Abstract

Multilayer x-ray mirrors of molybdenum and silicon operating at normal incidence at energies just below the Si LII,III absorption edges are a key component in the development of soft-x-ray projection lithography. In this application high reflectivity is essential. Aging tests on such reflectors, with Mo as the last layer deposited, show that the structures decline in reflectivity with time when stored in air. Chemical analysis of a well-aged surface by photoelectron spectroscopy techniques reveals that the uppermost Mo layer eventually becomes completely oxidized to MoO3 and MoO2 and contaminated with carbonaceous materials. The oxidation can be prevented by storing the mirrors in an oxygen-free atmosphere or by depositing the silicon as the top layer. The reflectivity of tarnished mirrors can be restored by removing the oxides by argonion etching or wet chemical methods.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. F. Lindblom, A. B. C. Walker, R. B. Hoover, T. W. Barbee, R. A. VanPatten, “Soft x-ray/extreme ultraviolet images of the solar atmosphere with normal incidence multilayer optics,” in X-ray Instrumentation in Astronomy II, L. Golub, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.982, 316–324 (1988).
  2. J. A. Trail, R. L. Byer, “Compact scanning soft-x-ray microscope using a laser-produced plasma source and normal-incidence multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Lett. 14, 539–541 (1989); J. A. Trail, R. L. Byer, J. B. Kortright, “The Stanford table-top scanning x-ray microscope” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on X-Ray Microscopy II, A. G. Michette, G. R. Morrison, C. J. Buckley, eds., Vol. 56 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), p. 310.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. H. Underwood, R. C. C. Perera, J. B. Kortright, P. J. Batson, C. Capasso, S. H. Liang, W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudiri, R. K. Cole, G. Chen, Z. Y. Guo, J. Wallace, J. Welnak, G. Margaritondo, F. Cerrina, G. De Stasio, D. Mercanti, M. T. Ciotti, “The MAXIMUM photoelectron microscope at the University of Wisconsin’s Synchrotron Radiation Center,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on X-Ray Microscopy III, D. Sayre, M. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, eds., Vol. 67 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 220.
  4. D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Multilayer mirror technology for soft-x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6975–6980 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. W. Phillion, D. P. Gaines, R. Browning, R. F. Pease, D. Stewart, N. Economou, “Reflection mask technology for soft x-ray projection lithography,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 45–50.
  6. R. S. Rosen, D. G. Stearns, M. A. Viliardos, M. E. Kassner, S. P. Vernon, Y. Chang, “Silicide layer growth rates in Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6975–6980 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. M. Gullikson, J. H. Underwood, P. Batson, V. Nikitin, “A soft x-ray/EUV reflectometer based on a laser produced plasma source,” J. X Ray Sci. Technol. 3, 283–299 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Photoelectron energies were obtained from C. D. Wagner, W. M. Riggs, L. E. Davis, J.F. Moulder, G. E. Mullenberg, Handbook of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Perkin-Elmer Corporation, Eden Prairie, Minn., 1979).
  9. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection,” At. Nucl. Data Tables 54(2) (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. B. Kortright, “Extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray optics for free electron lasers,” in Laser Handbook, W. B. Colson, C. Pellegrini, A. Renieri, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990), Vol. 6, pp. 463–483.
  11. T. W. Barbee, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 94770 (personal communication).

1993

1992

E. M. Gullikson, J. H. Underwood, P. Batson, V. Nikitin, “A soft x-ray/EUV reflectometer based on a laser produced plasma source,” J. X Ray Sci. Technol. 3, 283–299 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989

Barbee, T. W.

J. F. Lindblom, A. B. C. Walker, R. B. Hoover, T. W. Barbee, R. A. VanPatten, “Soft x-ray/extreme ultraviolet images of the solar atmosphere with normal incidence multilayer optics,” in X-ray Instrumentation in Astronomy II, L. Golub, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.982, 316–324 (1988).

T. W. Barbee, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 94770 (personal communication).

Batson, P.

E. M. Gullikson, J. H. Underwood, P. Batson, V. Nikitin, “A soft x-ray/EUV reflectometer based on a laser produced plasma source,” J. X Ray Sci. Technol. 3, 283–299 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Batson, P. J.

J. H. Underwood, R. C. C. Perera, J. B. Kortright, P. J. Batson, C. Capasso, S. H. Liang, W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudiri, R. K. Cole, G. Chen, Z. Y. Guo, J. Wallace, J. Welnak, G. Margaritondo, F. Cerrina, G. De Stasio, D. Mercanti, M. T. Ciotti, “The MAXIMUM photoelectron microscope at the University of Wisconsin’s Synchrotron Radiation Center,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on X-Ray Microscopy III, D. Sayre, M. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, eds., Vol. 67 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 220.

Browning, R.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. W. Phillion, D. P. Gaines, R. Browning, R. F. Pease, D. Stewart, N. Economou, “Reflection mask technology for soft x-ray projection lithography,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 45–50.

Byer, R. L.

Capasso, C.

J. H. Underwood, R. C. C. Perera, J. B. Kortright, P. J. Batson, C. Capasso, S. H. Liang, W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudiri, R. K. Cole, G. Chen, Z. Y. Guo, J. Wallace, J. Welnak, G. Margaritondo, F. Cerrina, G. De Stasio, D. Mercanti, M. T. Ciotti, “The MAXIMUM photoelectron microscope at the University of Wisconsin’s Synchrotron Radiation Center,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on X-Ray Microscopy III, D. Sayre, M. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, eds., Vol. 67 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 220.

Ceglio, N. M.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. W. Phillion, D. P. Gaines, R. Browning, R. F. Pease, D. Stewart, N. Economou, “Reflection mask technology for soft x-ray projection lithography,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 45–50.

Cerrina, F.

J. H. Underwood, R. C. C. Perera, J. B. Kortright, P. J. Batson, C. Capasso, S. H. Liang, W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudiri, R. K. Cole, G. Chen, Z. Y. Guo, J. Wallace, J. Welnak, G. Margaritondo, F. Cerrina, G. De Stasio, D. Mercanti, M. T. Ciotti, “The MAXIMUM photoelectron microscope at the University of Wisconsin’s Synchrotron Radiation Center,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on X-Ray Microscopy III, D. Sayre, M. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, eds., Vol. 67 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 220.

Chang, Y.

Chen, G.

J. H. Underwood, R. C. C. Perera, J. B. Kortright, P. J. Batson, C. Capasso, S. H. Liang, W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudiri, R. K. Cole, G. Chen, Z. Y. Guo, J. Wallace, J. Welnak, G. Margaritondo, F. Cerrina, G. De Stasio, D. Mercanti, M. T. Ciotti, “The MAXIMUM photoelectron microscope at the University of Wisconsin’s Synchrotron Radiation Center,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on X-Ray Microscopy III, D. Sayre, M. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, eds., Vol. 67 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 220.

Ciotti, M. T.

J. H. Underwood, R. C. C. Perera, J. B. Kortright, P. J. Batson, C. Capasso, S. H. Liang, W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudiri, R. K. Cole, G. Chen, Z. Y. Guo, J. Wallace, J. Welnak, G. Margaritondo, F. Cerrina, G. De Stasio, D. Mercanti, M. T. Ciotti, “The MAXIMUM photoelectron microscope at the University of Wisconsin’s Synchrotron Radiation Center,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on X-Ray Microscopy III, D. Sayre, M. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, eds., Vol. 67 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 220.

Cole, R. K.

J. H. Underwood, R. C. C. Perera, J. B. Kortright, P. J. Batson, C. Capasso, S. H. Liang, W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudiri, R. K. Cole, G. Chen, Z. Y. Guo, J. Wallace, J. Welnak, G. Margaritondo, F. Cerrina, G. De Stasio, D. Mercanti, M. T. Ciotti, “The MAXIMUM photoelectron microscope at the University of Wisconsin’s Synchrotron Radiation Center,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on X-Ray Microscopy III, D. Sayre, M. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, eds., Vol. 67 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 220.

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection,” At. Nucl. Data Tables 54(2) (1993).
[CrossRef]

Davis, L. E.

Photoelectron energies were obtained from C. D. Wagner, W. M. Riggs, L. E. Davis, J.F. Moulder, G. E. Mullenberg, Handbook of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Perkin-Elmer Corporation, Eden Prairie, Minn., 1979).

De Stasio, G.

J. H. Underwood, R. C. C. Perera, J. B. Kortright, P. J. Batson, C. Capasso, S. H. Liang, W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudiri, R. K. Cole, G. Chen, Z. Y. Guo, J. Wallace, J. Welnak, G. Margaritondo, F. Cerrina, G. De Stasio, D. Mercanti, M. T. Ciotti, “The MAXIMUM photoelectron microscope at the University of Wisconsin’s Synchrotron Radiation Center,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on X-Ray Microscopy III, D. Sayre, M. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, eds., Vol. 67 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 220.

Economou, N.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. W. Phillion, D. P. Gaines, R. Browning, R. F. Pease, D. Stewart, N. Economou, “Reflection mask technology for soft x-ray projection lithography,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 45–50.

Gaines, D. P.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. W. Phillion, D. P. Gaines, R. Browning, R. F. Pease, D. Stewart, N. Economou, “Reflection mask technology for soft x-ray projection lithography,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 45–50.

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection,” At. Nucl. Data Tables 54(2) (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, J. H. Underwood, P. Batson, V. Nikitin, “A soft x-ray/EUV reflectometer based on a laser produced plasma source,” J. X Ray Sci. Technol. 3, 283–299 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Z. Y.

J. H. Underwood, R. C. C. Perera, J. B. Kortright, P. J. Batson, C. Capasso, S. H. Liang, W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudiri, R. K. Cole, G. Chen, Z. Y. Guo, J. Wallace, J. Welnak, G. Margaritondo, F. Cerrina, G. De Stasio, D. Mercanti, M. T. Ciotti, “The MAXIMUM photoelectron microscope at the University of Wisconsin’s Synchrotron Radiation Center,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on X-Ray Microscopy III, D. Sayre, M. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, eds., Vol. 67 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 220.

Hawryluk, A. M.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. W. Phillion, D. P. Gaines, R. Browning, R. F. Pease, D. Stewart, N. Economou, “Reflection mask technology for soft x-ray projection lithography,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 45–50.

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection,” At. Nucl. Data Tables 54(2) (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hoover, R. B.

J. F. Lindblom, A. B. C. Walker, R. B. Hoover, T. W. Barbee, R. A. VanPatten, “Soft x-ray/extreme ultraviolet images of the solar atmosphere with normal incidence multilayer optics,” in X-ray Instrumentation in Astronomy II, L. Golub, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.982, 316–324 (1988).

Kassner, M. E.

Kortright, J. B.

J. B. Kortright, “Extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray optics for free electron lasers,” in Laser Handbook, W. B. Colson, C. Pellegrini, A. Renieri, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990), Vol. 6, pp. 463–483.

J. H. Underwood, R. C. C. Perera, J. B. Kortright, P. J. Batson, C. Capasso, S. H. Liang, W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudiri, R. K. Cole, G. Chen, Z. Y. Guo, J. Wallace, J. Welnak, G. Margaritondo, F. Cerrina, G. De Stasio, D. Mercanti, M. T. Ciotti, “The MAXIMUM photoelectron microscope at the University of Wisconsin’s Synchrotron Radiation Center,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on X-Ray Microscopy III, D. Sayre, M. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, eds., Vol. 67 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 220.

Liang, S. H.

J. H. Underwood, R. C. C. Perera, J. B. Kortright, P. J. Batson, C. Capasso, S. H. Liang, W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudiri, R. K. Cole, G. Chen, Z. Y. Guo, J. Wallace, J. Welnak, G. Margaritondo, F. Cerrina, G. De Stasio, D. Mercanti, M. T. Ciotti, “The MAXIMUM photoelectron microscope at the University of Wisconsin’s Synchrotron Radiation Center,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on X-Ray Microscopy III, D. Sayre, M. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, eds., Vol. 67 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 220.

Lindblom, J. F.

J. F. Lindblom, A. B. C. Walker, R. B. Hoover, T. W. Barbee, R. A. VanPatten, “Soft x-ray/extreme ultraviolet images of the solar atmosphere with normal incidence multilayer optics,” in X-ray Instrumentation in Astronomy II, L. Golub, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.982, 316–324 (1988).

Margaritondo, G.

J. H. Underwood, R. C. C. Perera, J. B. Kortright, P. J. Batson, C. Capasso, S. H. Liang, W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudiri, R. K. Cole, G. Chen, Z. Y. Guo, J. Wallace, J. Welnak, G. Margaritondo, F. Cerrina, G. De Stasio, D. Mercanti, M. T. Ciotti, “The MAXIMUM photoelectron microscope at the University of Wisconsin’s Synchrotron Radiation Center,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on X-Ray Microscopy III, D. Sayre, M. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, eds., Vol. 67 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 220.

Mercanti, D.

J. H. Underwood, R. C. C. Perera, J. B. Kortright, P. J. Batson, C. Capasso, S. H. Liang, W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudiri, R. K. Cole, G. Chen, Z. Y. Guo, J. Wallace, J. Welnak, G. Margaritondo, F. Cerrina, G. De Stasio, D. Mercanti, M. T. Ciotti, “The MAXIMUM photoelectron microscope at the University of Wisconsin’s Synchrotron Radiation Center,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on X-Ray Microscopy III, D. Sayre, M. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, eds., Vol. 67 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 220.

Moulder, J.F.

Photoelectron energies were obtained from C. D. Wagner, W. M. Riggs, L. E. Davis, J.F. Moulder, G. E. Mullenberg, Handbook of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Perkin-Elmer Corporation, Eden Prairie, Minn., 1979).

Mullenberg, G. E.

Photoelectron energies were obtained from C. D. Wagner, W. M. Riggs, L. E. Davis, J.F. Moulder, G. E. Mullenberg, Handbook of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Perkin-Elmer Corporation, Eden Prairie, Minn., 1979).

Ng, W.

J. H. Underwood, R. C. C. Perera, J. B. Kortright, P. J. Batson, C. Capasso, S. H. Liang, W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudiri, R. K. Cole, G. Chen, Z. Y. Guo, J. Wallace, J. Welnak, G. Margaritondo, F. Cerrina, G. De Stasio, D. Mercanti, M. T. Ciotti, “The MAXIMUM photoelectron microscope at the University of Wisconsin’s Synchrotron Radiation Center,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on X-Ray Microscopy III, D. Sayre, M. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, eds., Vol. 67 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 220.

Nikitin, V.

E. M. Gullikson, J. H. Underwood, P. Batson, V. Nikitin, “A soft x-ray/EUV reflectometer based on a laser produced plasma source,” J. X Ray Sci. Technol. 3, 283–299 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pease, R. F.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. W. Phillion, D. P. Gaines, R. Browning, R. F. Pease, D. Stewart, N. Economou, “Reflection mask technology for soft x-ray projection lithography,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 45–50.

Perera, R. C. C.

J. H. Underwood, R. C. C. Perera, J. B. Kortright, P. J. Batson, C. Capasso, S. H. Liang, W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudiri, R. K. Cole, G. Chen, Z. Y. Guo, J. Wallace, J. Welnak, G. Margaritondo, F. Cerrina, G. De Stasio, D. Mercanti, M. T. Ciotti, “The MAXIMUM photoelectron microscope at the University of Wisconsin’s Synchrotron Radiation Center,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on X-Ray Microscopy III, D. Sayre, M. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, eds., Vol. 67 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 220.

Phillion, D. W.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. W. Phillion, D. P. Gaines, R. Browning, R. F. Pease, D. Stewart, N. Economou, “Reflection mask technology for soft x-ray projection lithography,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 45–50.

Ray-Chaudiri, A. K.

J. H. Underwood, R. C. C. Perera, J. B. Kortright, P. J. Batson, C. Capasso, S. H. Liang, W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudiri, R. K. Cole, G. Chen, Z. Y. Guo, J. Wallace, J. Welnak, G. Margaritondo, F. Cerrina, G. De Stasio, D. Mercanti, M. T. Ciotti, “The MAXIMUM photoelectron microscope at the University of Wisconsin’s Synchrotron Radiation Center,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on X-Ray Microscopy III, D. Sayre, M. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, eds., Vol. 67 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 220.

Riggs, W. M.

Photoelectron energies were obtained from C. D. Wagner, W. M. Riggs, L. E. Davis, J.F. Moulder, G. E. Mullenberg, Handbook of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Perkin-Elmer Corporation, Eden Prairie, Minn., 1979).

Rosen, R. S.

Stearns, D. G.

Stewart, D.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. W. Phillion, D. P. Gaines, R. Browning, R. F. Pease, D. Stewart, N. Economou, “Reflection mask technology for soft x-ray projection lithography,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, Vol. 12 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 45–50.

Trail, J. A.

Underwood, J. H.

E. M. Gullikson, J. H. Underwood, P. Batson, V. Nikitin, “A soft x-ray/EUV reflectometer based on a laser produced plasma source,” J. X Ray Sci. Technol. 3, 283–299 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood, R. C. C. Perera, J. B. Kortright, P. J. Batson, C. Capasso, S. H. Liang, W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudiri, R. K. Cole, G. Chen, Z. Y. Guo, J. Wallace, J. Welnak, G. Margaritondo, F. Cerrina, G. De Stasio, D. Mercanti, M. T. Ciotti, “The MAXIMUM photoelectron microscope at the University of Wisconsin’s Synchrotron Radiation Center,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on X-Ray Microscopy III, D. Sayre, M. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, eds., Vol. 67 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 220.

VanPatten, R. A.

J. F. Lindblom, A. B. C. Walker, R. B. Hoover, T. W. Barbee, R. A. VanPatten, “Soft x-ray/extreme ultraviolet images of the solar atmosphere with normal incidence multilayer optics,” in X-ray Instrumentation in Astronomy II, L. Golub, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.982, 316–324 (1988).

Vernon, S. P.

Viliardos, M. A.

Wagner, C. D.

Photoelectron energies were obtained from C. D. Wagner, W. M. Riggs, L. E. Davis, J.F. Moulder, G. E. Mullenberg, Handbook of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Perkin-Elmer Corporation, Eden Prairie, Minn., 1979).

Walker, A. B. C.

J. F. Lindblom, A. B. C. Walker, R. B. Hoover, T. W. Barbee, R. A. VanPatten, “Soft x-ray/extreme ultraviolet images of the solar atmosphere with normal incidence multilayer optics,” in X-ray Instrumentation in Astronomy II, L. Golub, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.982, 316–324 (1988).

Wallace, J.

J. H. Underwood, R. C. C. Perera, J. B. Kortright, P. J. Batson, C. Capasso, S. H. Liang, W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudiri, R. K. Cole, G. Chen, Z. Y. Guo, J. Wallace, J. Welnak, G. Margaritondo, F. Cerrina, G. De Stasio, D. Mercanti, M. T. Ciotti, “The MAXIMUM photoelectron microscope at the University of Wisconsin’s Synchrotron Radiation Center,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on X-Ray Microscopy III, D. Sayre, M. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, eds., Vol. 67 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 220.

Welnak, J.

J. H. Underwood, R. C. C. Perera, J. B. Kortright, P. J. Batson, C. Capasso, S. H. Liang, W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudiri, R. K. Cole, G. Chen, Z. Y. Guo, J. Wallace, J. Welnak, G. Margaritondo, F. Cerrina, G. De Stasio, D. Mercanti, M. T. Ciotti, “The MAXIMUM photoelectron microscope at the University of Wisconsin’s Synchrotron Radiation Center,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on X-Ray Microscopy III, D. Sayre, M. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, eds., Vol. 67 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 220.

Appl. Opt.

At. Nucl. Data Tables

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection,” At. Nucl. Data Tables 54(2) (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. X Ray Sci. Technol.

E. M. Gullikson, J. H. Underwood, P. Batson, V. Nikitin, “A soft x-ray/EUV reflectometer based on a laser produced plasma source,” J. X Ray Sci. Technol. 3, 283–299 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

Photoelectron energies were obtained from C. D. Wagner, W. M. Riggs, L. E. Davis, J.F. Moulder, G. E. Mullenberg, Handbook of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Perkin-Elmer Corporation, Eden Prairie, Minn., 1979).

J. F. Lindblom, A. B. C. Walker, R. B. Hoover, T. W. Barbee, R. A. VanPatten, “Soft x-ray/extreme ultraviolet images of the solar atmosphere with normal incidence multilayer optics,” in X-ray Instrumentation in Astronomy II, L. Golub, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.982, 316–324 (1988).

J. H. Underwood, R. C. C. Perera, J. B. Kortright, P. J. Batson, C. Capasso, S. H. Liang, W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudiri, R. K. Cole, G. Chen, Z. Y. Guo, J. Wallace, J. Welnak, G. Margaritondo, F. Cerrina, G. De Stasio, D. Mercanti, M. T. Ciotti, “The MAXIMUM photoelectron microscope at the University of Wisconsin’s Synchrotron Radiation Center,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on X-Ray Microscopy III, D. Sayre, M. Howells, J. Kirz, H. Rarback, eds., Vol. 67 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), p. 220.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Decrease in peak reflectivity (at 14.7 nm) with the time of Mo/Si multilayer mirror 92-184 (Mo on top): circles, stored in laboratory air; squares, stored in an Ar atmosphere. The solid curve is an exponential fit of the form R = a + (61.5 − a)exp(−t/τ) to the air-stored data with a = 46.3% and τ = 101.7 days.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Peak reflectivity (at 13.2 nm) versus time for Mo/Si multilayer mirror 92-237C, Si on top: circles, stored in laboratory air; squares, stored in Ar. The higher reflectivity of the sample stored in Ar occurs because it was deposited on a superpolished fused-silica optical flat, whereas the air-stored sample was deposited on a Si wafer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Montage of photoelectron spectra obtained in four windows of Mo/Si multilayer mirror 91-102-1 (Mo on top). In each panel binding energy increases from right to left, and sputtering time increases from bottom to top. Thus the four lowest curves represent the outermost surface of the sample and the uppermost curves the last layer to be sputtered in this stage. Each cycle represents 30 s of sputtering.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured reflectivity versus wavelength for sample 92-184b when newly made (left) and after 117 days of storage in air: plusses, experimental data; dashed curves, best fit to data with 0.6-nm interface roughness and oxidization models of the top Mo layer (see text).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Computed reflectivity versus wavelength for Mo/Si mirrors with Mo on top for a series of d spacings, Γ = 0.4, and perfectly sharp interfaces. Solid curves, no oxidation of top layer; dashed curves, top layer completely oxidized to MoO3.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Effect of Various Treatments on the Reflectivity of Mo/Si Sample 90-102-1

Equations (1)

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d Ox / d Mo = M Ox ρ Mo / ( A Mo ρ Ox ) ,

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