Abstract

Raman-scattering activity in clear ocean waters is documented for the visible spectrum from Monte Carlo simulations. The Raman-scattering activity has a significant effect on the upwelling irradiance value in air and on the submarine light field at the water surface across the visible spectrum. A reduction in Raman-scattering activity at 440 nm that is due to Fraunhofer lines at the Raman source wavelengths is also demonstrated. At wavelengths greater than 500 nm, Raman scattering makes a significant contribution to the in-water light field at depth.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. H. Stavn, A. D. Weidemann, “Optical modeling of clear ocean light fields: Raman scattering effects,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4002–4010 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. H. Stavn, A. D. Weidemann, “Raman scattering in ocean optics: quantitative assessment of internal radiant emission,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1294–1303 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. R. Marshall, “Raman scattering in ocean water,” M.S. thesis (Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1989).
  4. B. R. Marshall, R. C. Smith, “Raman scattering and in-water optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 29, 71–84 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, M. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–404 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. A. Long, Raman Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977), p. 276.
  7. R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Stratospheric ozone, middle ultraviolet radiation and phytoplankton productivity,” Oceanography 2, 4–10 (1989).
  8. H. R. Gordon, “Diffuse reflectance of the ocean: influence of nonuniform phytoplankton pigment profile,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2116–2129 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. R. Gordon, “Diffuse reflectance of the ocean: the theory of its augmentation by chlorophyll a fluorescence at 685 nm,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1161–1166 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. H. Mazel, “Spectral transformation of downwelling radiation by autofluorescent organisms in the sea,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 320–327 (1990).
  11. E. D. Traganza, “Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of dissolved organic matter in sea water,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 19, 897–904 (1969).
  12. K. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Delineation of estuarine fronts in the German Bight using airborne laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence of water column constituents,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 3, 475–495 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. R. Gordon, A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), p. 114.
  15. G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, “Monte Carlo calculations of radiative transfer in the earth's atmosphere–ocean system: 1. Flux in the atmosphere and ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2, 139–145 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, “Irradiance reflectivity of a flat ocean as a function of its optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1549–1551 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. T. O. Kirk, “Monte Carlo procedure for simulating the penetration of light into natural waters,” CSIRO Div. Plant Ind. Technol. Paper 36 (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Canberra, Australia, 1981).
  18. R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200–800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. C. Tam, C. K. N. Patel, “Optical absorption of light and heavy water by laser optoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3348–3358 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. T. G. Peacock, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, R. G. Steward, “Effects of fluorescence and water Raman scattering on models of remote sensing reflectance,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 303–319 (1990).
  21. A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Steemann Nielsen, eds. (Academic, London, 1974) p. 494.
  22. G. Kullenberg, “Scattering of light by Sargasso Sea water,” Deep-Sea Res. 15, 423–432 (1968).
  23. T. J. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” Slo Ref.72–78 (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., 1972).
  24. W. F. Murphy, H. J. Bernstein, “Raman spectra and an assignment of the vibrational stretching region of water,” J. Phys. Chem. 76, 1147–1152 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  25. H. W. Schrötter, H. W. Klöckner, “Raman scattering cross sections in gases and liquids,” in Raman Scattering of Gases and Liquids, A. Weber, ed., Vol. 11 of Topics in Current Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), pp. 123–166.
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Iqbal, Solar Radiation (Academic, New York, 1984).
  27. A. W. Harrison, C. A. Coombes, “Angular distribution of clear sky short wavelength radiance,” Solar Energy 40, 57–63 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurements of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 177–201 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  29. D. A. Siegel, T. D. Dickey, “On the parameterization of irradiance for open ocean photoprocesses,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 14,648–14,662 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. H. Stavn, F. R. Schiebe, C. L. Gallegos, “Optical controls on the radiant energy dynamics of the air/water interface: the average cosine and the absorption coefficient,” in Ocean Optics VII, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.489, 62–67 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  31. R. H. Stavn, “The three-parameter model of the submarine light field: radiant energy absorption and trapping in nephelooid layers recalculated,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 1934–1936 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

1992 (2)

1990 (1)

1989 (2)

K. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Stratospheric ozone, middle ultraviolet radiation and phytoplankton productivity,” Oceanography 2, 4–10 (1989).

1988 (2)

A. W. Harrison, C. A. Coombes, “Angular distribution of clear sky short wavelength radiance,” Solar Energy 40, 57–63 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stavn, A. D. Weidemann, “Optical modeling of clear ocean light fields: Raman scattering effects,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4002–4010 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

D. A. Siegel, T. D. Dickey, “On the parameterization of irradiance for open ocean photoprocesses,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 14,648–14,662 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stavn, “The three-parameter model of the submarine light field: radiant energy absorption and trapping in nephelooid layers recalculated,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 1934–1936 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, M. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–404 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Delineation of estuarine fronts in the German Bight using airborne laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence of water column constituents,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 3, 475–495 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurements of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 177–201 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

1973 (1)

1972 (2)

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, “Monte Carlo calculations of radiative transfer in the earth's atmosphere–ocean system: 1. Flux in the atmosphere and ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2, 139–145 (1972).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Murphy, H. J. Bernstein, “Raman spectra and an assignment of the vibrational stretching region of water,” J. Phys. Chem. 76, 1147–1152 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

E. D. Traganza, “Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of dissolved organic matter in sea water,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 19, 897–904 (1969).

1968 (1)

G. Kullenberg, “Scattering of light by Sargasso Sea water,” Deep-Sea Res. 15, 423–432 (1968).

Baker, K. S.

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Stratospheric ozone, middle ultraviolet radiation and phytoplankton productivity,” Oceanography 2, 4–10 (1989).

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200–800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernstein, H. J.

W. F. Murphy, H. J. Bernstein, “Raman spectra and an assignment of the vibrational stretching region of water,” J. Phys. Chem. 76, 1147–1152 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

Carder, K.

K. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

T. G. Peacock, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, R. G. Steward, “Effects of fluorescence and water Raman scattering on models of remote sensing reflectance,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 303–319 (1990).

Coombes, C. A.

A. W. Harrison, C. A. Coombes, “Angular distribution of clear sky short wavelength radiance,” Solar Energy 40, 57–63 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. O.

T. G. Peacock, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, R. G. Steward, “Effects of fluorescence and water Raman scattering on models of remote sensing reflectance,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 303–319 (1990).

Dickey, T. D.

D. A. Siegel, T. D. Dickey, “On the parameterization of irradiance for open ocean photoprocesses,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 14,648–14,662 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gallegos, C. L.

R. H. Stavn, F. R. Schiebe, C. L. Gallegos, “Optical controls on the radiant energy dynamics of the air/water interface: the average cosine and the absorption coefficient,” in Ocean Optics VII, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.489, 62–67 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

Harrison, A. W.

A. W. Harrison, C. A. Coombes, “Angular distribution of clear sky short wavelength radiance,” Solar Energy 40, 57–63 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, G. R.

K. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hoge, F. E.

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Delineation of estuarine fronts in the German Bight using airborne laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence of water column constituents,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 3, 475–495 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Iqbal, M.

M. Iqbal, Solar Radiation (Academic, New York, 1984).

Kattawar, G. W.

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, “Monte Carlo calculations of radiative transfer in the earth's atmosphere–ocean system: 1. Flux in the atmosphere and ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2, 139–145 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, J. T. O.

J. T. O. Kirk, “Monte Carlo procedure for simulating the penetration of light into natural waters,” CSIRO Div. Plant Ind. Technol. Paper 36 (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Canberra, Australia, 1981).

Kishino, M.

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, M. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–404 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Klöckner, H. W.

H. W. Schrötter, H. W. Klöckner, “Raman scattering cross sections in gases and liquids,” in Raman Scattering of Gases and Liquids, A. Weber, ed., Vol. 11 of Topics in Current Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), pp. 123–166.
[CrossRef]

Kullenberg, G.

G. Kullenberg, “Scattering of light by Sargasso Sea water,” Deep-Sea Res. 15, 423–432 (1968).

Long, D. A.

D. A. Long, Raman Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977), p. 276.

Marshall, B. R.

B. R. Marshall, R. C. Smith, “Raman scattering and in-water optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 29, 71–84 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Marshall, “Raman scattering in ocean water,” M.S. thesis (Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1989).

Mazel, C. H.

C. H. Mazel, “Spectral transformation of downwelling radiation by autofluorescent organisms in the sea,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 320–327 (1990).

Morel, A.

A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurements of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 177–201 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Steemann Nielsen, eds. (Academic, London, 1974) p. 494.

Morel, A. Y.

H. R. Gordon, A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), p. 114.

Murphy, W. F.

W. F. Murphy, H. J. Bernstein, “Raman spectra and an assignment of the vibrational stretching region of water,” J. Phys. Chem. 76, 1147–1152 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Okami, M.

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, M. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–404 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ortner, P. B.

K. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Patel, C. K. N.

Peacock, T. G.

T. G. Peacock, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, R. G. Steward, “Effects of fluorescence and water Raman scattering on models of remote sensing reflectance,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 303–319 (1990).

Petzold, T. J.

T. J. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” Slo Ref.72–78 (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., 1972).

Plass, G. N.

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, “Monte Carlo calculations of radiative transfer in the earth's atmosphere–ocean system: 1. Flux in the atmosphere and ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2, 139–145 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Schiebe, F. R.

R. H. Stavn, F. R. Schiebe, C. L. Gallegos, “Optical controls on the radiant energy dynamics of the air/water interface: the average cosine and the absorption coefficient,” in Ocean Optics VII, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.489, 62–67 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Schrötter, H. W.

H. W. Schrötter, H. W. Klöckner, “Raman scattering cross sections in gases and liquids,” in Raman Scattering of Gases and Liquids, A. Weber, ed., Vol. 11 of Topics in Current Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), pp. 123–166.
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D. A.

D. A. Siegel, T. D. Dickey, “On the parameterization of irradiance for open ocean photoprocesses,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 14,648–14,662 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

Stavn, R. H.

R. H. Stavn, A. D. Weidemann, “Raman scattering in ocean optics: quantitative assessment of internal radiant emission,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1294–1303 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Stavn, A. D. Weidemann, “Optical modeling of clear ocean light fields: Raman scattering effects,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4002–4010 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Stavn, “The three-parameter model of the submarine light field: radiant energy absorption and trapping in nephelooid layers recalculated,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 1934–1936 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stavn, F. R. Schiebe, C. L. Gallegos, “Optical controls on the radiant energy dynamics of the air/water interface: the average cosine and the absorption coefficient,” in Ocean Optics VII, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.489, 62–67 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Steward, R. G.

K. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Peacock, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, R. G. Steward, “Effects of fluorescence and water Raman scattering on models of remote sensing reflectance,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 303–319 (1990).

Sugihara, S.

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, M. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–404 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Swift, R. N.

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Delineation of estuarine fronts in the German Bight using airborne laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence of water column constituents,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 3, 475–495 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tam, A. C.

Traganza, E. D.

E. D. Traganza, “Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of dissolved organic matter in sea water,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 19, 897–904 (1969).

Weidemann, A. D.

Appl. Opt. (8)

Boundary-Layer Meteorol. (1)

A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurements of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 177–201 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Mar. Sci. (1)

E. D. Traganza, “Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of dissolved organic matter in sea water,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 19, 897–904 (1969).

Deep-Sea Res. (1)

G. Kullenberg, “Scattering of light by Sargasso Sea water,” Deep-Sea Res. 15, 423–432 (1968).

Int. J. Remote Sensing (1)

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Delineation of estuarine fronts in the German Bight using airborne laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence of water column constituents,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 3, 475–495 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

D. A. Siegel, T. D. Dickey, “On the parameterization of irradiance for open ocean photoprocesses,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 14,648–14,662 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stavn, “The three-parameter model of the submarine light field: radiant energy absorption and trapping in nephelooid layers recalculated,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 1934–1936 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. (1)

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, M. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–404 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

W. F. Murphy, H. J. Bernstein, “Raman spectra and an assignment of the vibrational stretching region of water,” J. Phys. Chem. 76, 1147–1152 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Oceanogr. (1)

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, “Monte Carlo calculations of radiative transfer in the earth's atmosphere–ocean system: 1. Flux in the atmosphere and ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2, 139–145 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (1)

K. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Oceanography (1)

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Stratospheric ozone, middle ultraviolet radiation and phytoplankton productivity,” Oceanography 2, 4–10 (1989).

Solar Energy (1)

A. W. Harrison, C. A. Coombes, “Angular distribution of clear sky short wavelength radiance,” Solar Energy 40, 57–63 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

B. R. Marshall, “Raman scattering in ocean water,” M.S. thesis (Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1989).

R. H. Stavn, F. R. Schiebe, C. L. Gallegos, “Optical controls on the radiant energy dynamics of the air/water interface: the average cosine and the absorption coefficient,” in Ocean Optics VII, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.489, 62–67 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Mazel, “Spectral transformation of downwelling radiation by autofluorescent organisms in the sea,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 320–327 (1990).

D. A. Long, Raman Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977), p. 276.

H. R. Gordon, A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), p. 114.

J. T. O. Kirk, “Monte Carlo procedure for simulating the penetration of light into natural waters,” CSIRO Div. Plant Ind. Technol. Paper 36 (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Canberra, Australia, 1981).

T. G. Peacock, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, R. G. Steward, “Effects of fluorescence and water Raman scattering on models of remote sensing reflectance,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 303–319 (1990).

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Steemann Nielsen, eds. (Academic, London, 1974) p. 494.

H. W. Schrötter, H. W. Klöckner, “Raman scattering cross sections in gases and liquids,” in Raman Scattering of Gases and Liquids, A. Weber, ed., Vol. 11 of Topics in Current Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), pp. 123–166.
[CrossRef]

M. Iqbal, Solar Radiation (Academic, New York, 1984).

T. J. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” Slo Ref.72–78 (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., 1972).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Up welling irradiances for solar photons, water Raman photons, and the combined total photons of clear ocean light field for (a) 430 nm, (b) 490 nm, (c) 510 nm, (d) 520 nm, and (e) 640 nm. The standard error of the mean is indicated by horizontal lines or by the thickness of each graph line.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Depth at which the upwelling irradiance field is composed of 50% Raman photons across the visible spectrum. Extrapolation of data at 490 nm (dotted line) would indicate that this condition may occur at 600 m. Wavelengths less than 490 nm would apparently never reach this condition.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Percentile contribution of water Raman photons to total light field (scalar irradiance) with depth in clear ocean water at (a) 430 nm, (b) 490 nm, (c) 510 nm, (d) 520 nm, and (e) 640 nm. Note that the percentile scale goes to a maximum of 10% for (a) and (b) and a maximum of 100% for (c)–(e). The smaller percentile is necessary for the shorter wavelengths to make their Raman contributions discernible.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Irradiance ratios of clear ocean light field with depth for solar photons alone and total (solar + Raman) photons at (a) 430 nm, (b) 490 nm, (c) 510 nm, (d) 520 nm, and (e) 640 nm. Note that the R value has a maximum of 0.1 for (a)–(c), 0.8 for (d), and 1.0 for (e).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Irradiance ratios in air caused by emergent radiant flux from clear ocean water, flat surface: solar photons alone (dotted curve) and total (solar + Raman) photons (solid curve).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Percentile Raman Contribution to Scalar Irradiance: Just Beneath Surface

Tables Icon

Table 2 Absorption Coefficient Ratioa

Equations (2)

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Δ a ( z ) a ( z ) E o * ( z ) [ E o ( z ) + E o * ( z ) ] ,
ã ( z ) = 1 [ E o ( z ) + E o * ( z ) ] d [ E z ( z ) + E z * ( z ) ] d z ,

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