Abstract

To determine the influence of wavelength on the depth of vascular injury in port wine stains following pulsed dye laser treatment, we calculated fluence rates at wavelengths varying from 415 to 590 nm in a two-layer Monte Carlo model representing the epidermis and the dermis. Calculations were made for four different volumetric fractions of blood in the dermis: 0%, 1%, 5%, and 10%. The depth of the selective vascular injury was determined to be the depth at which the rate of temperature rise at some point within the vessel just equals that at the epidermal–dermal junction. This was maximal between 577 and 590 nm with the maximum shifted toward 590 nm for a greater dermal blood content and for larger vessels. The effect of greater epidermal pigmentation was not only to reduce the depth of vascular injury but to shift slightly the wavelength of the maximum vascular injury to a shorter wavelength.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. H. Barsky, S. Rosen, D. E. Geer, J. M. Noe, “The nature and evolution of port wine stains: a computer assisted study,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 74, 154–157 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Microvasculature can be selectively damaged using dye lasers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 1, 263–276 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. T. W. Lahaye, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optimal laser parameters for port wine stain therapy: a theoretical approach,” Phys. Med. Biol. 30, 573–587 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. J. C. van Gemert, A. J. Welch, A. P. Amin, “Is there an optimal laser treatment for port wine stains?” Lasers Surg. Med. 6, 76–83 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. W. Pickering, P. H. Butler, B. J. Ring, E. P. Walker, “Thermal profiles of blood vessels heated by a laser,” Aust. Phys. Eng. Sci. Med. 12, 11–15 (1989).
  6. J. W. Pickering, P. H. Butler, B. J. Ring, E. P. Walker, “Computed temperature distributions around ectatic capillaries exposed to yellow (578 nm) laser light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 34, 1247–1258 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Keijzer, J. W. Pickering, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Laser beam diameter for port wine stain treatment,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 601–605 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. O. T. Tan, P. Morrison, A. K. Kurban, “585 nm for the treatment of port-wine stains,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 86, 1112–1117 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. W. Pickering, M. J. C. van Gemert, “585 nm for the laser treatment of port wine stains: a possible mechanism,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 616–618 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. O. T. Tan, M. Motamedi, A. J. Welch, A. K. Kurban, “Spotsize effects on guinea pig skin following pulsed laser irradiation,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 90, 877–881 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “Light distributions in artery tissue: Monte Carlo simulations for finite-diameter laser beams,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 148–154 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. E. J. van Kampen, W. G. Zilstra, “Determination of hemoglobin and its derivatives,” in Advances in Clinical Chemistry, H. Sobotka, C. P. Stewart, eds. (Academic, New York, 1965), Vol. 8, pp. 158–187.
  13. M. J. C. van Gemert, J. P. Hulsbergen Henning, “A model approach to laser coagulation of dermal vascular lesions,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 270, 429–439 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. J. M. Moes, Laser Centre, Medical Centre, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (personal communication, 1990).
  15. M. J. C. van Gemert, A. J. Welch, I. D. Miller, O. T. Tan, “Can physical modeling lead to an optimal laser treatment strategy for port wine stains?” in Laser Applications in Medicine and Biology, M. L. Wolbrasht, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1991), Vol. 5, pp. 199–275.
  16. J. M. Garden, O. T. Tan, R. Kerschmann, J. Boll, H. Furmoto, R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Effect of dye laser pulse duration on selective cutaneous vascular injury,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 5, 653–657 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Z. F. Gourgouliatos, A. J. Welch, K. R. Diller, S. J. Aggarwal, “Laser-irradiation-induced relaxation of blood vessels inυiυo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 524–532 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of optical properties of biological tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1991

M. Keijzer, J. W. Pickering, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Laser beam diameter for port wine stain treatment,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 601–605 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Pickering, M. J. C. van Gemert, “585 nm for the laser treatment of port wine stains: a possible mechanism,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 616–618 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

Z. F. Gourgouliatos, A. J. Welch, K. R. Diller, S. J. Aggarwal, “Laser-irradiation-induced relaxation of blood vessels inυiυo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 524–532 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of optical properties of biological tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

O. T. Tan, P. Morrison, A. K. Kurban, “585 nm for the treatment of port-wine stains,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 86, 1112–1117 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

J. W. Pickering, P. H. Butler, B. J. Ring, E. P. Walker, “Thermal profiles of blood vessels heated by a laser,” Aust. Phys. Eng. Sci. Med. 12, 11–15 (1989).

J. W. Pickering, P. H. Butler, B. J. Ring, E. P. Walker, “Computed temperature distributions around ectatic capillaries exposed to yellow (578 nm) laser light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 34, 1247–1258 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “Light distributions in artery tissue: Monte Carlo simulations for finite-diameter laser beams,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 148–154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

O. T. Tan, M. Motamedi, A. J. Welch, A. K. Kurban, “Spotsize effects on guinea pig skin following pulsed laser irradiation,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 90, 877–881 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

J. M. Garden, O. T. Tan, R. Kerschmann, J. Boll, H. Furmoto, R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Effect of dye laser pulse duration on selective cutaneous vascular injury,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 5, 653–657 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. J. C. van Gemert, A. J. Welch, A. P. Amin, “Is there an optimal laser treatment for port wine stains?” Lasers Surg. Med. 6, 76–83 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

C. T. W. Lahaye, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optimal laser parameters for port wine stain therapy: a theoretical approach,” Phys. Med. Biol. 30, 573–587 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Microvasculature can be selectively damaged using dye lasers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 1, 263–276 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. C. van Gemert, J. P. Hulsbergen Henning, “A model approach to laser coagulation of dermal vascular lesions,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 270, 429–439 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980

S. H. Barsky, S. Rosen, D. E. Geer, J. M. Noe, “The nature and evolution of port wine stains: a computer assisted study,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 74, 154–157 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aggarwal, S. J.

Z. F. Gourgouliatos, A. J. Welch, K. R. Diller, S. J. Aggarwal, “Laser-irradiation-induced relaxation of blood vessels inυiυo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 524–532 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amin, A. P.

M. J. C. van Gemert, A. J. Welch, A. P. Amin, “Is there an optimal laser treatment for port wine stains?” Lasers Surg. Med. 6, 76–83 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. R.

J. M. Garden, O. T. Tan, R. Kerschmann, J. Boll, H. Furmoto, R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Effect of dye laser pulse duration on selective cutaneous vascular injury,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 5, 653–657 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Microvasculature can be selectively damaged using dye lasers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 1, 263–276 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barsky, S. H.

S. H. Barsky, S. Rosen, D. E. Geer, J. M. Noe, “The nature and evolution of port wine stains: a computer assisted study,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 74, 154–157 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boll, J.

J. M. Garden, O. T. Tan, R. Kerschmann, J. Boll, H. Furmoto, R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Effect of dye laser pulse duration on selective cutaneous vascular injury,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 5, 653–657 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Butler, P. H.

J. W. Pickering, P. H. Butler, B. J. Ring, E. P. Walker, “Thermal profiles of blood vessels heated by a laser,” Aust. Phys. Eng. Sci. Med. 12, 11–15 (1989).

J. W. Pickering, P. H. Butler, B. J. Ring, E. P. Walker, “Computed temperature distributions around ectatic capillaries exposed to yellow (578 nm) laser light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 34, 1247–1258 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheong, W.-F.

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of optical properties of biological tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Diller, K. R.

Z. F. Gourgouliatos, A. J. Welch, K. R. Diller, S. J. Aggarwal, “Laser-irradiation-induced relaxation of blood vessels inυiυo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 524–532 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furmoto, H.

J. M. Garden, O. T. Tan, R. Kerschmann, J. Boll, H. Furmoto, R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Effect of dye laser pulse duration on selective cutaneous vascular injury,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 5, 653–657 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Garden, J. M.

J. M. Garden, O. T. Tan, R. Kerschmann, J. Boll, H. Furmoto, R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Effect of dye laser pulse duration on selective cutaneous vascular injury,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 5, 653–657 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Geer, D. E.

S. H. Barsky, S. Rosen, D. E. Geer, J. M. Noe, “The nature and evolution of port wine stains: a computer assisted study,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 74, 154–157 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gourgouliatos, Z. F.

Z. F. Gourgouliatos, A. J. Welch, K. R. Diller, S. J. Aggarwal, “Laser-irradiation-induced relaxation of blood vessels inυiυo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 524–532 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hulsbergen Henning, J. P.

M. J. C. van Gemert, J. P. Hulsbergen Henning, “A model approach to laser coagulation of dermal vascular lesions,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 270, 429–439 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “Light distributions in artery tissue: Monte Carlo simulations for finite-diameter laser beams,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 148–154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keijzer, M.

M. Keijzer, J. W. Pickering, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Laser beam diameter for port wine stain treatment,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 601–605 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “Light distributions in artery tissue: Monte Carlo simulations for finite-diameter laser beams,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 148–154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kerschmann, R.

J. M. Garden, O. T. Tan, R. Kerschmann, J. Boll, H. Furmoto, R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Effect of dye laser pulse duration on selective cutaneous vascular injury,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 5, 653–657 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kurban, A. K.

O. T. Tan, P. Morrison, A. K. Kurban, “585 nm for the treatment of port-wine stains,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 86, 1112–1117 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. T. Tan, M. Motamedi, A. J. Welch, A. K. Kurban, “Spotsize effects on guinea pig skin following pulsed laser irradiation,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 90, 877–881 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lahaye, C. T. W.

C. T. W. Lahaye, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optimal laser parameters for port wine stain therapy: a theoretical approach,” Phys. Med. Biol. 30, 573–587 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, I. D.

M. J. C. van Gemert, A. J. Welch, I. D. Miller, O. T. Tan, “Can physical modeling lead to an optimal laser treatment strategy for port wine stains?” in Laser Applications in Medicine and Biology, M. L. Wolbrasht, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1991), Vol. 5, pp. 199–275.

Moes, C. J. M.

C. J. M. Moes, Laser Centre, Medical Centre, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (personal communication, 1990).

Morrison, P.

O. T. Tan, P. Morrison, A. K. Kurban, “585 nm for the treatment of port-wine stains,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 86, 1112–1117 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motamedi, M.

O. T. Tan, M. Motamedi, A. J. Welch, A. K. Kurban, “Spotsize effects on guinea pig skin following pulsed laser irradiation,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 90, 877–881 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noe, J. M.

S. H. Barsky, S. Rosen, D. E. Geer, J. M. Noe, “The nature and evolution of port wine stains: a computer assisted study,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 74, 154–157 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parrish, J. A.

J. M. Garden, O. T. Tan, R. Kerschmann, J. Boll, H. Furmoto, R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Effect of dye laser pulse duration on selective cutaneous vascular injury,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 5, 653–657 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Microvasculature can be selectively damaged using dye lasers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 1, 263–276 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pickering, J. W.

J. W. Pickering, M. J. C. van Gemert, “585 nm for the laser treatment of port wine stains: a possible mechanism,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 616–618 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Keijzer, J. W. Pickering, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Laser beam diameter for port wine stain treatment,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 601–605 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Pickering, P. H. Butler, B. J. Ring, E. P. Walker, “Computed temperature distributions around ectatic capillaries exposed to yellow (578 nm) laser light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 34, 1247–1258 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Pickering, P. H. Butler, B. J. Ring, E. P. Walker, “Thermal profiles of blood vessels heated by a laser,” Aust. Phys. Eng. Sci. Med. 12, 11–15 (1989).

Prahl, S. A.

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of optical properties of biological tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “Light distributions in artery tissue: Monte Carlo simulations for finite-diameter laser beams,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 148–154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ring, B. J.

J. W. Pickering, P. H. Butler, B. J. Ring, E. P. Walker, “Computed temperature distributions around ectatic capillaries exposed to yellow (578 nm) laser light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 34, 1247–1258 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Pickering, P. H. Butler, B. J. Ring, E. P. Walker, “Thermal profiles of blood vessels heated by a laser,” Aust. Phys. Eng. Sci. Med. 12, 11–15 (1989).

Rosen, S.

S. H. Barsky, S. Rosen, D. E. Geer, J. M. Noe, “The nature and evolution of port wine stains: a computer assisted study,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 74, 154–157 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, O. T.

O. T. Tan, P. Morrison, A. K. Kurban, “585 nm for the treatment of port-wine stains,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 86, 1112–1117 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. T. Tan, M. Motamedi, A. J. Welch, A. K. Kurban, “Spotsize effects on guinea pig skin following pulsed laser irradiation,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 90, 877–881 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Garden, O. T. Tan, R. Kerschmann, J. Boll, H. Furmoto, R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Effect of dye laser pulse duration on selective cutaneous vascular injury,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 5, 653–657 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. J. C. van Gemert, A. J. Welch, I. D. Miller, O. T. Tan, “Can physical modeling lead to an optimal laser treatment strategy for port wine stains?” in Laser Applications in Medicine and Biology, M. L. Wolbrasht, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1991), Vol. 5, pp. 199–275.

van Gemert, M. J. C.

J. W. Pickering, M. J. C. van Gemert, “585 nm for the laser treatment of port wine stains: a possible mechanism,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 616–618 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Keijzer, J. W. Pickering, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Laser beam diameter for port wine stain treatment,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 601–605 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. C. van Gemert, A. J. Welch, A. P. Amin, “Is there an optimal laser treatment for port wine stains?” Lasers Surg. Med. 6, 76–83 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. W. Lahaye, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optimal laser parameters for port wine stain therapy: a theoretical approach,” Phys. Med. Biol. 30, 573–587 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. C. van Gemert, J. P. Hulsbergen Henning, “A model approach to laser coagulation of dermal vascular lesions,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 270, 429–439 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. C. van Gemert, A. J. Welch, I. D. Miller, O. T. Tan, “Can physical modeling lead to an optimal laser treatment strategy for port wine stains?” in Laser Applications in Medicine and Biology, M. L. Wolbrasht, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1991), Vol. 5, pp. 199–275.

van Kampen, E. J.

E. J. van Kampen, W. G. Zilstra, “Determination of hemoglobin and its derivatives,” in Advances in Clinical Chemistry, H. Sobotka, C. P. Stewart, eds. (Academic, New York, 1965), Vol. 8, pp. 158–187.

Walker, E. P.

J. W. Pickering, P. H. Butler, B. J. Ring, E. P. Walker, “Thermal profiles of blood vessels heated by a laser,” Aust. Phys. Eng. Sci. Med. 12, 11–15 (1989).

J. W. Pickering, P. H. Butler, B. J. Ring, E. P. Walker, “Computed temperature distributions around ectatic capillaries exposed to yellow (578 nm) laser light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 34, 1247–1258 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

Z. F. Gourgouliatos, A. J. Welch, K. R. Diller, S. J. Aggarwal, “Laser-irradiation-induced relaxation of blood vessels inυiυo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 524–532 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of optical properties of biological tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “Light distributions in artery tissue: Monte Carlo simulations for finite-diameter laser beams,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 148–154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. T. Tan, M. Motamedi, A. J. Welch, A. K. Kurban, “Spotsize effects on guinea pig skin following pulsed laser irradiation,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 90, 877–881 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. C. van Gemert, A. J. Welch, A. P. Amin, “Is there an optimal laser treatment for port wine stains?” Lasers Surg. Med. 6, 76–83 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. C. van Gemert, A. J. Welch, I. D. Miller, O. T. Tan, “Can physical modeling lead to an optimal laser treatment strategy for port wine stains?” in Laser Applications in Medicine and Biology, M. L. Wolbrasht, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1991), Vol. 5, pp. 199–275.

Zilstra, W. G.

E. J. van Kampen, W. G. Zilstra, “Determination of hemoglobin and its derivatives,” in Advances in Clinical Chemistry, H. Sobotka, C. P. Stewart, eds. (Academic, New York, 1965), Vol. 8, pp. 158–187.

Arch. Dermatol. Res.

M. J. C. van Gemert, J. P. Hulsbergen Henning, “A model approach to laser coagulation of dermal vascular lesions,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 270, 429–439 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aust. Phys. Eng. Sci. Med.

J. W. Pickering, P. H. Butler, B. J. Ring, E. P. Walker, “Thermal profiles of blood vessels heated by a laser,” Aust. Phys. Eng. Sci. Med. 12, 11–15 (1989).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of optical properties of biological tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Invest. Dermatol.

J. M. Garden, O. T. Tan, R. Kerschmann, J. Boll, H. Furmoto, R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Effect of dye laser pulse duration on selective cutaneous vascular injury,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 5, 653–657 (1986).
[CrossRef]

O. T. Tan, M. Motamedi, A. J. Welch, A. K. Kurban, “Spotsize effects on guinea pig skin following pulsed laser irradiation,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 90, 877–881 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Barsky, S. Rosen, D. E. Geer, J. M. Noe, “The nature and evolution of port wine stains: a computer assisted study,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 74, 154–157 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med.

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Microvasculature can be selectively damaged using dye lasers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 1, 263–276 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Keijzer, J. W. Pickering, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Laser beam diameter for port wine stain treatment,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 601–605 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. C. van Gemert, A. J. Welch, A. P. Amin, “Is there an optimal laser treatment for port wine stains?” Lasers Surg. Med. 6, 76–83 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Pickering, M. J. C. van Gemert, “585 nm for the laser treatment of port wine stains: a possible mechanism,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 616–618 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “Light distributions in artery tissue: Monte Carlo simulations for finite-diameter laser beams,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 148–154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. F. Gourgouliatos, A. J. Welch, K. R. Diller, S. J. Aggarwal, “Laser-irradiation-induced relaxation of blood vessels inυiυo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 524–532 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol.

C. T. W. Lahaye, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optimal laser parameters for port wine stain therapy: a theoretical approach,” Phys. Med. Biol. 30, 573–587 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Pickering, P. H. Butler, B. J. Ring, E. P. Walker, “Computed temperature distributions around ectatic capillaries exposed to yellow (578 nm) laser light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 34, 1247–1258 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plast. Reconstr. Surg.

O. T. Tan, P. Morrison, A. K. Kurban, “585 nm for the treatment of port-wine stains,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 86, 1112–1117 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

E. J. van Kampen, W. G. Zilstra, “Determination of hemoglobin and its derivatives,” in Advances in Clinical Chemistry, H. Sobotka, C. P. Stewart, eds. (Academic, New York, 1965), Vol. 8, pp. 158–187.

C. J. M. Moes, Laser Centre, Medical Centre, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (personal communication, 1990).

M. J. C. van Gemert, A. J. Welch, I. D. Miller, O. T. Tan, “Can physical modeling lead to an optimal laser treatment strategy for port wine stains?” in Laser Applications in Medicine and Biology, M. L. Wolbrasht, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1991), Vol. 5, pp. 199–275.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Computer model for calculating the fluence rates with a Monte Carlo algorithm consisting of a 3-mm-diameter beam, a 60-μm-thick epidermis, and a semi-infinite (2400-μm)-thick dermis. For the fluence rate calculations the blood is assumed to be homogeneously distributed throughout the dermis. For the damage calculations a target vessel at depth z and diameter zbl is introduced.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

For the criterion of greater absorption at the top of the vessel lumen rather than at the epidermal–dermal junction the maximum depth of vascular injury is reduced severely by even a small quantity of dermal blood.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

For the criterion of greater absorption at the top of the vessel lumen rather than at the epidermal–dermal junction the maximum depth of vascular injury is in the yellow 577–587-nm region of the spectrum for all dermal blood quantities.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

For the criterion of greater absorption at the center of the vessel lumen rather than at the epidermal–dermal junction the maximum depth of vascular injury is lower at all wavelengths for this 100-μm-diameter vessel than in Fig. 3. Because of the greater blood absorption at the shorter end of this part of the spectrum, there is a more definite peak in the injury depth spectrum than in Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Strong vessel diameter influence on the maximum depth of vascular injury spectrum. For the very large vessels (>200 μm) at some wavelengths there is insufficient absorption at the vessel center to cause vessel coagulation before epidermal–dermal junction coagulation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

More epidermal absorption results not only in an overall lowering of injury depth compared with Fig. 5 but a change in the shape of the maximum depth of the vascular injury spectrum.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The change in the shape of the maximum depth of the vascular injury spectrum between Figs. 5 and 6 occurs because some of the epidermal absorption is due to backscattered light from the dermis. At the shorter wavelengths and at the greater dermal blood contents this backscattered light contributes less to the epidermal absorption.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Optical Properties

Equations (6)

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μ bloody-dermis ( p % ) = [ p μ blood + ( 100 p ) μ dermis ] / 100 ,
Φ ( z , z b l ) = Φ ( z ) exp ( μ a blood z b l ) .
μ a epidermis Φ ( z epi | derm )
μ a blood Φ ( z , z b l ) ,
μ a epidermis Φ ( z epi | derm ) = μ a blood Φ ( z , z b l ) .
r = 1 μ a blood ln [ μ a blood Φ ( z ) μ a epidermis Φ ( z epi | derm ) ] .

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