Abstract

Recent advances in multilayer mirror technology meet many of the stringent demands of soft-x-ray projection lithography (SXPL). The maximum normal-incidence reflectivity achieved to date is 66% for Mo/Si multilayers at a soft-x-ray wavelength of 13.4 nm, which is sufficient to satisfy the x-ray throughput requirements of SXPL. These high-performance coatings can be deposited on figured optics with layer thickness control of ~ 0.5%. Uniform multilayer coatings are required for SXPL imaging optics, for which maintaining the surface figure is critical to achieving diffraction-limited performance.

In contrast the coatings on the condenser optics will be graded to accommodate a large range of angles of incidence. Graded multilayer coatings can also be used to modify the figure of optical substrates without increasing the surface roughness. This offers a potential method for precise fabrication of aspheric imaging optics.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, N. M. Ceglio, D. P. Gaines, M. Krumrey, P. Muller, “Multilayer coatings of figured optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 39–46 (1991).
  27. J. A. Thornton, J. Tabock, D. W. Hoffman, “Internal stresses in metallic films deposited by cylindrical magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 111–119 (1985).

1993 (4)

1992 (3)

R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Celler, C. A. Volkert, “Stress relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3120–3122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, D. J. Smith, M. B. Stearns, D. G. Stearns, “Imaging x-ray multilayer structures using cross-sectional high resolution electron microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 5165–5171 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Stearns, C.-H. Chang, D. G. Stearns, “Optimization of growth conditions of vapor deposited Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 187–195 (1992); W. L. Morgan, D. B. Boercker, “Simulating growth of Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1176–1178 (1991); J. M. Slaughter, A. Shapiro, P. A. Kearney, C. M. Falco, “Growth of molybdenum on silicon: structure and interface formation,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 3854–3863 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Normal incidence x-ray mirror for 7 nm,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1283–1285 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo–Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Savage, J. Kleiner, N. Schimke, Y.-H. Phang, T. Jankowski, J. Jacobs, R. Kariotis, M. G. Lagally, “Determination of roughness correlations in multilayer films for x-ray mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1411–1424 (1991); D. E. Savage, N. Schimke, Y.-H. Phang, M. G. Lagally, “Interfacial roughness correlation in multilayer films: influence of total film and individual-layer thicknesses,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3283–3293 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 μm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990); A. A. MacDowell, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Z. Pastalan, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, R. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “Reduction imaging with soft x-rays for projection lithography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 737–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

1986 (1)

M. Kardar, G. Parisi, Y.-C. Zhang, “Dynamic scaling of growing interfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 889–892 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

J. A. Thornton, J. Tabock, D. W. Hoffman, “Internal stresses in metallic films deposited by cylindrical magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 111–119 (1985).

1909 (1)

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 82, 172–175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 μm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990); A. A. MacDowell, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Z. Pastalan, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, R. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “Reduction imaging with soft x-rays for projection lithography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 737–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bokor, J.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 μm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990); A. A. MacDowell, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Z. Pastalan, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, R. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “Reduction imaging with soft x-rays for projection lithography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 737–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bruning, J. H.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 μm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990); A. A. MacDowell, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Z. Pastalan, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, R. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “Reduction imaging with soft x-rays for projection lithography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 737–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ceglio, N. M.

N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, “Soft-x-ray projection lithography system design,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, Vol. 12 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 5–10.

S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, N. M. Ceglio, D. P. Gaines, M. Krumrey, P. Muller, “Multilayer coatings of figured optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 39–46 (1991).

Celler, G. K.

R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Celler, C. A. Volkert, “Stress relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3120–3122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-H.

M. B. Stearns, C.-H. Chang, D. G. Stearns, “Optimization of growth conditions of vapor deposited Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 187–195 (1992); W. L. Morgan, D. B. Boercker, “Simulating growth of Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1176–1178 (1991); J. M. Slaughter, A. Shapiro, P. A. Kearney, C. M. Falco, “Growth of molybdenum on silicon: structure and interface formation,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 3854–3863 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.

Cheng, Y.

Y. Cheng, D. J. Smith, M. B. Stearns, D. G. Stearns, “Imaging x-ray multilayer structures using cross-sectional high resolution electron microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 5165–5171 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (to be published).

Eastman, J. M.

J. M. Eastman, “Scattering by all-dielectric multilayer bandpass filters and mirrors for lasers,” in Physics of Thin Films, Advances in Research and Development, G. Hass, M. H. Francombe, eds. (Academic, New York, 1978), Vol. 10, pp. 167–226; B. G. Peterson, L. V. Knight, H. K. Pew, “Image quality of figured multilayered optics,” in Applications of Thin-Film Multilayered Structures to Figured X-Ray Optics, G. F. Marshall, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.563, 328–339 (1985).

Eichner, L.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 μm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990); A. A. MacDowell, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Z. Pastalan, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, R. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “Reduction imaging with soft x-rays for projection lithography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 737–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, R. R.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 μm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990); A. A. MacDowell, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Z. Pastalan, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, R. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “Reduction imaging with soft x-rays for projection lithography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 737–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gaines, D. P.

S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, N. M. Ceglio, D. P. Gaines, M. Krumrey, P. Muller, “Multilayer coatings of figured optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 39–46 (1991).

Golub, L.

Gregus, J.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 μm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990); A. A. MacDowell, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Z. Pastalan, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, R. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “Reduction imaging with soft x-rays for projection lithography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 737–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (to be published).

Hawryluk, A. M.

N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, “Soft-x-ray projection lithography system design,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, Vol. 12 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 5–10.

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (to be published).

Hoffman, D. W.

J. A. Thornton, J. Tabock, D. W. Hoffman, “Internal stresses in metallic films deposited by cylindrical magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 111–119 (1985).

Hull, R.

R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Celler, C. A. Volkert, “Stress relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3120–3122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, Y.

H. Kinoshita, K. Kurihara, Y. Ishii, Y. Torii, “Soft x-ray reduction lithography using multilayer mirrors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 7, 1648–1651 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, J.

D. E. Savage, J. Kleiner, N. Schimke, Y.-H. Phang, T. Jankowski, J. Jacobs, R. Kariotis, M. G. Lagally, “Determination of roughness correlations in multilayer films for x-ray mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1411–1424 (1991); D. E. Savage, N. Schimke, Y.-H. Phang, M. G. Lagally, “Interfacial roughness correlation in multilayer films: influence of total film and individual-layer thicknesses,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3283–3293 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jankowski, T.

D. E. Savage, J. Kleiner, N. Schimke, Y.-H. Phang, T. Jankowski, J. Jacobs, R. Kariotis, M. G. Lagally, “Determination of roughness correlations in multilayer films for x-ray mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1411–1424 (1991); D. E. Savage, N. Schimke, Y.-H. Phang, M. G. Lagally, “Interfacial roughness correlation in multilayer films: influence of total film and individual-layer thicknesses,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3283–3293 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jewell, T. E.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 μm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990); A. A. MacDowell, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Z. Pastalan, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, R. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “Reduction imaging with soft x-rays for projection lithography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 737–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kardar, M.

M. Kardar, G. Parisi, Y.-C. Zhang, “Dynamic scaling of growing interfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 889–892 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kariotis, R.

D. E. Savage, J. Kleiner, N. Schimke, Y.-H. Phang, T. Jankowski, J. Jacobs, R. Kariotis, M. G. Lagally, “Determination of roughness correlations in multilayer films for x-ray mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1411–1424 (1991); D. E. Savage, N. Schimke, Y.-H. Phang, M. G. Lagally, “Interfacial roughness correlation in multilayer films: influence of total film and individual-layer thicknesses,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3283–3293 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kassner, M. E.

Kinoshita, H.

H. Kinoshita, K. Kurihara, Y. Ishii, Y. Torii, “Soft x-ray reduction lithography using multilayer mirrors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 7, 1648–1651 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kleiner, J.

D. E. Savage, J. Kleiner, N. Schimke, Y.-H. Phang, T. Jankowski, J. Jacobs, R. Kariotis, M. G. Lagally, “Determination of roughness correlations in multilayer films for x-ray mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1411–1424 (1991); D. E. Savage, N. Schimke, Y.-H. Phang, M. G. Lagally, “Interfacial roughness correlation in multilayer films: influence of total film and individual-layer thicknesses,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3283–3293 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kola, R. R.

R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Celler, C. A. Volkert, “Stress relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3120–3122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kortright, J. B.

J. B. Kortright, R. N. Watts, “Multilayer uniformity and performance of soft-x-ray imaging optics,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, Vol. 12 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp.92–96.

Krumrey, M.

M. Krumrey, M. Kuhne, P. Muller, F. Scholze, “Precision soft x-ray reflectometry of curved multilayer optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 136–143 (1991).

S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, N. M. Ceglio, D. P. Gaines, M. Krumrey, P. Muller, “Multilayer coatings of figured optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 39–46 (1991).

Kuhne, M.

M. Krumrey, M. Kuhne, P. Muller, F. Scholze, “Precision soft x-ray reflectometry of curved multilayer optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 136–143 (1991).

Kurihara, K.

H. Kinoshita, K. Kurihara, Y. Ishii, Y. Torii, “Soft x-ray reduction lithography using multilayer mirrors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 7, 1648–1651 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lagally, M. G.

D. E. Savage, J. Kleiner, N. Schimke, Y.-H. Phang, T. Jankowski, J. Jacobs, R. Kariotis, M. G. Lagally, “Determination of roughness correlations in multilayer films for x-ray mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1411–1424 (1991); D. E. Savage, N. Schimke, Y.-H. Phang, M. G. Lagally, “Interfacial roughness correlation in multilayer films: influence of total film and individual-layer thicknesses,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3283–3293 (1992).
[CrossRef]

MacDowell, A. A.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 μm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990); A. A. MacDowell, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Z. Pastalan, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, R. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “Reduction imaging with soft x-rays for projection lithography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 737–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mansfield, W. M.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 μm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990); A. A. MacDowell, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Z. Pastalan, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, R. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “Reduction imaging with soft x-rays for projection lithography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 737–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Muller, P.

M. Krumrey, M. Kuhne, P. Muller, F. Scholze, “Precision soft x-ray reflectometry of curved multilayer optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 136–143 (1991).

S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, N. M. Ceglio, D. P. Gaines, M. Krumrey, P. Muller, “Multilayer coatings of figured optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 39–46 (1991).

Parisi, G.

M. Kardar, G. Parisi, Y.-C. Zhang, “Dynamic scaling of growing interfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 889–892 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phang, Y.-H.

D. E. Savage, J. Kleiner, N. Schimke, Y.-H. Phang, T. Jankowski, J. Jacobs, R. Kariotis, M. G. Lagally, “Determination of roughness correlations in multilayer films for x-ray mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1411–1424 (1991); D. E. Savage, N. Schimke, Y.-H. Phang, M. G. Lagally, “Interfacial roughness correlation in multilayer films: influence of total film and individual-layer thicknesses,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3283–3293 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Raab, E. L.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 μm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990); A. A. MacDowell, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Z. Pastalan, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, R. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “Reduction imaging with soft x-rays for projection lithography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 737–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, R. S.

S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, “Structural modification of Mo/Si x-ray multilayer mirrors: ion-assisted sputter deposition,” 32, 6969–6974 (1993).

S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, “Chirped multilayer coatings for increased x-ray throughput,” Opt. Lett. 18, 672–674 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Rosen, D. G. Stearns, M. A. Viliardos, M. E. Kassner, S. P. Vernon, Y. Chang, “Silicide layer growth rates in Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6975–6980 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Normal incidence x-ray mirror for 7 nm,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1283–1285 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo–Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “High-performance multilayer x-ray optics,” in Short-Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, Vol. 11 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 152–159.

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “High performance multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray projection lithography,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 2–13 (1991).

S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, N. M. Ceglio, D. P. Gaines, M. Krumrey, P. Muller, “Multilayer coatings of figured optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 39–46 (1991).

Savage, D. E.

D. E. Savage, J. Kleiner, N. Schimke, Y.-H. Phang, T. Jankowski, J. Jacobs, R. Kariotis, M. G. Lagally, “Determination of roughness correlations in multilayer films for x-ray mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1411–1424 (1991); D. E. Savage, N. Schimke, Y.-H. Phang, M. G. Lagally, “Interfacial roughness correlation in multilayer films: influence of total film and individual-layer thicknesses,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3283–3293 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schimke, N.

D. E. Savage, J. Kleiner, N. Schimke, Y.-H. Phang, T. Jankowski, J. Jacobs, R. Kariotis, M. G. Lagally, “Determination of roughness correlations in multilayer films for x-ray mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1411–1424 (1991); D. E. Savage, N. Schimke, Y.-H. Phang, M. G. Lagally, “Interfacial roughness correlation in multilayer films: influence of total film and individual-layer thicknesses,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3283–3293 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Scholze, F.

M. Krumrey, M. Kuhne, P. Muller, F. Scholze, “Precision soft x-ray reflectometry of curved multilayer optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 136–143 (1991).

Seppala, L. G.

Silfvast, W. T.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 μm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990); A. A. MacDowell, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Z. Pastalan, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, R. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “Reduction imaging with soft x-rays for projection lithography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 737–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. J.

Y. Cheng, D. J. Smith, M. B. Stearns, D. G. Stearns, “Imaging x-ray multilayer structures using cross-sectional high resolution electron microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 5165–5171 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sommargren, G. E.

Spiller, E.

Stearns, D. G.

S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, “Structural modification of Mo/Si x-ray multilayer mirrors: ion-assisted sputter deposition,” 32, 6969–6974 (1993).

R. S. Rosen, D. G. Stearns, M. A. Viliardos, M. E. Kassner, S. P. Vernon, Y. Chang, “Silicide layer growth rates in Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6975–6980 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, “Chirped multilayer coatings for increased x-ray throughput,” Opt. Lett. 18, 672–674 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Stearns, C.-H. Chang, D. G. Stearns, “Optimization of growth conditions of vapor deposited Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 187–195 (1992); W. L. Morgan, D. B. Boercker, “Simulating growth of Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1176–1178 (1991); J. M. Slaughter, A. Shapiro, P. A. Kearney, C. M. Falco, “Growth of molybdenum on silicon: structure and interface formation,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 3854–3863 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, D. J. Smith, M. B. Stearns, D. G. Stearns, “Imaging x-ray multilayer structures using cross-sectional high resolution electron microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 5165–5171 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Normal incidence x-ray mirror for 7 nm,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1283–1285 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo–Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “High performance multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray projection lithography,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 2–13 (1991).

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “High-performance multilayer x-ray optics,” in Short-Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, Vol. 11 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 152–159.

S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, N. M. Ceglio, D. P. Gaines, M. Krumrey, P. Muller, “Multilayer coatings of figured optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 39–46 (1991).

Stearns, M. B.

M. B. Stearns, C.-H. Chang, D. G. Stearns, “Optimization of growth conditions of vapor deposited Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 187–195 (1992); W. L. Morgan, D. B. Boercker, “Simulating growth of Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1176–1178 (1991); J. M. Slaughter, A. Shapiro, P. A. Kearney, C. M. Falco, “Growth of molybdenum on silicon: structure and interface formation,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 3854–3863 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, D. J. Smith, M. B. Stearns, D. G. Stearns, “Imaging x-ray multilayer structures using cross-sectional high resolution electron microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 5165–5171 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stoney, G. G.

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 82, 172–175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Szeto, L. H.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 μm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990); A. A. MacDowell, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Z. Pastalan, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, R. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “Reduction imaging with soft x-rays for projection lithography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 737–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tabock, J.

J. A. Thornton, J. Tabock, D. W. Hoffman, “Internal stresses in metallic films deposited by cylindrical magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 111–119 (1985).

Tennant, D. M.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 μm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990); A. A. MacDowell, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Z. Pastalan, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, R. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “Reduction imaging with soft x-rays for projection lithography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 737–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Thornton, J. A.

J. A. Thornton, J. Tabock, D. W. Hoffman, “Internal stresses in metallic films deposited by cylindrical magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 111–119 (1985).

Torii, Y.

H. Kinoshita, K. Kurihara, Y. Ishii, Y. Torii, “Soft x-ray reduction lithography using multilayer mirrors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 7, 1648–1651 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Vernon, S. P.

S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, “Structural modification of Mo/Si x-ray multilayer mirrors: ion-assisted sputter deposition,” 32, 6969–6974 (1993).

S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, “Chirped multilayer coatings for increased x-ray throughput,” Opt. Lett. 18, 672–674 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Rosen, D. G. Stearns, M. A. Viliardos, M. E. Kassner, S. P. Vernon, Y. Chang, “Silicide layer growth rates in Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6975–6980 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo–Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Normal incidence x-ray mirror for 7 nm,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1283–1285 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “High-performance multilayer x-ray optics,” in Short-Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, Vol. 11 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 152–159.

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “High performance multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray projection lithography,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 2–13 (1991).

S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, N. M. Ceglio, D. P. Gaines, M. Krumrey, P. Muller, “Multilayer coatings of figured optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 39–46 (1991).

Viliardos, M. A.

Volkert, C. A.

R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Celler, C. A. Volkert, “Stress relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3120–3122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Waskiewicz, W. K.

R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Celler, C. A. Volkert, “Stress relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3120–3122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 μm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990); A. A. MacDowell, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Z. Pastalan, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, R. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “Reduction imaging with soft x-rays for projection lithography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 737–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, “Soft x-ray reflectometry of multilayer coatings using a laser-plasma source,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 144–158 (1991).

Watts, R. N.

J. B. Kortright, R. N. Watts, “Multilayer uniformity and performance of soft-x-ray imaging optics,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, Vol. 12 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp.92–96.

Weir, B. E.

R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Celler, C. A. Volkert, “Stress relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3120–3122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

White, D. L.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 μm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990); A. A. MacDowell, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Z. Pastalan, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, R. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “Reduction imaging with soft x-rays for projection lithography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 737–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Windt, D. L.

R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Celler, C. A. Volkert, “Stress relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3120–3122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 μm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990); A. A. MacDowell, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Z. Pastalan, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, R. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “Reduction imaging with soft x-rays for projection lithography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 737–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, “Soft x-ray reflectometry of multilayer coatings using a laser-plasma source,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 144–158 (1991).

Wood, O. R.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 μm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990); A. A. MacDowell, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Z. Pastalan, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, R. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “Reduction imaging with soft x-rays for projection lithography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 737–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.-C.

M. Kardar, G. Parisi, Y.-C. Zhang, “Dynamic scaling of growing interfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 889–892 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Celler, C. A. Volkert, “Stress relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3120–3122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

D. E. Savage, J. Kleiner, N. Schimke, Y.-H. Phang, T. Jankowski, J. Jacobs, R. Kariotis, M. G. Lagally, “Determination of roughness correlations in multilayer films for x-ray mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1411–1424 (1991); D. E. Savage, N. Schimke, Y.-H. Phang, M. G. Lagally, “Interfacial roughness correlation in multilayer films: influence of total film and individual-layer thicknesses,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3283–3293 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, D. J. Smith, M. B. Stearns, D. G. Stearns, “Imaging x-ray multilayer structures using cross-sectional high resolution electron microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 5165–5171 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Stearns, C.-H. Chang, D. G. Stearns, “Optimization of growth conditions of vapor deposited Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 187–195 (1992); W. L. Morgan, D. B. Boercker, “Simulating growth of Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1176–1178 (1991); J. M. Slaughter, A. Shapiro, P. A. Kearney, C. M. Falco, “Growth of molybdenum on silicon: structure and interface formation,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 3854–3863 (1991).
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J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (2)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of the magnetron sputtering deposition system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

High-resolution electron micrograph of a Mo/Si multilayer coating. The pure layers of amorphous Si and polycrystalline Mo are separated by asymmetric interlayers of mixed composition. The Si substrate (not shown) is oriented below the figure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

High-resolution electron micrographs of Mo/Si multilayers deposited at different values of Ar gas pressure: (a)2.5, (b) 5.0, (c) 10, (d) 20 mTorr. The film morphology exhibits a transition from the formation of continuous layers at low Ar pressure to columnar growth at higher pressures, with a corresponding increase in layer roughness. The substrate is oriented below the figures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normal-incidence x-ray reflectivity of a Mo/Si multilayer coating deposited on a superpolished fused silica substrate. The reflectivity of the mirror has a peak value of 66% at an x-ray wavelength of 13.4 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of interlayers on the normal-incidence reflectivity of Mo/Si multilayer mirrors. The solid curve is the reflectivity calculated for an ideal ML structure consisting of pure Mo and Si layers with compositionally abrupt interfaces. The dashed curve is the reflectivity calculated for a multilayer with the same period but with Mo-on-Si and Si-on-Mo interlayers of MoSi2 stoichiometry with widths of 1.2 and 0.6 nm, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Characterization of a Mo/Si ML coating deposited on a 10-cm-diameter, f3 substrate composed of fused silica: (a) peak reflectivity at normal incidence measured across the diameter of the optic; (b) variation in the ML period.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Schematic drawing of the cross section of an axisymmetric graded ML coating. (b) Mask design for producing a linearly graded coating. The azimuthal arc length of the aperture (white area) increases linearly with the radius.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Normal-incidence reflectivity spectra measured at different radial positions on a linearly graded Mo/Si ML coating. The ML period increases from ~ 6 nm at the center to ~ 10 nm at the outer edge of the mirror. The radial positions of the measurements are identified.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Characterization of a linearly graded Mo/Si ML coating deposited on a 10.16-cm-diameter Si wafer. The dashed curve corresponds to a mask in which the angular opening of the aperture increases linearly with radius. The solid curve corresponds to a mask aperture corrected for the shadowing effects. (a) Variation of the ML period across a diameter of the mirror. (b) Fractional error in the ML period relative to the ideal linear grating.

Equations (3)

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T σ n R P n 1 n R I R P n - 1 ,
δ T T = δ R I R I + ( n - 1 ) δ R P R P .
R = - 1 6 E s t s 2 ( 1 - ν s ) t f σ f ,

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