorption peak of water at 975 nm,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 248, 33–40 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and hemoglobin for the noninvasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184–192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, C. E. Richardson, D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Cotside measurements of cerebral blood flow in ill newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” Lancet ii, 770–771 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of interoptode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Richardson, C. E.

J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, C. E. Richardson, A. D. Edwards, S. C. Wray, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Quantitation of cerebral blood volume in newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Physiol. 68(3), 1086–1091 (1990).
[PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, A. D. Edwards, E. O. R. Reynolds, C. E. Richardson, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, P. van der Zee, “Quantitation of pathlength in optical spectroscopy,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 248, 41–46 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, C. E. Richardson, D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Cotside measurements of cerebral blood flow in ill newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” Lancet ii, 770–771 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rolfe, P.

P. A. Rea, J. Crowe, Y. Wickramsinghe, P. Rolfe, “Non invasive optical methods for the study of cerebral metabolism in the human newborn: a technique for the future?” J. Med. Eng Technol. 9, 160–166 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roth, S. C.

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of interoptode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Sakai, F.

F. Sakai, K. Nakazawa, Y. Tazaki, K. Ishii, H. Hidetada, H. Igarashi, T. Kanda, “Regional cerebral blood volume and hematocrit measured in normal human volunteers by single-proton emission computed tomography,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 5, 207–213 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sevick, E. M.

E. M. Sevick, B. Chance, “Photon migration in a model of the head measured using time and frequency domain techniques: potentials of spectroscopy and imaging,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 84–96 (1991).

Sichirollo, A. E.

Smith, D. S.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohne, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time resolved and unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain.”Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, M. J. C. van Gemert, W. Kamphorst, J. G. Wolbers, W. Hogervorst, “The spectral dependence of the optical properties of human brain,” Lasers Med. Sci. 4, 221–227 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, M.

P. W. McCormick, M. Stewart, M. G. Goetting, M. Dujovny, G. Lewis, J. I. Ausman, “Noninvasive cerebral optical spectroscopy for monitoring cerebral oxygen delivery and hemodynamics,” Crit. Care Med. 19, 89–97 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, R. C.

Tazaki, Y.

F. Sakai, K. Nakazawa, Y. Tazaki, K. Ishii, H. Hidetada, H. Igarashi, T. Kanda, “Regional cerebral blood volume and hematocrit measured in normal human volunteers by single-proton emission computed tomography,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 5, 207–213 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Zee, P.

J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, A. D. Edwards, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Measurement of optical pathlength for cerebral near infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” Dev. Neurosci. 12, 140–144 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “The effect of optode positioning on optical pathlength in near infrared spectroscopy of brain,” Adv. Exp. Med Biol. 277, 79–84 (1990).
[PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, A. D. Edwards, E. O. R. Reynolds, C. E. Richardson, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, P. van der Zee, “Quantitation of pathlength in optical spectroscopy,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 248, 41–46 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cope, P. van der Zee, M. Essenpreis, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Data analysis methods for near infrared spectroscopy of tissue: problems in determining the relative cytochrome aa3 concentration,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 251–262 (1991).

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of interoptode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (to be published).
[PubMed]

P. van der Zee, M. Essenpreis, D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, “Accurate determination of the optical properties of biological tissues using a Monte Carlo inversion technique,” presented at the International Commission for Optics Meeting on Atmospheric, Volume and Surface Scattering and Propagation, Florence, Italy, 27–30 August 1991.

van Gemert, M. J. C.

H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, M. J. C. van Gemert, W. Kamphorst, J. G. Wolbers, W. Hogervorst, “The spectral dependence of the optical properties of human brain,” Lasers Med. Sci. 4, 221–227 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Watson, J. S.

R. J. Maughan, J. S. Watson, J. Weir, “The relative proportions of fat, muscle and bone in the normal human forearm as determined by computer assisted tomography,” Clin. Sci, 66, 683–689 (1984).
[PubMed]

Weir, J.

R. J. Maughan, J. S. Watson, J. Weir, “The relative proportions of fat, muscle and bone in the normal human forearm as determined by computer assisted tomography,” Clin. Sci, 66, 683–689 (1984).
[PubMed]

Wickramsinghe, Y.

P. A. Rea, J. Crowe, Y. Wickramsinghe, P. Rolfe, “Non invasive optical methods for the study of cerebral metabolism in the human newborn: a technique for the future?” J. Med. Eng Technol. 9, 160–166 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

M. S. Patterson, J. D. Moulton, B. C. Wilson, B. Chance, “Applications of time resolved light scattering measurements to photodynamic therapy dosimetry,” in Photodynamic Therapy: Mechanisms II, T. J. Dougherty, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1203, 62–75 (1990).

S. J. Madsen, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, Y. D. Park, J. D. Moulton, S. L. Jacques, Y. Hefetz, “Time resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance studies in tissue simulating phantoms: a comparison between theory and experiment,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 42–51 (1991).

Wilson, M. T.

M. Brunori, E. Antonini, M. T. Wilson, “Cytochrome c oxidase: an overview of recent work,” in Metal Ions in Biological Systems XIII, H. Siegel, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1981).

Wolbers, J. G.

H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, M. J. C. van Gemert, W. Kamphorst, J. G. Wolbers, W. Hogervorst, “The spectral dependence of the optical properties of human brain,” Lasers Med. Sci. 4, 221–227 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wray, S.

G. C. Brown, M. Crompton, S. Wray, “Cytochrome oxidase content of rat brain during development,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1057, 273–275 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, E. O. R. Reynolds, “A CCD spectrometer to quantitate the concentration of chromophores in living tissue utilising the absorption peak of water at 975 nm,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 248, 33–40 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, A. D. Edwards, E. O. R. Reynolds, C. E. Richardson, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, P. van der Zee, “Quantitation of pathlength in optical spectroscopy,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 248, 41–46 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and hemoglobin for the noninvasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184–192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wray, S. C.

J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, C. E. Richardson, A. D. Edwards, S. C. Wray, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Quantitation of cerebral blood volume in newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Physiol. 68(3), 1086–1091 (1990).
[PubMed]

Wyatt, J. S.

J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, C. E. Richardson, A. D. Edwards, S. C. Wray, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Quantitation of cerebral blood volume in newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Physiol. 68(3), 1086–1091 (1990).
[PubMed]

J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, A. D. Edwards, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Measurement of optical pathlength for cerebral near infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” Dev. Neurosci. 12, 140–144 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, A. D. Edwards, E. O. R. Reynolds, C. E. Richardson, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, P. van der Zee, “Quantitation of pathlength in optical spectroscopy,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 248, 41–46 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, E. O. R. Reynolds, “A CCD spectrometer to quantitate the concentration of chromophores in living tissue utilising the absorption peak of water at 975 nm,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 248, 33–40 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and hemoglobin for the noninvasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184–192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, C. E. Richardson, D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Cotside measurements of cerebral blood flow in ill newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” Lancet ii, 770–771 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of interoptode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Yoshioka, H.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohne, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time resolved and unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain.”Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, M.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohne, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time resolved and unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain.”Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaccanti, G.

M. Ferrari, R. A. De Blasi, P. Bruscaglioni, M. Barilli, L. Carraresi, M. Gurioli, E. Quaglia, G. Zaccanti, “Near infrared time-resolved spectroscopy and fast scanning spectrophotometry in ischemic human forearm,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 276–283 (1991).

Zhang, Z.

Acta. Physiol. Scand. 18 Suppl. (1)

G. Brant, “Studies on lipids in the nervous system with special reference to quantitative chemical determination and topical distribution,” Acta. Physiol. Scand. 18 Suppl. 63, 1–189. (1949).

Adv. Exp. Med Biol. (1)

P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “The effect of optode positioning on optical pathlength in near infrared spectroscopy of brain,” Adv. Exp. Med Biol. 277, 79–84 (1990).
[PubMed]

Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (2)

M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, E. O. R. Reynolds, “A CCD spectrometer to quantitate the concentration of chromophores in living tissue utilising the absorption peak of water at 975 nm,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 248, 33–40 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, A. D. Edwards, E. O. R. Reynolds, C. E. Richardson, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, P. van der Zee, “Quantitation of pathlength in optical spectroscopy,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 248, 41–46 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Biochem. (1)

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfeld, G. Holtom, “Time resolved spectroscopy of haemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischaemic muscle,” Anal. Biochem. 174, 698–707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1)

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and hemoglobin for the noninvasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184–192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biochim. Biophys. Acta. (1)

G. C. Brown, M. Crompton, S. Wray, “Cytochrome oxidase content of rat brain during development,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1057, 273–275 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. R. Lakowicz, K. Berndt, “Frequency domain measurements of photon migration in tissues,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 166, 246–252 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Sci (1)

R. J. Maughan, J. S. Watson, J. Weir, “The relative proportions of fat, muscle and bone in the normal human forearm as determined by computer assisted tomography,” Clin. Sci, 66, 683–689 (1984).
[PubMed]

Crit. Care Med. (1)

P. W. McCormick, M. Stewart, M. G. Goetting, M. Dujovny, G. Lewis, J. I. Ausman, “Noninvasive cerebral optical spectroscopy for monitoring cerebral oxygen delivery and hemodynamics,” Crit. Care Med. 19, 89–97 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dev. Neurosci. (1)

J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, A. D. Edwards, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Measurement of optical pathlength for cerebral near infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” Dev. Neurosci. 12, 140–144 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Physiol. (1)

J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, C. E. Richardson, A. D. Edwards, S. C. Wray, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Quantitation of cerebral blood volume in newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Physiol. 68(3), 1086–1091 (1990).
[PubMed]

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1)

F. Sakai, K. Nakazawa, Y. Tazaki, K. Ishii, H. Hidetada, H. Igarashi, T. Kanda, “Regional cerebral blood volume and hematocrit measured in normal human volunteers by single-proton emission computed tomography,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 5, 207–213 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Med. Eng Technol. (1)

P. A. Rea, J. Crowe, Y. Wickramsinghe, P. Rolfe, “Non invasive optical methods for the study of cerebral metabolism in the human newborn: a technique for the future?” J. Med. Eng Technol. 9, 160–166 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lancet (1)

A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, C. E. Richardson, D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Cotside measurements of cerebral blood flow in ill newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” Lancet ii, 770–771 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, M. J. C. van Gemert, W. Kamphorst, J. G. Wolbers, W. Hogervorst, “The spectral dependence of the optical properties of human brain,” Lasers Med. Sci. 4, 221–227 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. (1)

M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “A system for long term measurement of cerebral blood and tissue oxygenation in newborn infants by near infrared transillumination,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 26, 289–294 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physiol. Chem. Phys. (1)

I. Giannini, M. Ferrari, A. Carpi, P. Fasella, “Rat brain monitoring by near infrared spectroscopy: an assessment of possible clinical significance,” Physiol. Chem. Phys. 14, 295–305 (1982).
[PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohne, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time resolved and unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain.”Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

F. F. Jöbsis, “Non invasive, infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters,” Science 198, 1264–1267 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (12)

M. Cope, “The development of a near infrared spectroscopy system and its application for non invasive monitoring of cerebral blood and tissue oxygenation in the newborn infant, Ph.D. dissertation (University of London, London, 1991).

M. Cope, P. van der Zee, M. Essenpreis, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Data analysis methods for near infrared spectroscopy of tissue: problems in determining the relative cytochrome aa3 concentration,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 251–262 (1991).

E. M. Sevick, B. Chance, “Photon migration in a model of the head measured using time and frequency domain techniques: potentials of spectroscopy and imaging,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 84–96 (1991).

M. Ferrari, R. A. De Blasi, P. Bruscaglioni, M. Barilli, L. Carraresi, M. Gurioli, E. Quaglia, G. Zaccanti, “Near infrared time-resolved spectroscopy and fast scanning spectrophotometry in ischemic human forearm,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 276–283 (1991).

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of interoptode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (to be published).
[PubMed]

R. Nossal, R. F. Bonner, “Differential time-resolved detection of absorbance changes in composite structures,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 21–28 (1991).

M. S. Patterson, J. D. Moulton, B. C. Wilson, B. Chance, “Applications of time resolved light scattering measurements to photodynamic therapy dosimetry,” in Photodynamic Therapy: Mechanisms II, T. J. Dougherty, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1203, 62–75 (1990).

S. L. Jacques, S. T. Flock, “Effect of surface boundary on time resolved reflectance: measurement with a prototype endoscopic catheter,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 12–20 (1991).

S. J. Madsen, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, Y. D. Park, J. D. Moulton, S. L. Jacques, Y. Hefetz, “Time resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance studies in tissue simulating phantoms: a comparison between theory and experiment,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 42–51 (1991).

P. van der Zee, M. Essenpreis, D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, “Accurate determination of the optical properties of biological tissues using a Monte Carlo inversion technique,” presented at the International Commission for Optics Meeting on Atmospheric, Volume and Surface Scattering and Propagation, Florence, Italy, 27–30 August 1991.

M. Brunori, E. Antonini, M. T. Wilson, “Cytochrome c oxidase: an overview of recent work,” in Metal Ions in Biological Systems XIII, H. Siegel, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1981).

SPSS, Inc., 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Ill. 60611 (1990).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental system for the measurement of the TPSF in tissue.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical temporal point spread function measured on the head of an adult showing the mean time 〈t〉 and the calculation of Kls.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temporal point spread functions measured at several wavelengths on the head of one subject (optode spacing 40 mm).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Changes with wavelength (a) in the differential pathlength factor and (b) in Kls measured on the heads of all subjects.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Changes with wavelength of the normalized DPF and Kls in the adult head. Data are the average for all subjects ±1 standard deviation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Changes with wavelength of the normalized DPF and Kls in the adult forearm. Data are the average for all subjects with ±1 standard deviation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Changes with wavelength of the normalized DPF and Kls (a) in the male and (b) in the female adult calf. Data are the average for all subjects ±1 standard deviation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Change with wavelength (a) in the DPF and (b) in Kls measured on the head of two infants post mortem.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Kls spectrum taken from Fig. 5 together with the results of two constrained nonlinear regressions (see text for details).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

t = 0 t I ( t ) d t 0 I ( t ) d t ,
t = τ k = 1 n k I ( k ) k = 1 n I ( k ) .
B = β d 1 d c n t t ,
K l s = Δ log [ I ( t ) ] Δ l = n t c Δ log [ I ( t ) ] Δ t ,

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