Abstract

Detectors for scanning video (10-MHz) imagers should be chosen for their high quantum efficiency and internal gain. Because of the high bandwidth both photomultiplier tubes and avalanche photodiodes are limited by photon noise, so that dark noise is not the determining quantity.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Art, “Photon detectors for confocal microscopy,” in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1990), pp. 127–139.
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, F. C. Delori, “Confocal scanning laser opthalmoscope,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1492–1499 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. H. Webb, C. K. Dorey, “The pixelated image,” in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1990), pp. 41–51.
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. E. Bode, “Infrared detectors,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, R. Kingslake, B. J. Thompson, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1980), Vol. 6, Chap. 8, pp. 323–356.
  5. Staff RCA, RCA Photomultiplier ManualTechnical Series PT-61 (RCA Corporation, Moorestown, N.J., 1970), pp. 1–192.
  6. P. P. Webb, R. J. McIntyre, J. Conradi, “Properties of avalanche photodiodes,” RCA Rev. 35, 234–278 (1974).
  7. We follow Rose8 in defining SNR as the ratio of powers in the incident light flux. Engineering practice is to use the power of the output signal—usually i2R. Since i ∝ MPi, this choice results in the engineering definition being the square of ours. Thus our photon limit is SNR=ns, while the engineering definition is SNReng = ns. Our photoelectron powers are in electron volts (eV), so signal power ∝ i ∝ MPi anyway, and the result is as we use it.
  8. A. Rose, Vision: Human and Electronic (Plenum, New York, 1973).
  9. R. J. McIntyre, “The distribution of gains in uniformly multiplying avalanche photodiodes: Theory,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-19, 703–713 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. C. Jones, “A new classification system for radiation detectors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 327–343 (1949).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. J. McIntyre, “Multiplication noise in uniform avalanche diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-13, 164–168 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. G. W. Brown, K. D. Ridley, J. G. Rarity, “Characterization of silicon avalanche photodiodes for photon correlation measurements. 1: Passive quenching,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4122–4126 (1986); “Characterization of silicon avalanche photodiodes for photon correlation measurements. 2: Active quenching,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2383–2389 (1987); R. G. W. Brown, M. Daniels, “Characterization of silicon avalanche photo-diodes for photon correlation measurements. 3: Sub-Geiger operation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4616–4621 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969), p. 53.

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

1974 (1)

P. P. Webb, R. J. McIntyre, J. Conradi, “Properties of avalanche photodiodes,” RCA Rev. 35, 234–278 (1974).

1972 (1)

R. J. McIntyre, “The distribution of gains in uniformly multiplying avalanche photodiodes: Theory,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-19, 703–713 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

R. J. McIntyre, “Multiplication noise in uniform avalanche diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-13, 164–168 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1949 (1)

Art, J.

J. Art, “Photon detectors for confocal microscopy,” in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1990), pp. 127–139.
[CrossRef]

Bevington, P. R.

P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969), p. 53.

Bode, D. E.

D. E. Bode, “Infrared detectors,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, R. Kingslake, B. J. Thompson, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1980), Vol. 6, Chap. 8, pp. 323–356.

Brown, R. G. W.

Conradi, J.

P. P. Webb, R. J. McIntyre, J. Conradi, “Properties of avalanche photodiodes,” RCA Rev. 35, 234–278 (1974).

Delori, F. C.

Dorey, C. K.

R. H. Webb, C. K. Dorey, “The pixelated image,” in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1990), pp. 41–51.
[CrossRef]

Hughes, G. W.

Jones, R. C.

McIntyre, R. J.

P. P. Webb, R. J. McIntyre, J. Conradi, “Properties of avalanche photodiodes,” RCA Rev. 35, 234–278 (1974).

R. J. McIntyre, “The distribution of gains in uniformly multiplying avalanche photodiodes: Theory,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-19, 703–713 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. J. McIntyre, “Multiplication noise in uniform avalanche diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-13, 164–168 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Rarity, J. G.

Ridley, K. D.

Rose, A.

A. Rose, Vision: Human and Electronic (Plenum, New York, 1973).

Webb, P. P.

P. P. Webb, R. J. McIntyre, J. Conradi, “Properties of avalanche photodiodes,” RCA Rev. 35, 234–278 (1974).

Webb, R. H.

R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, F. C. Delori, “Confocal scanning laser opthalmoscope,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1492–1499 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Webb, C. K. Dorey, “The pixelated image,” in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1990), pp. 41–51.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (2)

R. J. McIntyre, “Multiplication noise in uniform avalanche diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-13, 164–168 (1966).
[CrossRef]

R. J. McIntyre, “The distribution of gains in uniformly multiplying avalanche photodiodes: Theory,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-19, 703–713 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

RCA Rev. (1)

P. P. Webb, R. J. McIntyre, J. Conradi, “Properties of avalanche photodiodes,” RCA Rev. 35, 234–278 (1974).

Other (7)

We follow Rose8 in defining SNR as the ratio of powers in the incident light flux. Engineering practice is to use the power of the output signal—usually i2R. Since i ∝ MPi, this choice results in the engineering definition being the square of ours. Thus our photon limit is SNR=ns, while the engineering definition is SNReng = ns. Our photoelectron powers are in electron volts (eV), so signal power ∝ i ∝ MPi anyway, and the result is as we use it.

A. Rose, Vision: Human and Electronic (Plenum, New York, 1973).

R. H. Webb, C. K. Dorey, “The pixelated image,” in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1990), pp. 41–51.
[CrossRef]

D. E. Bode, “Infrared detectors,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, R. Kingslake, B. J. Thompson, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1980), Vol. 6, Chap. 8, pp. 323–356.

Staff RCA, RCA Photomultiplier ManualTechnical Series PT-61 (RCA Corporation, Moorestown, N.J., 1970), pp. 1–192.

J. Art, “Photon detectors for confocal microscopy,” in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1990), pp. 127–139.
[CrossRef]

P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969), p. 53.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Curve SNR versus Pi, has two branches: At high Pi the slope is 1/2 and the noise is due to quantum fluctuations in the signal; at low Pi the slope is 1, and the noise is due to random processes that are independent of signal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

For a lower bandwidth the curve in Fig. 1 shifts upward on the SNR-versus-Pi plot without a change in shape. The power at which the slope changes is the same, but the higher SNR makes it possible to operate below the break in the curve. The right-hand axis normalizes the curve.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SNR versus Pi for a silicon APD and a PMT with an S20 photocathode. The power at which the curves intersect Px is independent of bandwidth. Above Px the APD has a better SNR. Below SNR = 3, neither device is usable.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The value of Px varies with wavelength, shown here for our example of silicon APD versus S20 PMT.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Video amplifier for a PMT. The effects of stray capacitance are kept low by mounting the grounded base input transistor on the socket. This amplifier presents low resistance to the capacitance at the PMT anode, keeping the bandwidth high. Voltage amplification is unity, but power gain is ~1000, and the low output impedance permits the amplifier to drive a long cable.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

APD and its amplifiers. There is a video amplifier included in the APD can; the next amplifier, shown here, is mounted close by the detector housing.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Data for our APD at 6 MHz and 488 nm (filled circles). The device is temperature stabilized at ~15 deg, and the bias voltage is 350 V. The curves are theory, taken from Eq. (20) and the manufacturer’s specifications, and the open circles are calculated from the data.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Power-versus-frequency regimes in which the various detectors are appropriate choices. No detector can sustain a SNR >3 outside the hatched areas.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Manufacturer’s Specifications

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Table 2 Matrix of Various Regimes

Equations (25)

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S ( λ ) = η ( λ ) e / h ν
S ( λ ) = η ( λ ) λ e / h c .
i s = S M P i = N s η ( λ ) e / Δ t
( N N ) 2 h ν / Δ t = σ h ν / Δ t .
SNR = N / σ .
SNR = N s σ s 2 + σ d 2 + σ a 2 = N s N s + N d + N a .
SNR = n s n s + n d + n a .
n s = M P i η h ν Δ t .
n d = i d Δ t / e = I d Δ t / G e .
I d Δ t G e = η M P i Δ t h ν SNR ,
M P d = h ν SNR η ( λ ) ( I d e G Δ t ) 1 / 2 .
NEP ( λ ) = h ν η ( λ ) I d e G .
M P d = NEP ( λ ) SNR Δ f .
n d = ( NEP η h ν ) 2 Δ t
NEP ( λ ) = NEP ( λ 0 ) S ( λ 0 ) S ( λ ) = NEP ( λ 0 ) λ 0 η ( λ 0 ) λη ( λ ) .
SNR = ( η M P i / h ν ) Δ t ( η M P i / h ν ) Δ t + ( η NEP / h ν ) 2 Δ t + n a ,
p x = η PMT h ν ( NEP APD ) 2 .
SNR = n s G n s G 2 + n d G 2 + n a = n s n s + n d + n a / G 2 .
n a = i a Δ t / e .
SNR = M P i Δ t M P i h ν η + nep 2 + i a e ( h ν η G ) 2 .
M P a = SNR h ν η G i a e Δ f .
I = I L + I S + 2 A L A S cos ( δω t + δ k x ) ,
SNR = n L n s n L + n d .
P ( N , N ) = N N exp ( N ) N !
σ 2 = N .

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