Abstract

We report the operation of a laser diode pumped La1−xNdxMgAl11O19 laser mode locked by an electro-optic phase modulator. The repetition rate of the laser was 230 MHz, and the average output power was 50 mW, when pumped by a 500-mW broad-stripe laser diode. Transform-limited pulses of 14 ps duration were obtained. We have also demonstrated the FM operation of this laser, with bandwidths of up to 440 GHz being obtained.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. T. Maker, A. I. Ferguson, “Frequency-modulation mode-locking of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 14, 788–790 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. G. T. Maker, A. I. Ferguson, “Frequency modulation mode-locking and Q-switching of a diode-laser-pumped Nd:YLF laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1025–1026 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. W. Hughes, J. R. M. Barr, D. C. Hanna, “Mode locking of a diode-laser-pumped Nd:glass laser by frequency modulation,” Opt. Lett. 16, 147–149 (1991).
    [PubMed]
  4. F. Zhou, G. P. A. Malcolm, A. I. Ferguson, “1-GHz repetition-rate frequency-modulation mode-locked neodymium lasers at 1.3 μm,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1101–1103 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. L. D. Schearer, M. Leduc, D. Vivien, A.-M. Lejus, J. Thery, “LNA: a new cw Nd laser tunable around 1.05 and 1.08 km,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 713–717 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  6. T. Y. Fan, M. R. Kokta, “End-pumped Nd:LaF3 and Nd:LaMgAl11O19 lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1845–1849 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Hamel, A. Cassimi, H. Abu-Safia, M. Leduc, L. D. Schearer, “Diode pumping of LNA lasers for helium optical pumping,” Opt. Commun. 63, 114–117 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. J. Aubert, Ch. Wyon, A. Cassimi, V. Hardy, J. Hamel, “Un laser solide accordable pompe par diode,” Opt. Commun. 69, 299–302 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. I. Demchouk, V. P. Mikhailov, A. K. Gilev, A. M. Zabaznov, A. P. Shkadarevich, “Investigation of the passive mode locking in a La–Nd–Mg hexaaluminate-doped laser,” Opt. Commun. 55, 33–34 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. W. Hughes, J. R. M. Barr, D. C. Hanna, “A high power, high efficiency, laser-diode-pumped, continuous wave miniature Nd:glass laser,” Opt. Commun. 84, 401–408 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  11. D. W. Hughes, M. W. Phillips, J. R. M. Barr, D. C. Hanna, “A laser-diode-pumped Nd:glass laser: mode-locked, high power, and single frequency performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1010–1017 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  12. H. Kogelnik, E. P. Ippen, A. Dienes, C. V. Shank, “Astigmatically compensated cavities for cw dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 373–379 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  13. D. J. Kuizenga, A. E. Siegman, “FM and AM mode locking of the homogeneous laser—Part 1: Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 694–708 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. E. Harris, O. P. McDuff, “Theory of FM laser oscillation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-1, 245–262 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  15. B. H. Kolner, “Active pulse compression using an integrated electro-optic phase modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1122–1124 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  16. C. S. Adams, G. T. Maker, A. I. Ferguson, “FM operation of Nd:YAG lasers with standing wave and ring cavity configurations,” Opt. Commun. 76, 127–130 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  17. F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, A. J. Schmidt, “Mode locking of a continuous wave Nd:glass laser pumped by a multistripe diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2386–2388 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  18. P. A. Schulz, S. R. Henion, “5-GHz mode locking of a Nd:YLF laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1502–1504 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

D. W. Hughes, M. W. Phillips, J. R. M. Barr, D. C. Hanna, “A laser-diode-pumped Nd:glass laser: mode-locked, high power, and single frequency performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1010–1017 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (4)

1990 (1)

C. S. Adams, G. T. Maker, A. I. Ferguson, “FM operation of Nd:YAG lasers with standing wave and ring cavity configurations,” Opt. Commun. 76, 127–130 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (5)

F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, A. J. Schmidt, “Mode locking of a continuous wave Nd:glass laser pumped by a multistripe diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2386–2388 (1989).
[Crossref]

G. T. Maker, A. I. Ferguson, “Frequency-modulation mode-locking of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 14, 788–790 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. T. Maker, A. I. Ferguson, “Frequency modulation mode-locking and Q-switching of a diode-laser-pumped Nd:YLF laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1025–1026 (1989).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Fan, M. R. Kokta, “End-pumped Nd:LaF3 and Nd:LaMgAl11O19 lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1845–1849 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. J. Aubert, Ch. Wyon, A. Cassimi, V. Hardy, J. Hamel, “Un laser solide accordable pompe par diode,” Opt. Commun. 69, 299–302 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

B. H. Kolner, “Active pulse compression using an integrated electro-optic phase modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1122–1124 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

J. Hamel, A. Cassimi, H. Abu-Safia, M. Leduc, L. D. Schearer, “Diode pumping of LNA lasers for helium optical pumping,” Opt. Commun. 63, 114–117 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

L. D. Schearer, M. Leduc, D. Vivien, A.-M. Lejus, J. Thery, “LNA: a new cw Nd laser tunable around 1.05 and 1.08 km,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 713–717 (1986).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

M. I. Demchouk, V. P. Mikhailov, A. K. Gilev, A. M. Zabaznov, A. P. Shkadarevich, “Investigation of the passive mode locking in a La–Nd–Mg hexaaluminate-doped laser,” Opt. Commun. 55, 33–34 (1985).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

H. Kogelnik, E. P. Ippen, A. Dienes, C. V. Shank, “Astigmatically compensated cavities for cw dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 373–379 (1972).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

D. J. Kuizenga, A. E. Siegman, “FM and AM mode locking of the homogeneous laser—Part 1: Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 694–708 (1970).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

S. E. Harris, O. P. McDuff, “Theory of FM laser oscillation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-1, 245–262 (1965).
[Crossref]

Abu-Safia, H.

J. Hamel, A. Cassimi, H. Abu-Safia, M. Leduc, L. D. Schearer, “Diode pumping of LNA lasers for helium optical pumping,” Opt. Commun. 63, 114–117 (1987).
[Crossref]

Adams, C. S.

C. S. Adams, G. T. Maker, A. I. Ferguson, “FM operation of Nd:YAG lasers with standing wave and ring cavity configurations,” Opt. Commun. 76, 127–130 (1990).
[Crossref]

Aubert, J. J.

J. J. Aubert, Ch. Wyon, A. Cassimi, V. Hardy, J. Hamel, “Un laser solide accordable pompe par diode,” Opt. Commun. 69, 299–302 (1989).
[Crossref]

Barr, J. R. M.

D. W. Hughes, M. W. Phillips, J. R. M. Barr, D. C. Hanna, “A laser-diode-pumped Nd:glass laser: mode-locked, high power, and single frequency performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1010–1017 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. W. Hughes, J. R. M. Barr, D. C. Hanna, “A high power, high efficiency, laser-diode-pumped, continuous wave miniature Nd:glass laser,” Opt. Commun. 84, 401–408 (1991).
[Crossref]

D. W. Hughes, J. R. M. Barr, D. C. Hanna, “Mode locking of a diode-laser-pumped Nd:glass laser by frequency modulation,” Opt. Lett. 16, 147–149 (1991).
[PubMed]

Brabec, T.

F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, A. J. Schmidt, “Mode locking of a continuous wave Nd:glass laser pumped by a multistripe diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2386–2388 (1989).
[Crossref]

Cassimi, A.

J. J. Aubert, Ch. Wyon, A. Cassimi, V. Hardy, J. Hamel, “Un laser solide accordable pompe par diode,” Opt. Commun. 69, 299–302 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Hamel, A. Cassimi, H. Abu-Safia, M. Leduc, L. D. Schearer, “Diode pumping of LNA lasers for helium optical pumping,” Opt. Commun. 63, 114–117 (1987).
[Crossref]

Demchouk, M. I.

M. I. Demchouk, V. P. Mikhailov, A. K. Gilev, A. M. Zabaznov, A. P. Shkadarevich, “Investigation of the passive mode locking in a La–Nd–Mg hexaaluminate-doped laser,” Opt. Commun. 55, 33–34 (1985).
[Crossref]

Dienes, A.

H. Kogelnik, E. P. Ippen, A. Dienes, C. V. Shank, “Astigmatically compensated cavities for cw dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 373–379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan, M. R. Kokta, “End-pumped Nd:LaF3 and Nd:LaMgAl11O19 lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1845–1849 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ferguson, A. I.

F. Zhou, G. P. A. Malcolm, A. I. Ferguson, “1-GHz repetition-rate frequency-modulation mode-locked neodymium lasers at 1.3 μm,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1101–1103 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Adams, G. T. Maker, A. I. Ferguson, “FM operation of Nd:YAG lasers with standing wave and ring cavity configurations,” Opt. Commun. 76, 127–130 (1990).
[Crossref]

G. T. Maker, A. I. Ferguson, “Frequency modulation mode-locking and Q-switching of a diode-laser-pumped Nd:YLF laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1025–1026 (1989).
[Crossref]

G. T. Maker, A. I. Ferguson, “Frequency-modulation mode-locking of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 14, 788–790 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gilev, A. K.

M. I. Demchouk, V. P. Mikhailov, A. K. Gilev, A. M. Zabaznov, A. P. Shkadarevich, “Investigation of the passive mode locking in a La–Nd–Mg hexaaluminate-doped laser,” Opt. Commun. 55, 33–34 (1985).
[Crossref]

Hamel, J.

J. J. Aubert, Ch. Wyon, A. Cassimi, V. Hardy, J. Hamel, “Un laser solide accordable pompe par diode,” Opt. Commun. 69, 299–302 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Hamel, A. Cassimi, H. Abu-Safia, M. Leduc, L. D. Schearer, “Diode pumping of LNA lasers for helium optical pumping,” Opt. Commun. 63, 114–117 (1987).
[Crossref]

Hanna, D. C.

D. W. Hughes, M. W. Phillips, J. R. M. Barr, D. C. Hanna, “A laser-diode-pumped Nd:glass laser: mode-locked, high power, and single frequency performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1010–1017 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. W. Hughes, J. R. M. Barr, D. C. Hanna, “A high power, high efficiency, laser-diode-pumped, continuous wave miniature Nd:glass laser,” Opt. Commun. 84, 401–408 (1991).
[Crossref]

D. W. Hughes, J. R. M. Barr, D. C. Hanna, “Mode locking of a diode-laser-pumped Nd:glass laser by frequency modulation,” Opt. Lett. 16, 147–149 (1991).
[PubMed]

Hardy, V.

J. J. Aubert, Ch. Wyon, A. Cassimi, V. Hardy, J. Hamel, “Un laser solide accordable pompe par diode,” Opt. Commun. 69, 299–302 (1989).
[Crossref]

Harris, S. E.

S. E. Harris, O. P. McDuff, “Theory of FM laser oscillation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-1, 245–262 (1965).
[Crossref]

Henion, S. R.

Hughes, D. W.

D. W. Hughes, M. W. Phillips, J. R. M. Barr, D. C. Hanna, “A laser-diode-pumped Nd:glass laser: mode-locked, high power, and single frequency performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1010–1017 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. W. Hughes, J. R. M. Barr, D. C. Hanna, “A high power, high efficiency, laser-diode-pumped, continuous wave miniature Nd:glass laser,” Opt. Commun. 84, 401–408 (1991).
[Crossref]

D. W. Hughes, J. R. M. Barr, D. C. Hanna, “Mode locking of a diode-laser-pumped Nd:glass laser by frequency modulation,” Opt. Lett. 16, 147–149 (1991).
[PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

H. Kogelnik, E. P. Ippen, A. Dienes, C. V. Shank, “Astigmatically compensated cavities for cw dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 373–379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, E. P. Ippen, A. Dienes, C. V. Shank, “Astigmatically compensated cavities for cw dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 373–379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Kokta, M. R.

T. Y. Fan, M. R. Kokta, “End-pumped Nd:LaF3 and Nd:LaMgAl11O19 lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1845–1849 (1989).
[Crossref]

Kolner, B. H.

B. H. Kolner, “Active pulse compression using an integrated electro-optic phase modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1122–1124 (1988).
[Crossref]

Krausz, F.

F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, A. J. Schmidt, “Mode locking of a continuous wave Nd:glass laser pumped by a multistripe diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2386–2388 (1989).
[Crossref]

Kuizenga, D. J.

D. J. Kuizenga, A. E. Siegman, “FM and AM mode locking of the homogeneous laser—Part 1: Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 694–708 (1970).
[Crossref]

Leduc, M.

J. Hamel, A. Cassimi, H. Abu-Safia, M. Leduc, L. D. Schearer, “Diode pumping of LNA lasers for helium optical pumping,” Opt. Commun. 63, 114–117 (1987).
[Crossref]

L. D. Schearer, M. Leduc, D. Vivien, A.-M. Lejus, J. Thery, “LNA: a new cw Nd laser tunable around 1.05 and 1.08 km,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 713–717 (1986).
[Crossref]

Lejus, A.-M.

L. D. Schearer, M. Leduc, D. Vivien, A.-M. Lejus, J. Thery, “LNA: a new cw Nd laser tunable around 1.05 and 1.08 km,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 713–717 (1986).
[Crossref]

Maker, G. T.

C. S. Adams, G. T. Maker, A. I. Ferguson, “FM operation of Nd:YAG lasers with standing wave and ring cavity configurations,” Opt. Commun. 76, 127–130 (1990).
[Crossref]

G. T. Maker, A. I. Ferguson, “Frequency-modulation mode-locking of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 14, 788–790 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. T. Maker, A. I. Ferguson, “Frequency modulation mode-locking and Q-switching of a diode-laser-pumped Nd:YLF laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1025–1026 (1989).
[Crossref]

Malcolm, G. P. A.

McDuff, O. P.

S. E. Harris, O. P. McDuff, “Theory of FM laser oscillation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-1, 245–262 (1965).
[Crossref]

Mikhailov, V. P.

M. I. Demchouk, V. P. Mikhailov, A. K. Gilev, A. M. Zabaznov, A. P. Shkadarevich, “Investigation of the passive mode locking in a La–Nd–Mg hexaaluminate-doped laser,” Opt. Commun. 55, 33–34 (1985).
[Crossref]

Phillips, M. W.

D. W. Hughes, M. W. Phillips, J. R. M. Barr, D. C. Hanna, “A laser-diode-pumped Nd:glass laser: mode-locked, high power, and single frequency performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1010–1017 (1992).
[Crossref]

Schearer, L. D.

J. Hamel, A. Cassimi, H. Abu-Safia, M. Leduc, L. D. Schearer, “Diode pumping of LNA lasers for helium optical pumping,” Opt. Commun. 63, 114–117 (1987).
[Crossref]

L. D. Schearer, M. Leduc, D. Vivien, A.-M. Lejus, J. Thery, “LNA: a new cw Nd laser tunable around 1.05 and 1.08 km,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 713–717 (1986).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, A. J.

F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, A. J. Schmidt, “Mode locking of a continuous wave Nd:glass laser pumped by a multistripe diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2386–2388 (1989).
[Crossref]

Schulz, P. A.

Shank, C. V.

H. Kogelnik, E. P. Ippen, A. Dienes, C. V. Shank, “Astigmatically compensated cavities for cw dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 373–379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Shkadarevich, A. P.

M. I. Demchouk, V. P. Mikhailov, A. K. Gilev, A. M. Zabaznov, A. P. Shkadarevich, “Investigation of the passive mode locking in a La–Nd–Mg hexaaluminate-doped laser,” Opt. Commun. 55, 33–34 (1985).
[Crossref]

Siegman, A. E.

D. J. Kuizenga, A. E. Siegman, “FM and AM mode locking of the homogeneous laser—Part 1: Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 694–708 (1970).
[Crossref]

Thery, J.

L. D. Schearer, M. Leduc, D. Vivien, A.-M. Lejus, J. Thery, “LNA: a new cw Nd laser tunable around 1.05 and 1.08 km,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 713–717 (1986).
[Crossref]

Vivien, D.

L. D. Schearer, M. Leduc, D. Vivien, A.-M. Lejus, J. Thery, “LNA: a new cw Nd laser tunable around 1.05 and 1.08 km,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 713–717 (1986).
[Crossref]

Wintner, E.

F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, A. J. Schmidt, “Mode locking of a continuous wave Nd:glass laser pumped by a multistripe diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2386–2388 (1989).
[Crossref]

Wyon, Ch.

J. J. Aubert, Ch. Wyon, A. Cassimi, V. Hardy, J. Hamel, “Un laser solide accordable pompe par diode,” Opt. Commun. 69, 299–302 (1989).
[Crossref]

Zabaznov, A. M.

M. I. Demchouk, V. P. Mikhailov, A. K. Gilev, A. M. Zabaznov, A. P. Shkadarevich, “Investigation of the passive mode locking in a La–Nd–Mg hexaaluminate-doped laser,” Opt. Commun. 55, 33–34 (1985).
[Crossref]

Zhou, F.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

B. H. Kolner, “Active pulse compression using an integrated electro-optic phase modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1122–1124 (1988).
[Crossref]

F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, A. J. Schmidt, “Mode locking of a continuous wave Nd:glass laser pumped by a multistripe diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2386–2388 (1989).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. T. Maker, A. I. Ferguson, “Frequency modulation mode-locking and Q-switching of a diode-laser-pumped Nd:YLF laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1025–1026 (1989).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (6)

L. D. Schearer, M. Leduc, D. Vivien, A.-M. Lejus, J. Thery, “LNA: a new cw Nd laser tunable around 1.05 and 1.08 km,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 713–717 (1986).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Fan, M. R. Kokta, “End-pumped Nd:LaF3 and Nd:LaMgAl11O19 lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1845–1849 (1989).
[Crossref]

D. W. Hughes, M. W. Phillips, J. R. M. Barr, D. C. Hanna, “A laser-diode-pumped Nd:glass laser: mode-locked, high power, and single frequency performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1010–1017 (1992).
[Crossref]

H. Kogelnik, E. P. Ippen, A. Dienes, C. V. Shank, “Astigmatically compensated cavities for cw dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 373–379 (1972).
[Crossref]

D. J. Kuizenga, A. E. Siegman, “FM and AM mode locking of the homogeneous laser—Part 1: Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 694–708 (1970).
[Crossref]

S. E. Harris, O. P. McDuff, “Theory of FM laser oscillation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-1, 245–262 (1965).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (5)

J. Hamel, A. Cassimi, H. Abu-Safia, M. Leduc, L. D. Schearer, “Diode pumping of LNA lasers for helium optical pumping,” Opt. Commun. 63, 114–117 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. J. Aubert, Ch. Wyon, A. Cassimi, V. Hardy, J. Hamel, “Un laser solide accordable pompe par diode,” Opt. Commun. 69, 299–302 (1989).
[Crossref]

M. I. Demchouk, V. P. Mikhailov, A. K. Gilev, A. M. Zabaznov, A. P. Shkadarevich, “Investigation of the passive mode locking in a La–Nd–Mg hexaaluminate-doped laser,” Opt. Commun. 55, 33–34 (1985).
[Crossref]

D. W. Hughes, J. R. M. Barr, D. C. Hanna, “A high power, high efficiency, laser-diode-pumped, continuous wave miniature Nd:glass laser,” Opt. Commun. 84, 401–408 (1991).
[Crossref]

C. S. Adams, G. T. Maker, A. I. Ferguson, “FM operation of Nd:YAG lasers with standing wave and ring cavity configurations,” Opt. Commun. 76, 127–130 (1990).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (4)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the FM mode-locked LNA laser. ROC, radius of curvature.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical autocorrelation trace. Scale: 14 ps/division.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical FM optical spectrum. Scale: 74 GHz/div.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of FM bandwidth with frequency detuning. The FM mode-locked bandwidth of 29.8 GHz is also shown. For detunings smaller than 50 kHz, forced relaxation oscillations were observed.

Equations (1)

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τ = ( 2 ln 2 ) 1 / 2 π ( 2 g 0 δ ) 1 / 4 1 ( f m Δ f ) 1 / 2 ,

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