Abstract

The thermal stability of sputter-deposited Mo/Si multilayers was investigated by annealing studies at relatively low temperatures (~ 250–350 °C) for various times (0.5–3000 h). Two distinct stages of thermally activated Mo/Si interlayer growth were found: a primary surge, followed by a (slower) secondary steady-state growth in which the interdiffusion coefficient is constant. The interdiffusion coefficients for the interlayer formed by deposition of Mo-on-Si are higher than those of the interlayer formed by deposition of Si-on-Mo. Assuming that the activation energy is constant, an extrapolation of our results to ambient temperature finds that interlayer growth is negligible, suggesting long-term thermal stability in soft-x-ray projection lithography applications.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo–Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sc. Technol A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, N. M. Ceglio, “Thermally induced structural modification of Mo–Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415–2427 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. S. Rosen, M. A. Viliardos, M. E. Kassner, D. G. Stearns, S. P. Vernon, “Thermal stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 212–220 (1991).
  5. W. G. Sloof, O. B. Loopstra, Th. H. de Keijser, E. J. Mittemeijer, “Diffusion and structural relaxation in amorphous Mo/Si multilayers,” Scr. Metall. 20, 1683–1687 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Nakajima, H. Fujimori, “Interdiffusion and structural relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer films,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1046–1051 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, O. V. Poltseva, A. I. Fedorenko, S. A. Yulin, “Thermal stability of Mo–Si and MoSi2–Si multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 873–874 (1990).
  8. P. R. Gage, R. W. Bartlett, “Diffusion kinetics affecting formation of silicide coatings on molybdenum and tungsten,” Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 233, 832–834 (1965).
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    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Y. Cheng, H. C. Cheng, L. J. Chen, “Cross-sectional transmission electron microscope study of the growth kinetics of hexagonal MoSi2 on (001) Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 2218–2223 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Holloway, K. B. Do, R. Sinclair, “Interfacial reactions on annealing molybdenum–silicon multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 474–480 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Cheng, D. J. Smith, M. B. Stearns, D. G. Stearns, “Imaging x-ray multilayer structures using cross-sectional high resolution electron microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).
  13. M. Krumrey, M. Kühne, P. Müller, F. Scholze, “Precision soft x-ray reflectometry of curved multilayer optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 136–143 (1991).
  14. A. K. Petford-Long, M. B. Stearns, C. H. Chang, S. R. Nutt, D. G. Stearns, N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, “High resolution electron microscopystudy of x-ray multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1422–1428 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. M. Slaughter, P. A. Kearney, D. W. Schulze, C. M. Falco, “Interfaces in Mo/Si multilayers,” in X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy, Microscopy, Polarimetry, and Projection Lithography, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1343, 73–82 (1990).
  16. P. G. Shewmon, Diffusion in Solids (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963), pp. 2–6.
  17. E. P. Nechiporenko, E. P. Poltavtsev, N. S. Kapustin, V. V. Kapustin, Yu. T. Kondratov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR 9, 1829–1830 (1973).
  18. D. G. Stearns, “The scattering of x-rays from nonideal multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 491–506 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “High-performance multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray projection lithography,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 2–13 (1991).
  20. D. L. Windt, “XUV optical constants of single-crystal GaAs and sputtered C, Si, Cr3C2, Mo, and W,” Appl. Opt. 30, 15–25 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. Baglin, J. Dempsey, W. Hammer, F. d’Heurle, S. Petersson, C. Serrano, “The formation of suicides in Mo–W bilayer films on Si substrates: a marker experiment,” J. Electron. Mater. 8, 641–661 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. P. Murarka, Silicides for VLSI Applications (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1983), pp. 72–75.
  23. R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Cellar, C. A. Volkert, “Stress relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3120–3122 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1992

R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Cellar, C. A. Volkert, “Stress relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3120–3122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. L. Windt, “XUV optical constants of single-crystal GaAs and sputtered C, Si, Cr3C2, Mo, and W,” Appl. Opt. 30, 15–25 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo–Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sc. Technol A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, N. M. Ceglio, “Thermally induced structural modification of Mo–Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415–2427 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, O. V. Poltseva, A. I. Fedorenko, S. A. Yulin, “Thermal stability of Mo–Si and MoSi2–Si multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 873–874 (1990).

1989

K. Holloway, K. B. Do, R. Sinclair, “Interfacial reactions on annealing molybdenum–silicon multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 474–480 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, “The scattering of x-rays from nonideal multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 491–506 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

H. Nakajima, H. Fujimori, “Interdiffusion and structural relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer films,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1046–1051 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

J. Y. Cheng, H. C. Cheng, L. J. Chen, “Cross-sectional transmission electron microscope study of the growth kinetics of hexagonal MoSi2 on (001) Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 2218–2223 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Petford-Long, M. B. Stearns, C. H. Chang, S. R. Nutt, D. G. Stearns, N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, “High resolution electron microscopystudy of x-ray multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1422–1428 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

W. G. Sloof, O. B. Loopstra, Th. H. de Keijser, E. J. Mittemeijer, “Diffusion and structural relaxation in amorphous Mo/Si multilayers,” Scr. Metall. 20, 1683–1687 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

1979

J. Baglin, J. Dempsey, W. Hammer, F. d’Heurle, S. Petersson, C. Serrano, “The formation of suicides in Mo–W bilayer films on Si substrates: a marker experiment,” J. Electron. Mater. 8, 641–661 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

A. Guivarch, P. Auvray, L. Berthou, M. Le Cun, J. P. Boulet, P. Henoc, G. Pelous, “Reaction kinetics of molybdenum thin films on silicon (111) surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 233–237 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1973

E. P. Nechiporenko, E. P. Poltavtsev, N. S. Kapustin, V. V. Kapustin, Yu. T. Kondratov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR 9, 1829–1830 (1973).

1965

P. R. Gage, R. W. Bartlett, “Diffusion kinetics affecting formation of silicide coatings on molybdenum and tungsten,” Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 233, 832–834 (1965).

Auvray, P.

A. Guivarch, P. Auvray, L. Berthou, M. Le Cun, J. P. Boulet, P. Henoc, G. Pelous, “Reaction kinetics of molybdenum thin films on silicon (111) surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 233–237 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Baglin, J.

J. Baglin, J. Dempsey, W. Hammer, F. d’Heurle, S. Petersson, C. Serrano, “The formation of suicides in Mo–W bilayer films on Si substrates: a marker experiment,” J. Electron. Mater. 8, 641–661 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W.

Bartlett, R. W.

P. R. Gage, R. W. Bartlett, “Diffusion kinetics affecting formation of silicide coatings on molybdenum and tungsten,” Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 233, 832–834 (1965).

Berthou, L.

A. Guivarch, P. Auvray, L. Berthou, M. Le Cun, J. P. Boulet, P. Henoc, G. Pelous, “Reaction kinetics of molybdenum thin films on silicon (111) surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 233–237 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Boulet, J. P.

A. Guivarch, P. Auvray, L. Berthou, M. Le Cun, J. P. Boulet, P. Henoc, G. Pelous, “Reaction kinetics of molybdenum thin films on silicon (111) surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 233–237 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ceglio, N. M.

D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, N. M. Ceglio, “Thermally induced structural modification of Mo–Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415–2427 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Petford-Long, M. B. Stearns, C. H. Chang, S. R. Nutt, D. G. Stearns, N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, “High resolution electron microscopystudy of x-ray multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1422–1428 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cellar, G. K.

R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Cellar, C. A. Volkert, “Stress relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3120–3122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. H.

A. K. Petford-Long, M. B. Stearns, C. H. Chang, S. R. Nutt, D. G. Stearns, N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, “High resolution electron microscopystudy of x-ray multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1422–1428 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. J.

J. Y. Cheng, H. C. Cheng, L. J. Chen, “Cross-sectional transmission electron microscope study of the growth kinetics of hexagonal MoSi2 on (001) Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 2218–2223 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H. C.

J. Y. Cheng, H. C. Cheng, L. J. Chen, “Cross-sectional transmission electron microscope study of the growth kinetics of hexagonal MoSi2 on (001) Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 2218–2223 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J. Y.

J. Y. Cheng, H. C. Cheng, L. J. Chen, “Cross-sectional transmission electron microscope study of the growth kinetics of hexagonal MoSi2 on (001) Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 2218–2223 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, N. M. Ceglio, “Thermally induced structural modification of Mo–Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415–2427 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, D. J. Smith, M. B. Stearns, D. G. Stearns, “Imaging x-ray multilayer structures using cross-sectional high resolution electron microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

d’Heurle, F.

J. Baglin, J. Dempsey, W. Hammer, F. d’Heurle, S. Petersson, C. Serrano, “The formation of suicides in Mo–W bilayer films on Si substrates: a marker experiment,” J. Electron. Mater. 8, 641–661 (1979).
[CrossRef]

de Keijser, Th. H.

W. G. Sloof, O. B. Loopstra, Th. H. de Keijser, E. J. Mittemeijer, “Diffusion and structural relaxation in amorphous Mo/Si multilayers,” Scr. Metall. 20, 1683–1687 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Dempsey, J.

J. Baglin, J. Dempsey, W. Hammer, F. d’Heurle, S. Petersson, C. Serrano, “The formation of suicides in Mo–W bilayer films on Si substrates: a marker experiment,” J. Electron. Mater. 8, 641–661 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Do, K. B.

K. Holloway, K. B. Do, R. Sinclair, “Interfacial reactions on annealing molybdenum–silicon multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 474–480 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Falco, C. M.

J. M. Slaughter, P. A. Kearney, D. W. Schulze, C. M. Falco, “Interfaces in Mo/Si multilayers,” in X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy, Microscopy, Polarimetry, and Projection Lithography, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1343, 73–82 (1990).

Fedorenko, A. I.

V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, O. V. Poltseva, A. I. Fedorenko, S. A. Yulin, “Thermal stability of Mo–Si and MoSi2–Si multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 873–874 (1990).

Fujimori, H.

H. Nakajima, H. Fujimori, “Interdiffusion and structural relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer films,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1046–1051 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gage, P. R.

P. R. Gage, R. W. Bartlett, “Diffusion kinetics affecting formation of silicide coatings on molybdenum and tungsten,” Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 233, 832–834 (1965).

Guivarch, A.

A. Guivarch, P. Auvray, L. Berthou, M. Le Cun, J. P. Boulet, P. Henoc, G. Pelous, “Reaction kinetics of molybdenum thin films on silicon (111) surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 233–237 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hammer, W.

J. Baglin, J. Dempsey, W. Hammer, F. d’Heurle, S. Petersson, C. Serrano, “The formation of suicides in Mo–W bilayer films on Si substrates: a marker experiment,” J. Electron. Mater. 8, 641–661 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hawryluk, A. M.

A. K. Petford-Long, M. B. Stearns, C. H. Chang, S. R. Nutt, D. G. Stearns, N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, “High resolution electron microscopystudy of x-ray multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1422–1428 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Henoc, P.

A. Guivarch, P. Auvray, L. Berthou, M. Le Cun, J. P. Boulet, P. Henoc, G. Pelous, “Reaction kinetics of molybdenum thin films on silicon (111) surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 233–237 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hettrick, M. C.

Holloway, K.

K. Holloway, K. B. Do, R. Sinclair, “Interfacial reactions on annealing molybdenum–silicon multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 474–480 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hull, R.

R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Cellar, C. A. Volkert, “Stress relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3120–3122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kapustin, N. S.

E. P. Nechiporenko, E. P. Poltavtsev, N. S. Kapustin, V. V. Kapustin, Yu. T. Kondratov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR 9, 1829–1830 (1973).

Kapustin, V. V.

E. P. Nechiporenko, E. P. Poltavtsev, N. S. Kapustin, V. V. Kapustin, Yu. T. Kondratov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR 9, 1829–1830 (1973).

Kassner, M. E.

R. S. Rosen, M. A. Viliardos, M. E. Kassner, D. G. Stearns, S. P. Vernon, “Thermal stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 212–220 (1991).

Kearney, P. A.

J. M. Slaughter, P. A. Kearney, D. W. Schulze, C. M. Falco, “Interfaces in Mo/Si multilayers,” in X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy, Microscopy, Polarimetry, and Projection Lithography, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1343, 73–82 (1990).

Kola, R. R.

R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Cellar, C. A. Volkert, “Stress relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3120–3122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kondratenko, V. V.

V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, O. V. Poltseva, A. I. Fedorenko, S. A. Yulin, “Thermal stability of Mo–Si and MoSi2–Si multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 873–874 (1990).

Kondratov, Yu. T.

E. P. Nechiporenko, E. P. Poltavtsev, N. S. Kapustin, V. V. Kapustin, Yu. T. Kondratov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR 9, 1829–1830 (1973).

Krumrey, M.

M. Krumrey, M. Kühne, P. Müller, F. Scholze, “Precision soft x-ray reflectometry of curved multilayer optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 136–143 (1991).

Kühne, M.

M. Krumrey, M. Kühne, P. Müller, F. Scholze, “Precision soft x-ray reflectometry of curved multilayer optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 136–143 (1991).

Le Cun, M.

A. Guivarch, P. Auvray, L. Berthou, M. Le Cun, J. P. Boulet, P. Henoc, G. Pelous, “Reaction kinetics of molybdenum thin films on silicon (111) surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 233–237 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Loopstra, O. B.

W. G. Sloof, O. B. Loopstra, Th. H. de Keijser, E. J. Mittemeijer, “Diffusion and structural relaxation in amorphous Mo/Si multilayers,” Scr. Metall. 20, 1683–1687 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mittemeijer, E. J.

W. G. Sloof, O. B. Loopstra, Th. H. de Keijser, E. J. Mittemeijer, “Diffusion and structural relaxation in amorphous Mo/Si multilayers,” Scr. Metall. 20, 1683–1687 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mrowka, S.

Müller, P.

M. Krumrey, M. Kühne, P. Müller, F. Scholze, “Precision soft x-ray reflectometry of curved multilayer optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 136–143 (1991).

Murarka, S. P.

S. P. Murarka, Silicides for VLSI Applications (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1983), pp. 72–75.

Nakajima, H.

H. Nakajima, H. Fujimori, “Interdiffusion and structural relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer films,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1046–1051 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nechiporenko, E. P.

E. P. Nechiporenko, E. P. Poltavtsev, N. S. Kapustin, V. V. Kapustin, Yu. T. Kondratov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR 9, 1829–1830 (1973).

Nutt, S. R.

A. K. Petford-Long, M. B. Stearns, C. H. Chang, S. R. Nutt, D. G. Stearns, N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, “High resolution electron microscopystudy of x-ray multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1422–1428 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pelous, G.

A. Guivarch, P. Auvray, L. Berthou, M. Le Cun, J. P. Boulet, P. Henoc, G. Pelous, “Reaction kinetics of molybdenum thin films on silicon (111) surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 233–237 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Pershin, Yu. P.

V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, O. V. Poltseva, A. I. Fedorenko, S. A. Yulin, “Thermal stability of Mo–Si and MoSi2–Si multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 873–874 (1990).

Petersson, S.

J. Baglin, J. Dempsey, W. Hammer, F. d’Heurle, S. Petersson, C. Serrano, “The formation of suicides in Mo–W bilayer films on Si substrates: a marker experiment,” J. Electron. Mater. 8, 641–661 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Petford-Long, A. K.

A. K. Petford-Long, M. B. Stearns, C. H. Chang, S. R. Nutt, D. G. Stearns, N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, “High resolution electron microscopystudy of x-ray multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1422–1428 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Poltavtsev, E. P.

E. P. Nechiporenko, E. P. Poltavtsev, N. S. Kapustin, V. V. Kapustin, Yu. T. Kondratov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR 9, 1829–1830 (1973).

Poltseva, O. V.

V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, O. V. Poltseva, A. I. Fedorenko, S. A. Yulin, “Thermal stability of Mo–Si and MoSi2–Si multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 873–874 (1990).

Rosen, R. S.

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo–Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sc. Technol A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “High-performance multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray projection lithography,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 2–13 (1991).

R. S. Rosen, M. A. Viliardos, M. E. Kassner, D. G. Stearns, S. P. Vernon, “Thermal stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 212–220 (1991).

Scholze, F.

M. Krumrey, M. Kühne, P. Müller, F. Scholze, “Precision soft x-ray reflectometry of curved multilayer optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 136–143 (1991).

Schulze, D. W.

J. M. Slaughter, P. A. Kearney, D. W. Schulze, C. M. Falco, “Interfaces in Mo/Si multilayers,” in X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy, Microscopy, Polarimetry, and Projection Lithography, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1343, 73–82 (1990).

Serrano, C.

J. Baglin, J. Dempsey, W. Hammer, F. d’Heurle, S. Petersson, C. Serrano, “The formation of suicides in Mo–W bilayer films on Si substrates: a marker experiment,” J. Electron. Mater. 8, 641–661 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Shewmon, P. G.

P. G. Shewmon, Diffusion in Solids (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963), pp. 2–6.

Sinclair, R.

K. Holloway, K. B. Do, R. Sinclair, “Interfacial reactions on annealing molybdenum–silicon multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 474–480 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Slaughter, J. M.

J. M. Slaughter, P. A. Kearney, D. W. Schulze, C. M. Falco, “Interfaces in Mo/Si multilayers,” in X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy, Microscopy, Polarimetry, and Projection Lithography, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1343, 73–82 (1990).

Sloof, W. G.

W. G. Sloof, O. B. Loopstra, Th. H. de Keijser, E. J. Mittemeijer, “Diffusion and structural relaxation in amorphous Mo/Si multilayers,” Scr. Metall. 20, 1683–1687 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. J.

Y. Cheng, D. J. Smith, M. B. Stearns, D. G. Stearns, “Imaging x-ray multilayer structures using cross-sectional high resolution electron microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

Stearns, D. G.

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo–Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sc. Technol A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, N. M. Ceglio, “Thermally induced structural modification of Mo–Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415–2427 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, “The scattering of x-rays from nonideal multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 491–506 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Petford-Long, M. B. Stearns, C. H. Chang, S. R. Nutt, D. G. Stearns, N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, “High resolution electron microscopystudy of x-ray multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1422–1428 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, D. J. Smith, M. B. Stearns, D. G. Stearns, “Imaging x-ray multilayer structures using cross-sectional high resolution electron microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “High-performance multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray projection lithography,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 2–13 (1991).

R. S. Rosen, M. A. Viliardos, M. E. Kassner, D. G. Stearns, S. P. Vernon, “Thermal stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 212–220 (1991).

Stearns, M. B.

D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, N. M. Ceglio, “Thermally induced structural modification of Mo–Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415–2427 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Petford-Long, M. B. Stearns, C. H. Chang, S. R. Nutt, D. G. Stearns, N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, “High resolution electron microscopystudy of x-ray multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1422–1428 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, D. J. Smith, M. B. Stearns, D. G. Stearns, “Imaging x-ray multilayer structures using cross-sectional high resolution electron microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

Stith, J. H.

D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, N. M. Ceglio, “Thermally induced structural modification of Mo–Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415–2427 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vernon, S. P.

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo–Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sc. Technol A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “High-performance multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray projection lithography,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 2–13 (1991).

R. S. Rosen, M. A. Viliardos, M. E. Kassner, D. G. Stearns, S. P. Vernon, “Thermal stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 212–220 (1991).

Viliardos, M. A.

R. S. Rosen, M. A. Viliardos, M. E. Kassner, D. G. Stearns, S. P. Vernon, “Thermal stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 212–220 (1991).

Volkert, C. A.

R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Cellar, C. A. Volkert, “Stress relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3120–3122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Waskiewicz, W. K.

R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Cellar, C. A. Volkert, “Stress relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3120–3122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Weir, B. E.

R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Cellar, C. A. Volkert, “Stress relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3120–3122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Windt, D. L.

R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Cellar, C. A. Volkert, “Stress relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3120–3122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Windt, “XUV optical constants of single-crystal GaAs and sputtered C, Si, Cr3C2, Mo, and W,” Appl. Opt. 30, 15–25 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yulin, S. A.

V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, O. V. Poltseva, A. I. Fedorenko, S. A. Yulin, “Thermal stability of Mo–Si and MoSi2–Si multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 873–874 (1990).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Cellar, C. A. Volkert, “Stress relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3120–3122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR

E. P. Nechiporenko, E. P. Poltavtsev, N. S. Kapustin, V. V. Kapustin, Yu. T. Kondratov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR 9, 1829–1830 (1973).

J. Appl. Phys.

D. G. Stearns, “The scattering of x-rays from nonideal multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 491–506 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakajima, H. Fujimori, “Interdiffusion and structural relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer films,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1046–1051 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Petford-Long, M. B. Stearns, C. H. Chang, S. R. Nutt, D. G. Stearns, N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, “High resolution electron microscopystudy of x-ray multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1422–1428 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, N. M. Ceglio, “Thermally induced structural modification of Mo–Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415–2427 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Guivarch, P. Auvray, L. Berthou, M. Le Cun, J. P. Boulet, P. Henoc, G. Pelous, “Reaction kinetics of molybdenum thin films on silicon (111) surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 233–237 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Cheng, H. C. Cheng, L. J. Chen, “Cross-sectional transmission electron microscope study of the growth kinetics of hexagonal MoSi2 on (001) Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 2218–2223 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Holloway, K. B. Do, R. Sinclair, “Interfacial reactions on annealing molybdenum–silicon multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 474–480 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Mater.

J. Baglin, J. Dempsey, W. Hammer, F. d’Heurle, S. Petersson, C. Serrano, “The formation of suicides in Mo–W bilayer films on Si substrates: a marker experiment,” J. Electron. Mater. 8, 641–661 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sc. Technol A

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo–Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sc. Technol A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Scr. Metall.

W. G. Sloof, O. B. Loopstra, Th. H. de Keijser, E. J. Mittemeijer, “Diffusion and structural relaxation in amorphous Mo/Si multilayers,” Scr. Metall. 20, 1683–1687 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett.

V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, O. V. Poltseva, A. I. Fedorenko, S. A. Yulin, “Thermal stability of Mo–Si and MoSi2–Si multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 873–874 (1990).

Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME

P. R. Gage, R. W. Bartlett, “Diffusion kinetics affecting formation of silicide coatings on molybdenum and tungsten,” Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 233, 832–834 (1965).

Other

J. M. Slaughter, P. A. Kearney, D. W. Schulze, C. M. Falco, “Interfaces in Mo/Si multilayers,” in X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy, Microscopy, Polarimetry, and Projection Lithography, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1343, 73–82 (1990).

P. G. Shewmon, Diffusion in Solids (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963), pp. 2–6.

S. P. Murarka, Silicides for VLSI Applications (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1983), pp. 72–75.

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “High-performance multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray projection lithography,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 2–13 (1991).

R. S. Rosen, M. A. Viliardos, M. E. Kassner, D. G. Stearns, S. P. Vernon, “Thermal stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 212–220 (1991).

Y. Cheng, D. J. Smith, M. B. Stearns, D. G. Stearns, “Imaging x-ray multilayer structures using cross-sectional high resolution electron microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

M. Krumrey, M. Kühne, P. Müller, F. Scholze, “Precision soft x-ray reflectometry of curved multilayer optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 136–143 (1991).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

HREM’s of (a) an unannealed Mo/Si multilayer structure compared with those annealed at 316 °C for (b) 1, (c) 40, and (d) 80 h. Annealing causes growth of the Mo/Si interlayer regions with a corresponding contraction of the multilayer period, which is consistent with the formation of higher-density silicides from the pure layers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Silicide layer growth rates of Mo/Si multilayers annealed at (a) 298, (b) 316, and (c) 342 °C. Two distinct stages of thermally activated interlayer growth are shown: a primary surge, followed by a (slower) secondary steady-state growth in which the interdiffusion coefficients are constant with time. The Mo/Si interlayer regions formed by deposition of Mo-on-Si (thick interlayer) grow at a greater rate than those formed by deposition of Si-on-Mo (thin interlayer).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Arrhenius plot of log D versus 1/T for the thick and thin Mo/Si interlayers, evaluated from secondary-stage growth rates, compared with interdiffusion results of other studies.3,811,17 The apparent activation energy, Ea ≅ 2.5 eV, and interdiffusion coefficient, D0 ≅ 100 cm2/s, for the secondary stage of thick interlayer growth are comparable with diffusion values for Si in h-MoSi2

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured NIR data of specimens annealed at (a) 316 and (b) 342 °C compared with the theoretical reflectance calculated18 when the multilayer structure is modeled as a periodic repetition of four layers: the pure Mo and Si layers and two interlayer regions of uniform MoSi2 stoichiometry. A decrease and shift in the NIR peak occur as a result of growth by interdiffusion (of presumably Si) in the (principally) amorphous Mo/Si interlayer region.

Equations (3)

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w 2 ( t ) = w 2 ( 0 ) + 2 Δ C 0 1 D ( t ) d t ,
D = [ w 2 ( t ) - w 2 ( 0 ) ] / 2 t .
D = D 0 exp ( - E a / k T ) .

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