Abstract

Polarized light scattering from individual particles has been analyzed to determine the effects of particle shape. Flow cytometric techniques were used on samples of spherical microspheres and naturally occurring marine algae. An analog of the depolarization ratio was obtained by using crossed polarizers in the source and detector of the flow cytometer. Results suggest that differences between the polarized light scattering of spheres and aspherical particles are not discernible unless the scattered intensities are normalized to the forward scattering, which is roughly equivalent to particulate cross section. This research indicates that polarized light scattering, when normalized to particle size, may provide an indication of the extent of asphericity of hydrosols.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. M. Jonasz, “Nonsphericity of suspended marine particles and its influence on light scattering,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 1059–1065 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  3. G. C. McLeod, “The effect of circularly polarized light on the photosynthesis and chlorophyll a synthesis of certain marine algae,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 2, 360–362 (1957).
  4. E. Steemann-Nielsen, Marine Photosynthesis with Special Emphasis on the Ecological Effects (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1975).
  5. M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, D. B. Shapiro, “Polarized light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, D. B. Shapiro, “Effects of wavelength-dependent absorption on the polarization of light scattered from marine Chlorella,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 269–280 (1990).
  7. D. B. Shapiro, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, “Origin of the induced circular polarization in the light scattering from a dinoflagellate,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 281–289 (1990).
  8. D. B. Shapiro, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, P. G. Hull, “Circular polarization effects in the light scattering from single and suspensions of dinoflagellates,” in Underwater Imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1537, 30–41 (1991).
  9. G. W. Kattawar, C. N. Adams, “Errors in radiance calculations induced by using scalar rather than Stokes vector theory in a realistic atmosphere-ocean system,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 2–12 (1990).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  13. R. W. Spinrad, J. Brown, “Relative real refractive index of marine microorganisms: a technique for flow cytometric estimation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1930–1939 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. S. G. Ackleson, R. W. Spinrad, C. M. Yentsch, J. Brown, W. Korjeff-Bellows, “Phytoplankton optical properties: flow cytometric examinations of dilution-induced effects,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1262–1269 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. S. G. Ackleson, R. W. Spinrad, “Size and refractive index of individual marine particulates: a flow cytometric approach,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1270–1277 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. R. J. Olson, D. Vaulot, S. W. Chisholm, “Marine phytoplankton distributions measured using shipboard flow cytometry,” Deep-Sea Res. 32, 1273–1280 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  17. R. Iturriaga, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Kiefer, “Microphotometric analysis of individual particle absorption spectra,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 33, 128–135 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  18. K. Lofftus, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, F. Livolant, M. F. Maestre, “Immobilization of unicellular marine organisms for optical characterization: a new method,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.925, 334–341 (1988).
  19. P. G. Hull, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, D. B. Shapiro, “Coupled-dipole approximation: prediction scattering by non-spherical marine organisms,” in Underwater Imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1537, 21–29 (1991).
  20. H. Mueller, “The foundation of optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 661–663 (1948).
  21. W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light (Harvard U. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1962).
  22. C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).
  23. J. R. Bottiger, E. S. Fry, R. C. Thompson, “Phase matrix measurements for electromagnetic scattering by sphere aggregates,” in Light Scattering by Irregular Shaped Particles, D. Schuerman, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), pp. 283–290.
    [Crossref]
  24. C. M. Yentsch, P. K. Horan, K. Muirhead, Q. Dortch, E. Haugen, L. Legendre, L. S. Murphy, M. J. Perry, D. A. Phinney, S. A. Pomponi, R. W. Spinrad, M. Wood, C. S. Yentsch, B. J. Zahuranec, “Flow cytometry and cell sorting: a technique for analysis and sorting of aquatic particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 1275–1280 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  25. R. Bartz, J. R. V. Zaneveld, H. Pak, “A transmissometer for profiling and moored observations in water,” in Ocean Optics V, R. E. Stevenson, M. B. White, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.160, 102–108 (1978).
  26. G. C. Salzman, P. F. Mullaney, B. J. Brice, “Light scattering approaches to cell characterization,” in Flow Cytometry and Sorting, M. R. Melamed, P. F. Mullaney, M. L. Mendelsohn, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1979), pp. 105–124.

1989 (1)

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, D. B. Shapiro, “Polarized light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (3)

1987 (1)

M. Jonasz, “Nonsphericity of suspended marine particles and its influence on light scattering,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 1059–1065 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

1985 (2)

R. J. Olson, D. Vaulot, S. W. Chisholm, “Marine phytoplankton distributions measured using shipboard flow cytometry,” Deep-Sea Res. 32, 1273–1280 (1985).
[Crossref]

E. S. Fry, K. J. Voss, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1322–1326 (1985).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

C. M. Yentsch, P. K. Horan, K. Muirhead, Q. Dortch, E. Haugen, L. Legendre, L. S. Murphy, M. J. Perry, D. A. Phinney, S. A. Pomponi, R. W. Spinrad, M. Wood, C. S. Yentsch, B. J. Zahuranec, “Flow cytometry and cell sorting: a technique for analysis and sorting of aquatic particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 1275–1280 (1983).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

1957 (1)

G. C. McLeod, “The effect of circularly polarized light on the photosynthesis and chlorophyll a synthesis of certain marine algae,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 2, 360–362 (1957).

1948 (1)

H. Mueller, “The foundation of optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 661–663 (1948).

Ackleson, S. G.

Adams, C. N.

G. W. Kattawar, C. N. Adams, “Errors in radiance calculations induced by using scalar rather than Stokes vector theory in a realistic atmosphere-ocean system,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 2–12 (1990).

Asano, S.

Bartz, R.

R. Bartz, J. R. V. Zaneveld, H. Pak, “A transmissometer for profiling and moored observations in water,” in Ocean Optics V, R. E. Stevenson, M. B. White, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.160, 102–108 (1978).

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Bottiger, J. R.

J. R. Bottiger, E. S. Fry, R. C. Thompson, “Phase matrix measurements for electromagnetic scattering by sphere aggregates,” in Light Scattering by Irregular Shaped Particles, D. Schuerman, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), pp. 283–290.
[Crossref]

Brice, B. J.

G. C. Salzman, P. F. Mullaney, B. J. Brice, “Light scattering approaches to cell characterization,” in Flow Cytometry and Sorting, M. R. Melamed, P. F. Mullaney, M. L. Mendelsohn, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1979), pp. 105–124.

Brown, J.

Chisholm, S. W.

R. J. Olson, D. Vaulot, S. W. Chisholm, “Marine phytoplankton distributions measured using shipboard flow cytometry,” Deep-Sea Res. 32, 1273–1280 (1985).
[Crossref]

Dortch, Q.

C. M. Yentsch, P. K. Horan, K. Muirhead, Q. Dortch, E. Haugen, L. Legendre, L. S. Murphy, M. J. Perry, D. A. Phinney, S. A. Pomponi, R. W. Spinrad, M. Wood, C. S. Yentsch, B. J. Zahuranec, “Flow cytometry and cell sorting: a technique for analysis and sorting of aquatic particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 1275–1280 (1983).
[Crossref]

Fry, E. S.

E. S. Fry, K. J. Voss, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1322–1326 (1985).
[Crossref]

K. J. Voss, E. S. Fry, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4427–4439 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Bottiger, E. S. Fry, R. C. Thompson, “Phase matrix measurements for electromagnetic scattering by sphere aggregates,” in Light Scattering by Irregular Shaped Particles, D. Schuerman, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), pp. 283–290.
[Crossref]

Haugen, E.

C. M. Yentsch, P. K. Horan, K. Muirhead, Q. Dortch, E. Haugen, L. Legendre, L. S. Murphy, M. J. Perry, D. A. Phinney, S. A. Pomponi, R. W. Spinrad, M. Wood, C. S. Yentsch, B. J. Zahuranec, “Flow cytometry and cell sorting: a technique for analysis and sorting of aquatic particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 1275–1280 (1983).
[Crossref]

Horan, P. K.

C. M. Yentsch, P. K. Horan, K. Muirhead, Q. Dortch, E. Haugen, L. Legendre, L. S. Murphy, M. J. Perry, D. A. Phinney, S. A. Pomponi, R. W. Spinrad, M. Wood, C. S. Yentsch, B. J. Zahuranec, “Flow cytometry and cell sorting: a technique for analysis and sorting of aquatic particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 1275–1280 (1983).
[Crossref]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Hull, P. G.

P. G. Hull, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, D. B. Shapiro, “Coupled-dipole approximation: prediction scattering by non-spherical marine organisms,” in Underwater Imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1537, 21–29 (1991).

D. B. Shapiro, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, P. G. Hull, “Circular polarization effects in the light scattering from single and suspensions of dinoflagellates,” in Underwater Imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1537, 30–41 (1991).

Hunt, A. J.

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, D. B. Shapiro, “Polarized light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, D. B. Shapiro, “Effects of wavelength-dependent absorption on the polarization of light scattered from marine Chlorella,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 269–280 (1990).

D. B. Shapiro, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, “Origin of the induced circular polarization in the light scattering from a dinoflagellate,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 281–289 (1990).

D. B. Shapiro, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, P. G. Hull, “Circular polarization effects in the light scattering from single and suspensions of dinoflagellates,” in Underwater Imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1537, 30–41 (1991).

P. G. Hull, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, D. B. Shapiro, “Coupled-dipole approximation: prediction scattering by non-spherical marine organisms,” in Underwater Imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1537, 21–29 (1991).

K. Lofftus, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, F. Livolant, M. F. Maestre, “Immobilization of unicellular marine organisms for optical characterization: a new method,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.925, 334–341 (1988).

Iturriaga, R.

R. Iturriaga, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Kiefer, “Microphotometric analysis of individual particle absorption spectra,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 33, 128–135 (1988).
[Crossref]

Jonasz, M.

M. Jonasz, “Nonsphericity of suspended marine particles and its influence on light scattering,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 1059–1065 (1987).
[Crossref]

Kattawar, G. W.

G. W. Kattawar, C. N. Adams, “Errors in radiance calculations induced by using scalar rather than Stokes vector theory in a realistic atmosphere-ocean system,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 2–12 (1990).

Kiefer, D. A.

R. Iturriaga, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Kiefer, “Microphotometric analysis of individual particle absorption spectra,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 33, 128–135 (1988).
[Crossref]

Korjeff-Bellows, W.

Legendre, L.

C. M. Yentsch, P. K. Horan, K. Muirhead, Q. Dortch, E. Haugen, L. Legendre, L. S. Murphy, M. J. Perry, D. A. Phinney, S. A. Pomponi, R. W. Spinrad, M. Wood, C. S. Yentsch, B. J. Zahuranec, “Flow cytometry and cell sorting: a technique for analysis and sorting of aquatic particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 1275–1280 (1983).
[Crossref]

Livolant, F.

K. Lofftus, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, F. Livolant, M. F. Maestre, “Immobilization of unicellular marine organisms for optical characterization: a new method,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.925, 334–341 (1988).

Lofftus, K.

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, D. B. Shapiro, “Polarized light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. Lofftus, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, F. Livolant, M. F. Maestre, “Immobilization of unicellular marine organisms for optical characterization: a new method,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.925, 334–341 (1988).

Maestre, M. F.

K. Lofftus, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, F. Livolant, M. F. Maestre, “Immobilization of unicellular marine organisms for optical characterization: a new method,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.925, 334–341 (1988).

McLeod, G. C.

G. C. McLeod, “The effect of circularly polarized light on the photosynthesis and chlorophyll a synthesis of certain marine algae,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 2, 360–362 (1957).

Mitchell, B. G.

R. Iturriaga, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Kiefer, “Microphotometric analysis of individual particle absorption spectra,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 33, 128–135 (1988).
[Crossref]

Mueller, H.

H. Mueller, “The foundation of optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 661–663 (1948).

Muirhead, K.

C. M. Yentsch, P. K. Horan, K. Muirhead, Q. Dortch, E. Haugen, L. Legendre, L. S. Murphy, M. J. Perry, D. A. Phinney, S. A. Pomponi, R. W. Spinrad, M. Wood, C. S. Yentsch, B. J. Zahuranec, “Flow cytometry and cell sorting: a technique for analysis and sorting of aquatic particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 1275–1280 (1983).
[Crossref]

Mullaney, P. F.

G. C. Salzman, P. F. Mullaney, B. J. Brice, “Light scattering approaches to cell characterization,” in Flow Cytometry and Sorting, M. R. Melamed, P. F. Mullaney, M. L. Mendelsohn, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1979), pp. 105–124.

Murphy, L. S.

C. M. Yentsch, P. K. Horan, K. Muirhead, Q. Dortch, E. Haugen, L. Legendre, L. S. Murphy, M. J. Perry, D. A. Phinney, S. A. Pomponi, R. W. Spinrad, M. Wood, C. S. Yentsch, B. J. Zahuranec, “Flow cytometry and cell sorting: a technique for analysis and sorting of aquatic particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 1275–1280 (1983).
[Crossref]

Olson, R. J.

R. J. Olson, D. Vaulot, S. W. Chisholm, “Marine phytoplankton distributions measured using shipboard flow cytometry,” Deep-Sea Res. 32, 1273–1280 (1985).
[Crossref]

Pak, H.

R. Bartz, J. R. V. Zaneveld, H. Pak, “A transmissometer for profiling and moored observations in water,” in Ocean Optics V, R. E. Stevenson, M. B. White, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.160, 102–108 (1978).

Perry, M. J.

C. M. Yentsch, P. K. Horan, K. Muirhead, Q. Dortch, E. Haugen, L. Legendre, L. S. Murphy, M. J. Perry, D. A. Phinney, S. A. Pomponi, R. W. Spinrad, M. Wood, C. S. Yentsch, B. J. Zahuranec, “Flow cytometry and cell sorting: a technique for analysis and sorting of aquatic particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 1275–1280 (1983).
[Crossref]

Phinney, D. A.

C. M. Yentsch, P. K. Horan, K. Muirhead, Q. Dortch, E. Haugen, L. Legendre, L. S. Murphy, M. J. Perry, D. A. Phinney, S. A. Pomponi, R. W. Spinrad, M. Wood, C. S. Yentsch, B. J. Zahuranec, “Flow cytometry and cell sorting: a technique for analysis and sorting of aquatic particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 1275–1280 (1983).
[Crossref]

Pomponi, S. A.

C. M. Yentsch, P. K. Horan, K. Muirhead, Q. Dortch, E. Haugen, L. Legendre, L. S. Murphy, M. J. Perry, D. A. Phinney, S. A. Pomponi, R. W. Spinrad, M. Wood, C. S. Yentsch, B. J. Zahuranec, “Flow cytometry and cell sorting: a technique for analysis and sorting of aquatic particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 1275–1280 (1983).
[Crossref]

Quinby-Hunt, M. S.

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, D. B. Shapiro, “Polarized light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, D. B. Shapiro, “Effects of wavelength-dependent absorption on the polarization of light scattered from marine Chlorella,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 269–280 (1990).

D. B. Shapiro, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, P. G. Hull, “Circular polarization effects in the light scattering from single and suspensions of dinoflagellates,” in Underwater Imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1537, 30–41 (1991).

D. B. Shapiro, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, “Origin of the induced circular polarization in the light scattering from a dinoflagellate,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 281–289 (1990).

K. Lofftus, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, F. Livolant, M. F. Maestre, “Immobilization of unicellular marine organisms for optical characterization: a new method,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.925, 334–341 (1988).

P. G. Hull, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, D. B. Shapiro, “Coupled-dipole approximation: prediction scattering by non-spherical marine organisms,” in Underwater Imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1537, 21–29 (1991).

Salzman, G. C.

G. C. Salzman, P. F. Mullaney, B. J. Brice, “Light scattering approaches to cell characterization,” in Flow Cytometry and Sorting, M. R. Melamed, P. F. Mullaney, M. L. Mendelsohn, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1979), pp. 105–124.

Sato, M.

Shapiro, D. B.

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, D. B. Shapiro, “Polarized light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, D. B. Shapiro, “Effects of wavelength-dependent absorption on the polarization of light scattered from marine Chlorella,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 269–280 (1990).

D. B. Shapiro, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, “Origin of the induced circular polarization in the light scattering from a dinoflagellate,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 281–289 (1990).

D. B. Shapiro, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, P. G. Hull, “Circular polarization effects in the light scattering from single and suspensions of dinoflagellates,” in Underwater Imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1537, 30–41 (1991).

P. G. Hull, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, D. B. Shapiro, “Coupled-dipole approximation: prediction scattering by non-spherical marine organisms,” in Underwater Imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1537, 21–29 (1991).

Shurcliff, W. A.

W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light (Harvard U. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1962).

Spinrad, R. W.

Steemann-Nielsen, E.

E. Steemann-Nielsen, Marine Photosynthesis with Special Emphasis on the Ecological Effects (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1975).

Thompson, R. C.

J. R. Bottiger, E. S. Fry, R. C. Thompson, “Phase matrix measurements for electromagnetic scattering by sphere aggregates,” in Light Scattering by Irregular Shaped Particles, D. Schuerman, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), pp. 283–290.
[Crossref]

Vaulot, D.

R. J. Olson, D. Vaulot, S. W. Chisholm, “Marine phytoplankton distributions measured using shipboard flow cytometry,” Deep-Sea Res. 32, 1273–1280 (1985).
[Crossref]

Voss, K. J.

E. S. Fry, K. J. Voss, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1322–1326 (1985).
[Crossref]

K. J. Voss, E. S. Fry, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4427–4439 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Voss, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Ph.D. dissertation (Texas A&M University, College Station, Tex., 1984).

Wood, M.

C. M. Yentsch, P. K. Horan, K. Muirhead, Q. Dortch, E. Haugen, L. Legendre, L. S. Murphy, M. J. Perry, D. A. Phinney, S. A. Pomponi, R. W. Spinrad, M. Wood, C. S. Yentsch, B. J. Zahuranec, “Flow cytometry and cell sorting: a technique for analysis and sorting of aquatic particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 1275–1280 (1983).
[Crossref]

Yentsch, C. M.

S. G. Ackleson, R. W. Spinrad, C. M. Yentsch, J. Brown, W. Korjeff-Bellows, “Phytoplankton optical properties: flow cytometric examinations of dilution-induced effects,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1262–1269 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Yentsch, P. K. Horan, K. Muirhead, Q. Dortch, E. Haugen, L. Legendre, L. S. Murphy, M. J. Perry, D. A. Phinney, S. A. Pomponi, R. W. Spinrad, M. Wood, C. S. Yentsch, B. J. Zahuranec, “Flow cytometry and cell sorting: a technique for analysis and sorting of aquatic particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 1275–1280 (1983).
[Crossref]

Yentsch, C. S.

C. M. Yentsch, P. K. Horan, K. Muirhead, Q. Dortch, E. Haugen, L. Legendre, L. S. Murphy, M. J. Perry, D. A. Phinney, S. A. Pomponi, R. W. Spinrad, M. Wood, C. S. Yentsch, B. J. Zahuranec, “Flow cytometry and cell sorting: a technique for analysis and sorting of aquatic particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 1275–1280 (1983).
[Crossref]

Zahuranec, B. J.

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P. G. Hull, A. J. Hunt, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, D. B. Shapiro, “Coupled-dipole approximation: prediction scattering by non-spherical marine organisms,” in Underwater Imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1537, 21–29 (1991).

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[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Mean values of the forward-angle light scattering as measured on the flow cytometer for varying cross sections (given as the square of the equivalent spherical diameter) of (a) algae and (b) microspheres.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Log of the mean value of the unpolarized light scattering measured at 90°, βu(90), versus the log of the mean value of the cross-polarized light scattering measured at 90°, βh(90), for (a) algae and (b) microspheres.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Same measurements as shown in Fig. 2 but normalized to the unpolarized forward scattering, βu(0), for (a) algae and (b) microspheres. Normalization is mean βu(90) divided by mean βu(0).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Log of the mean value of the copolarized light scattering measured at 90°, βv(90), versus the log of the mean value of the cross-polarized light scattering measured at 90°, βh(90), for (a) algae and (b) microspheres.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Same measurements as shown in Fig. 4 but normalized to the unpolarized forward scattering, βu(0), for (a) algae and (b) microspheres. Same normalization method as in Fig. 3.

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Algal Cultures

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Table 3 Statistics of Correlations

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Table 4 Particles Used for Subset Analysis

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Table 5 Statistics of Correlations of Particle Subset

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[ 1 S 12 S 13 S 14 S 21 S 22 S 23 S 24 S 31 S 32 S 33 S 34 S 41 S 42 S 43 S 44 ] ,
[ I t Q t U t V t ] = [ 1 S 12 S 13 S 14 S 21 S 22 S 23 S 24 S 31 S 32 S 33 S 34 S 41 S 42 S 43 S 44 ] × [ I i Q i U i V i ] ,
½ ( S 11 - S 22 ) .
ρ = 1 - S 22 S 11 .
¼ ( S 11 + S 12 - S 21 - S 22 ) .
¼ ( S 11 - S 22 ) ,
β h ( 90 ) β u ( 0 ) β u ( 90 ) β u ( 0 ) = β h ( 90 ) β u ( 90 ) .

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