Abstract

X-ray multilayer (ML) structures that are fabricated by the use of magnetron-sputter deposition exhibit a degradation in structural quality as the deposition pressure is increased. The observed change in morphology is attributed to a reduced mobility of surface adsorbed atoms, which inhibits the formation of smooth, continuous layers. The application of a negative substrate bias produces ion bombardment of the growing film surface by sputtering gas ions extracted from the plasma and permits direct control of the energy density supplied to the film surface during thin-film growth. The technique supplements the energy lost to thermalization in high-pressure deposition and permits the fabrication of high-quality ML structures at elevated processing pressures. A threefold improvement in the soft-x-ray normal-incidence reflectance at 130 A results for substrate bias voltages of the order of ~ −150 V for Mo–Si ML’s deposited at 10-mTorr Ar.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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