Abstract

Micro-optics is usually associated with planar waveguides or integrated optical circuits. In this case the propagation of light is restricted to one or two dimensions, and the three-dimensional nature of light propagation is disregarded. We present a method of fabricating three-dimensional micro-optical components by the so-called LIGA process, a lithography, electroforming, and plastic molding process in which poly(methyl methacrylate) is structured by high-energy synchrotron radiation. We demonstrate an experimental system of image formation that uses microprisms and microlenses for a three-dimensional microintegration of optical components.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Nishishara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989), pp. 1–3.
  2. E. W. Becker, W. Ehrfeld, P. Hagmann, A. Maner, D. Muinchmeyer, “Fabrication of microstructures with high aspect ratios and great structural heights by synchrotron radiation lithography, galvanoforming and plastic moulding (LIGA process),” Microelectron. Eng. 4, 35–36 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Burbaum, J. Mohr, P. Bley, W. Ehrfeld, “Fabrication of capacitive acceleration sensors by the LIGA technique,” Sensors Actuators A 25, 559–563 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Rogner, W. Ehrfeld, “Fabrication of light guiding devices and fiber coupling structures by the LIGA process,” in Micro-Optics II, A. V. Scheggi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1506, 80–91 (1991).
  5. J. Göttert, J. Mohr, “Characterization of micro-optical components fabricated by deep etch x-ray lithography,” in Micro-Optics II, A. V. Scheggi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1506, 37–46 (1991).
  6. K. Iga, M. Oikawa, J. Banno, Y. Kokubun, “Stacked planar optics: an application of the planar microlens,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3456–3460 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  11. W. B. Veldkamp, “Overview of micro-optics: past, present, and future,” in Miniature and Micro-optics: Fabrication and System Applicataions, C. Roychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1544, 287–299 (1991).
  12. K.-H. Brenner, “3-D integration of digital optical systems,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 25–28.
  13. K.-H. Brenner, “Techniques for integrating 3-D optical systems,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication and System Applications, C. Roychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1544, 263–270 (1991).
  14. K. Iga, Y. Kokobun, M. Oikawa, Fundamentals of Micro-optics (Academic, New York, 1984), pp. 107–137.
  15. K.-H. Bruning, D. R. Herriott, J.E. Gallagher, D. P. Rosenfeld, A. D. White, D. J. Brangaccio, “Digital wavefront measuring interferometer for testing optical surfaces and lenses,” Appl. Opt. 13, 2693–2703 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

1991

C. Burbaum, J. Mohr, P. Bley, W. Ehrfeld, “Fabrication of capacitive acceleration sensors by the LIGA technique,” Sensors Actuators A 25, 559–563 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

1989

1988

1986

E. W. Becker, W. Ehrfeld, P. Hagmann, A. Maner, D. Muinchmeyer, “Fabrication of microstructures with high aspect ratios and great structural heights by synchrotron radiation lithography, galvanoforming and plastic moulding (LIGA process),” Microelectron. Eng. 4, 35–36 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982

1974

Banno, J.

Becker, E. W.

E. W. Becker, W. Ehrfeld, P. Hagmann, A. Maner, D. Muinchmeyer, “Fabrication of microstructures with high aspect ratios and great structural heights by synchrotron radiation lithography, galvanoforming and plastic moulding (LIGA process),” Microelectron. Eng. 4, 35–36 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bley, P.

C. Burbaum, J. Mohr, P. Bley, W. Ehrfeld, “Fabrication of capacitive acceleration sensors by the LIGA technique,” Sensors Actuators A 25, 559–563 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brangaccio, D. J.

Brenner, K.-H.

K.-H. Brenner, F. Sauer, “Diffractive-reflective optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4251 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-H. Brenner, “3-D integration of digital optical systems,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 25–28.

K.-H. Brenner, “Techniques for integrating 3-D optical systems,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication and System Applications, C. Roychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1544, 263–270 (1991).

Bruning, K.-H.

Burbaum, C.

C. Burbaum, J. Mohr, P. Bley, W. Ehrfeld, “Fabrication of capacitive acceleration sensors by the LIGA technique,” Sensors Actuators A 25, 559–563 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Burrus, C. A.

Ehrfeld, W.

C. Burbaum, J. Mohr, P. Bley, W. Ehrfeld, “Fabrication of capacitive acceleration sensors by the LIGA technique,” Sensors Actuators A 25, 559–563 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Becker, W. Ehrfeld, P. Hagmann, A. Maner, D. Muinchmeyer, “Fabrication of microstructures with high aspect ratios and great structural heights by synchrotron radiation lithography, galvanoforming and plastic moulding (LIGA process),” Microelectron. Eng. 4, 35–36 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Rogner, W. Ehrfeld, “Fabrication of light guiding devices and fiber coupling structures by the LIGA process,” in Micro-Optics II, A. V. Scheggi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1506, 80–91 (1991).

Gallagher, J.E.

Göttert, J.

J. Göttert, J. Mohr, “Characterization of micro-optical components fabricated by deep etch x-ray lithography,” in Micro-Optics II, A. V. Scheggi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1506, 37–46 (1991).

Hagmann, P.

E. W. Becker, W. Ehrfeld, P. Hagmann, A. Maner, D. Muinchmeyer, “Fabrication of microstructures with high aspect ratios and great structural heights by synchrotron radiation lithography, galvanoforming and plastic moulding (LIGA process),” Microelectron. Eng. 4, 35–36 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Haruna, M.

H. Nishishara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989), pp. 1–3.

Herriott, D. R.

Huang, A.

Iga, K.

Jahns, J.

Jewell, J. L.

Kokobun, Y.

K. Iga, Y. Kokobun, M. Oikawa, Fundamentals of Micro-optics (Academic, New York, 1984), pp. 107–137.

Kokubun, Y.

Lee, Y. H.

Maner, A.

E. W. Becker, W. Ehrfeld, P. Hagmann, A. Maner, D. Muinchmeyer, “Fabrication of microstructures with high aspect ratios and great structural heights by synchrotron radiation lithography, galvanoforming and plastic moulding (LIGA process),” Microelectron. Eng. 4, 35–36 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mohr, J.

C. Burbaum, J. Mohr, P. Bley, W. Ehrfeld, “Fabrication of capacitive acceleration sensors by the LIGA technique,” Sensors Actuators A 25, 559–563 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Göttert, J. Mohr, “Characterization of micro-optical components fabricated by deep etch x-ray lithography,” in Micro-Optics II, A. V. Scheggi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1506, 37–46 (1991).

Muinchmeyer, D.

E. W. Becker, W. Ehrfeld, P. Hagmann, A. Maner, D. Muinchmeyer, “Fabrication of microstructures with high aspect ratios and great structural heights by synchrotron radiation lithography, galvanoforming and plastic moulding (LIGA process),” Microelectron. Eng. 4, 35–36 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nishishara, H.

H. Nishishara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989), pp. 1–3.

Oikawa, M.

Rogner, A.

A. Rogner, W. Ehrfeld, “Fabrication of light guiding devices and fiber coupling structures by the LIGA process,” in Micro-Optics II, A. V. Scheggi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1506, 80–91 (1991).

Rosenfeld, D. P.

Sauer, F.

Suhara, T.

H. Nishishara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989), pp. 1–3.

Veldkamp, W. B.

W. B. Veldkamp, “Overview of micro-optics: past, present, and future,” in Miniature and Micro-optics: Fabrication and System Applicataions, C. Roychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1544, 287–299 (1991).

White, A. D.

Appl. Opt.

Microelectron. Eng.

E. W. Becker, W. Ehrfeld, P. Hagmann, A. Maner, D. Muinchmeyer, “Fabrication of microstructures with high aspect ratios and great structural heights by synchrotron radiation lithography, galvanoforming and plastic moulding (LIGA process),” Microelectron. Eng. 4, 35–36 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sensors Actuators A

C. Burbaum, J. Mohr, P. Bley, W. Ehrfeld, “Fabrication of capacitive acceleration sensors by the LIGA technique,” Sensors Actuators A 25, 559–563 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Rogner, W. Ehrfeld, “Fabrication of light guiding devices and fiber coupling structures by the LIGA process,” in Micro-Optics II, A. V. Scheggi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1506, 80–91 (1991).

J. Göttert, J. Mohr, “Characterization of micro-optical components fabricated by deep etch x-ray lithography,” in Micro-Optics II, A. V. Scheggi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1506, 37–46 (1991).

H. Nishishara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989), pp. 1–3.

W. B. Veldkamp, “Overview of micro-optics: past, present, and future,” in Miniature and Micro-optics: Fabrication and System Applicataions, C. Roychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1544, 287–299 (1991).

K.-H. Brenner, “3-D integration of digital optical systems,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 25–28.

K.-H. Brenner, “Techniques for integrating 3-D optical systems,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication and System Applications, C. Roychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1544, 263–270 (1991).

K. Iga, Y. Kokobun, M. Oikawa, Fundamentals of Micro-optics (Academic, New York, 1984), pp. 107–137.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a stacked micro-optical system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the LIGA process.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

An arrangement of microprisms fabricated by deep-etch x-ray lithography.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of the Linnik-type phase-shifting interferometer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pseudo 3-D plot of a phase-shifting measurement of a LIGA surface.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Detail of Fig. 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Image of a ruler projected through the prism onto the exit surface of a prism (right-hand side) and surface reflex from the entrance surface (left-hand side).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schematic of the test setup used to examine the quality of image formation.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Image of the ruler projected onto a microlens. The lens diameter is 250 μm. (b) Inverted image of the ruler focused at the front focal plane of the microlens (left-hand side) and the image of the ruler formed by a 4f experiment (right-hand side).

Equations (3)

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D 4 f = 1 δ r 2 4 f = ( NA ) 2 4 λ 2 f ,
I ( x , y ) = I 0 ( x , y ) { 1 + V ( x , y ) cos [ Φ ( x , y ) - φ r ] } ,
ϕ ( x , y ) = arctan ( I 2 - I 4 I 1 - I 3 ) ( mod 2 π ) ,

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