Abstract

We describe a fully computer-controlled differential optical absorption spectroscopy system for atmospheric air pollution monitoring. A receiving optical telescope can sequentially tune in to light beams from a number of distant high-pressure Xe lamp light sources to cover the area of a medium-sized city. A beam-finding servosystem and automatic gain control permit unattended long-time monitoring. Using an astronomical code, we can also search and track celestial sources. Selected wavelength regions are rapidly and repetitively swept by a monochromator to sensitively record the atmospheric absorption spectrum while avoiding the detrimental effects of atmospheric turbulence. By computer fitting to stored laboratory spectra, we can evaluate the path-averaged concentration of a number of important pollutants such as NO2, SO2, and O3. A measurement of NH3 and NO close to the UV limit is also demonstrated.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. K. Killinger, A. Mooradian, eds. Optical and Laser Remote Sensing Techniques (Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, 1983).
  2. K. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1984).
  3. S. Svanberg “Optical Environmental Monitoring,” in Applied Laser Spectroscopy, M. Inguscio, W. Demtröder, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1990), pp. 417–434.
    [CrossRef]
  4. U. Platt, D. Perner, H. W. Pätz, “Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric CH2O, O3, and NO2 by differential optical absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6329–6335 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. U. Platt, D. Perner, “Direct measurement of atmospheric CH2O, HNO2, O3, and SO2 by differential absorption in the near UV,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7453–7458 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  6. U. Platt, D. Perner, “Measurements of atmospheric trace gases by long path differential UV/visible absorption spectroscopy,” in Optical and Laser Remote Sensing Techniques, D. K. Killinger, A. Mooradian, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1983), pp. 97–105.
  7. H. Edner, A. Sunesson, S. Svanberg, L. Unéus, S. Wallin, “Differential optical absorption spectroscopy system for atmospheric mercury monitoring,” Appl. Opt. 25, 403–409 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Axelsson, H. Edner, B. Galle, P. Ragnarson, M. Rudin, “Differential optical spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of ozone in the 280–290 nm wavelength region,” Appl. Spectrosc. 44, 1654–1658 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Edner, R. Amer, P. Ragnarson, M. Rudin, S. Svanberg, “Atmospheric NH3 monitoring by long-path UV absorption spectroscopy,” in Environment and Pollution Measurement Sensors and Systems, H. O. Nielsen, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1269, 14–20 (1990).
  10. H. Axelsson, H. Edner, A. Eilard, A. Emanuelsson, B. Galle, H. Kloo, P. Ragnarson, “Measurements of aromatic hydrocarbons with the DOAS technique,” Appl. Spectrosc. (to be published).
  11. P. Duffet-Smith, Practical Astronomy with Your Calculator, 3rd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1988).
  12. H. Karttunen, P. Kröger, H. Oja, M. Poutanan, K. J. Donner, Fundamental Astronomy (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1987).
  13. J. F. Noxon, “Tropospheric NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 83, 3051–3057 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. F. Noxon, E. C. Whipple, R. S. Hyde, “Stratospheric NO2, 1, Observational method and behavior at mid-latitude,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 5047–5065 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, “O3 and NO2 ground-based measurements by visible spectrometry during arctic winter and spring 1988,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 891–894 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. Galle, H. Axelsson, K. Gustavsson, P. Ragnarson, M. Rudin, “A transmitting/receiving telescope for DOAS measurements using retroreflector techniques,” submitted to Appl. Opt.
  18. N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, “Temporal correlation measurements of pulsed dual CO2 lidar returns,” Opt. Lett. 6, 301–303 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. Wahner, R. O. Jakoubek, G. H. Mount, A. R. Ravishankara, L. Schmeltekopf, “Remote sensing observations of day-time column NO2 during the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment, August 22 to October 2, 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,619–16,632 (1989).
  20. S. E. McLaren, D. H. Stedman, “Flux measurements using simultaneous long path ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the Eighty-Third Air and Waste Management Association Annual Meeting (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), paper 90-86.6.
  21. H. W. Biermann, A. M. Winer, “Recent improvements in the design and operation of a differential optical absorption spectrometer for in situ measurement of gaseous air pollutant,” in Proceedings of the Eighty-Third Air and Waste Management Association Annual Meeting (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), paper 90-87.2.
  22. A. M. Winer, H. W. Biermann, “Measurements of nitrate radicals, formaldehyde, and nitrogen dioxide for the Southern California Air Quality Study by differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” in Measurement of Atmospheric Gases, H. I. Schiff, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1433 (to be published).

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

A. Wahner, R. O. Jakoubek, G. H. Mount, A. R. Ravishankara, L. Schmeltekopf, “Remote sensing observations of day-time column NO2 during the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment, August 22 to October 2, 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,619–16,632 (1989).

1988 (1)

J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, “O3 and NO2 ground-based measurements by visible spectrometry during arctic winter and spring 1988,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 891–894 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

U. Platt, D. Perner, “Direct measurement of atmospheric CH2O, HNO2, O3, and SO2 by differential absorption in the near UV,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7453–7458 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

U. Platt, D. Perner, H. W. Pätz, “Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric CH2O, O3, and NO2 by differential optical absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6329–6335 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Noxon, E. C. Whipple, R. S. Hyde, “Stratospheric NO2, 1, Observational method and behavior at mid-latitude,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 5047–5065 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

J. F. Noxon, “Tropospheric NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 83, 3051–3057 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Amer, R.

H. Edner, R. Amer, P. Ragnarson, M. Rudin, S. Svanberg, “Atmospheric NH3 monitoring by long-path UV absorption spectroscopy,” in Environment and Pollution Measurement Sensors and Systems, H. O. Nielsen, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1269, 14–20 (1990).

Axelsson, H.

H. Axelsson, H. Edner, B. Galle, P. Ragnarson, M. Rudin, “Differential optical spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of ozone in the 280–290 nm wavelength region,” Appl. Spectrosc. 44, 1654–1658 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Axelsson, H. Edner, A. Eilard, A. Emanuelsson, B. Galle, H. Kloo, P. Ragnarson, “Measurements of aromatic hydrocarbons with the DOAS technique,” Appl. Spectrosc. (to be published).

B. Galle, H. Axelsson, K. Gustavsson, P. Ragnarson, M. Rudin, “A transmitting/receiving telescope for DOAS measurements using retroreflector techniques,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

Biermann, H. W.

H. W. Biermann, A. M. Winer, “Recent improvements in the design and operation of a differential optical absorption spectrometer for in situ measurement of gaseous air pollutant,” in Proceedings of the Eighty-Third Air and Waste Management Association Annual Meeting (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), paper 90-87.2.

A. M. Winer, H. W. Biermann, “Measurements of nitrate radicals, formaldehyde, and nitrogen dioxide for the Southern California Air Quality Study by differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” in Measurement of Atmospheric Gases, H. I. Schiff, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1433 (to be published).

Donner, K. J.

H. Karttunen, P. Kröger, H. Oja, M. Poutanan, K. J. Donner, Fundamental Astronomy (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1987).

Duffet-Smith, P.

P. Duffet-Smith, Practical Astronomy with Your Calculator, 3rd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1988).

Edner, H.

H. Axelsson, H. Edner, B. Galle, P. Ragnarson, M. Rudin, “Differential optical spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of ozone in the 280–290 nm wavelength region,” Appl. Spectrosc. 44, 1654–1658 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Edner, A. Sunesson, S. Svanberg, L. Unéus, S. Wallin, “Differential optical absorption spectroscopy system for atmospheric mercury monitoring,” Appl. Opt. 25, 403–409 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Axelsson, H. Edner, A. Eilard, A. Emanuelsson, B. Galle, H. Kloo, P. Ragnarson, “Measurements of aromatic hydrocarbons with the DOAS technique,” Appl. Spectrosc. (to be published).

H. Edner, R. Amer, P. Ragnarson, M. Rudin, S. Svanberg, “Atmospheric NH3 monitoring by long-path UV absorption spectroscopy,” in Environment and Pollution Measurement Sensors and Systems, H. O. Nielsen, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1269, 14–20 (1990).

Eilard, A.

H. Axelsson, H. Edner, A. Eilard, A. Emanuelsson, B. Galle, H. Kloo, P. Ragnarson, “Measurements of aromatic hydrocarbons with the DOAS technique,” Appl. Spectrosc. (to be published).

Emanuelsson, A.

H. Axelsson, H. Edner, A. Eilard, A. Emanuelsson, B. Galle, H. Kloo, P. Ragnarson, “Measurements of aromatic hydrocarbons with the DOAS technique,” Appl. Spectrosc. (to be published).

Galle, B.

H. Axelsson, H. Edner, B. Galle, P. Ragnarson, M. Rudin, “Differential optical spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of ozone in the 280–290 nm wavelength region,” Appl. Spectrosc. 44, 1654–1658 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Axelsson, H. Edner, A. Eilard, A. Emanuelsson, B. Galle, H. Kloo, P. Ragnarson, “Measurements of aromatic hydrocarbons with the DOAS technique,” Appl. Spectrosc. (to be published).

B. Galle, H. Axelsson, K. Gustavsson, P. Ragnarson, M. Rudin, “A transmitting/receiving telescope for DOAS measurements using retroreflector techniques,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

Goutail, F.

J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, “O3 and NO2 ground-based measurements by visible spectrometry during arctic winter and spring 1988,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 891–894 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gustavsson, K.

B. Galle, H. Axelsson, K. Gustavsson, P. Ragnarson, M. Rudin, “A transmitting/receiving telescope for DOAS measurements using retroreflector techniques,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

Hyde, R. S.

J. F. Noxon, E. C. Whipple, R. S. Hyde, “Stratospheric NO2, 1, Observational method and behavior at mid-latitude,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 5047–5065 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Jakoubek, R. O.

A. Wahner, R. O. Jakoubek, G. H. Mount, A. R. Ravishankara, L. Schmeltekopf, “Remote sensing observations of day-time column NO2 during the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment, August 22 to October 2, 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,619–16,632 (1989).

Karttunen, H.

H. Karttunen, P. Kröger, H. Oja, M. Poutanan, K. J. Donner, Fundamental Astronomy (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1987).

Killinger, D. K.

Kloo, H.

H. Axelsson, H. Edner, A. Eilard, A. Emanuelsson, B. Galle, H. Kloo, P. Ragnarson, “Measurements of aromatic hydrocarbons with the DOAS technique,” Appl. Spectrosc. (to be published).

Kröger, P.

H. Karttunen, P. Kröger, H. Oja, M. Poutanan, K. J. Donner, Fundamental Astronomy (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1987).

McLaren, S. E.

S. E. McLaren, D. H. Stedman, “Flux measurements using simultaneous long path ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the Eighty-Third Air and Waste Management Association Annual Meeting (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), paper 90-86.6.

Measures, K. M.

K. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1984).

Menyuk, N.

Mount, G. H.

A. Wahner, R. O. Jakoubek, G. H. Mount, A. R. Ravishankara, L. Schmeltekopf, “Remote sensing observations of day-time column NO2 during the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment, August 22 to October 2, 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,619–16,632 (1989).

Noxon, J. F.

J. F. Noxon, E. C. Whipple, R. S. Hyde, “Stratospheric NO2, 1, Observational method and behavior at mid-latitude,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 5047–5065 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Noxon, “Tropospheric NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 83, 3051–3057 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Oja, H.

H. Karttunen, P. Kröger, H. Oja, M. Poutanan, K. J. Donner, Fundamental Astronomy (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1987).

Pätz, H. W.

U. Platt, D. Perner, H. W. Pätz, “Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric CH2O, O3, and NO2 by differential optical absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6329–6335 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Perner, D.

U. Platt, D. Perner, “Direct measurement of atmospheric CH2O, HNO2, O3, and SO2 by differential absorption in the near UV,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7453–7458 (1980).
[CrossRef]

U. Platt, D. Perner, H. W. Pätz, “Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric CH2O, O3, and NO2 by differential optical absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6329–6335 (1979).
[CrossRef]

U. Platt, D. Perner, “Measurements of atmospheric trace gases by long path differential UV/visible absorption spectroscopy,” in Optical and Laser Remote Sensing Techniques, D. K. Killinger, A. Mooradian, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1983), pp. 97–105.

Platt, U.

U. Platt, D. Perner, “Direct measurement of atmospheric CH2O, HNO2, O3, and SO2 by differential absorption in the near UV,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7453–7458 (1980).
[CrossRef]

U. Platt, D. Perner, H. W. Pätz, “Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric CH2O, O3, and NO2 by differential optical absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6329–6335 (1979).
[CrossRef]

U. Platt, D. Perner, “Measurements of atmospheric trace gases by long path differential UV/visible absorption spectroscopy,” in Optical and Laser Remote Sensing Techniques, D. K. Killinger, A. Mooradian, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1983), pp. 97–105.

Pommereau, J. P.

J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, “O3 and NO2 ground-based measurements by visible spectrometry during arctic winter and spring 1988,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 891–894 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Poutanan, M.

H. Karttunen, P. Kröger, H. Oja, M. Poutanan, K. J. Donner, Fundamental Astronomy (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1987).

Ragnarson, P.

H. Axelsson, H. Edner, B. Galle, P. Ragnarson, M. Rudin, “Differential optical spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of ozone in the 280–290 nm wavelength region,” Appl. Spectrosc. 44, 1654–1658 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Axelsson, H. Edner, A. Eilard, A. Emanuelsson, B. Galle, H. Kloo, P. Ragnarson, “Measurements of aromatic hydrocarbons with the DOAS technique,” Appl. Spectrosc. (to be published).

B. Galle, H. Axelsson, K. Gustavsson, P. Ragnarson, M. Rudin, “A transmitting/receiving telescope for DOAS measurements using retroreflector techniques,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

H. Edner, R. Amer, P. Ragnarson, M. Rudin, S. Svanberg, “Atmospheric NH3 monitoring by long-path UV absorption spectroscopy,” in Environment and Pollution Measurement Sensors and Systems, H. O. Nielsen, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1269, 14–20 (1990).

Ravishankara, A. R.

A. Wahner, R. O. Jakoubek, G. H. Mount, A. R. Ravishankara, L. Schmeltekopf, “Remote sensing observations of day-time column NO2 during the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment, August 22 to October 2, 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,619–16,632 (1989).

Rudin, M.

H. Axelsson, H. Edner, B. Galle, P. Ragnarson, M. Rudin, “Differential optical spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of ozone in the 280–290 nm wavelength region,” Appl. Spectrosc. 44, 1654–1658 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. Galle, H. Axelsson, K. Gustavsson, P. Ragnarson, M. Rudin, “A transmitting/receiving telescope for DOAS measurements using retroreflector techniques,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

H. Edner, R. Amer, P. Ragnarson, M. Rudin, S. Svanberg, “Atmospheric NH3 monitoring by long-path UV absorption spectroscopy,” in Environment and Pollution Measurement Sensors and Systems, H. O. Nielsen, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1269, 14–20 (1990).

Sanders, R. W.

S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Schmeltekopf, A. L.

S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Schmeltekopf, L.

A. Wahner, R. O. Jakoubek, G. H. Mount, A. R. Ravishankara, L. Schmeltekopf, “Remote sensing observations of day-time column NO2 during the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment, August 22 to October 2, 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,619–16,632 (1989).

Solomon, S.

S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stedman, D. H.

S. E. McLaren, D. H. Stedman, “Flux measurements using simultaneous long path ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the Eighty-Third Air and Waste Management Association Annual Meeting (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), paper 90-86.6.

Sunesson, A.

Svanberg, S.

H. Edner, A. Sunesson, S. Svanberg, L. Unéus, S. Wallin, “Differential optical absorption spectroscopy system for atmospheric mercury monitoring,” Appl. Opt. 25, 403–409 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Svanberg “Optical Environmental Monitoring,” in Applied Laser Spectroscopy, M. Inguscio, W. Demtröder, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1990), pp. 417–434.
[CrossRef]

H. Edner, R. Amer, P. Ragnarson, M. Rudin, S. Svanberg, “Atmospheric NH3 monitoring by long-path UV absorption spectroscopy,” in Environment and Pollution Measurement Sensors and Systems, H. O. Nielsen, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1269, 14–20 (1990).

Unéus, L.

Wahner, A.

A. Wahner, R. O. Jakoubek, G. H. Mount, A. R. Ravishankara, L. Schmeltekopf, “Remote sensing observations of day-time column NO2 during the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment, August 22 to October 2, 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,619–16,632 (1989).

Wallin, S.

Whipple, E. C.

J. F. Noxon, E. C. Whipple, R. S. Hyde, “Stratospheric NO2, 1, Observational method and behavior at mid-latitude,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 5047–5065 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Winer, A. M.

H. W. Biermann, A. M. Winer, “Recent improvements in the design and operation of a differential optical absorption spectrometer for in situ measurement of gaseous air pollutant,” in Proceedings of the Eighty-Third Air and Waste Management Association Annual Meeting (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), paper 90-87.2.

A. M. Winer, H. W. Biermann, “Measurements of nitrate radicals, formaldehyde, and nitrogen dioxide for the Southern California Air Quality Study by differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” in Measurement of Atmospheric Gases, H. I. Schiff, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1433 (to be published).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, “O3 and NO2 ground-based measurements by visible spectrometry during arctic winter and spring 1988,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 891–894 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (6)

A. Wahner, R. O. Jakoubek, G. H. Mount, A. R. Ravishankara, L. Schmeltekopf, “Remote sensing observations of day-time column NO2 during the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment, August 22 to October 2, 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,619–16,632 (1989).

U. Platt, D. Perner, H. W. Pätz, “Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric CH2O, O3, and NO2 by differential optical absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6329–6335 (1979).
[CrossRef]

U. Platt, D. Perner, “Direct measurement of atmospheric CH2O, HNO2, O3, and SO2 by differential absorption in the near UV,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7453–7458 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Noxon, “Tropospheric NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 83, 3051–3057 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Noxon, E. C. Whipple, R. S. Hyde, “Stratospheric NO2, 1, Observational method and behavior at mid-latitude,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 5047–5065 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (12)

D. K. Killinger, A. Mooradian, eds. Optical and Laser Remote Sensing Techniques (Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, 1983).

K. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1984).

S. Svanberg “Optical Environmental Monitoring,” in Applied Laser Spectroscopy, M. Inguscio, W. Demtröder, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1990), pp. 417–434.
[CrossRef]

U. Platt, D. Perner, “Measurements of atmospheric trace gases by long path differential UV/visible absorption spectroscopy,” in Optical and Laser Remote Sensing Techniques, D. K. Killinger, A. Mooradian, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1983), pp. 97–105.

H. Edner, R. Amer, P. Ragnarson, M. Rudin, S. Svanberg, “Atmospheric NH3 monitoring by long-path UV absorption spectroscopy,” in Environment and Pollution Measurement Sensors and Systems, H. O. Nielsen, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1269, 14–20 (1990).

H. Axelsson, H. Edner, A. Eilard, A. Emanuelsson, B. Galle, H. Kloo, P. Ragnarson, “Measurements of aromatic hydrocarbons with the DOAS technique,” Appl. Spectrosc. (to be published).

P. Duffet-Smith, Practical Astronomy with Your Calculator, 3rd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1988).

H. Karttunen, P. Kröger, H. Oja, M. Poutanan, K. J. Donner, Fundamental Astronomy (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1987).

S. E. McLaren, D. H. Stedman, “Flux measurements using simultaneous long path ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the Eighty-Third Air and Waste Management Association Annual Meeting (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), paper 90-86.6.

H. W. Biermann, A. M. Winer, “Recent improvements in the design and operation of a differential optical absorption spectrometer for in situ measurement of gaseous air pollutant,” in Proceedings of the Eighty-Third Air and Waste Management Association Annual Meeting (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), paper 90-87.2.

A. M. Winer, H. W. Biermann, “Measurements of nitrate radicals, formaldehyde, and nitrogen dioxide for the Southern California Air Quality Study by differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” in Measurement of Atmospheric Gases, H. I. Schiff, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1433 (to be published).

B. Galle, H. Axelsson, K. Gustavsson, P. Ragnarson, M. Rudin, “A transmitting/receiving telescope for DOAS measurements using retroreflector techniques,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup of the DOAS station.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measurement paths overlooking Lund, Sweden. In the insets, photographs of the receiving station and the lamp transmitters are shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measurement of NO2 over a 2000-m path length: (a) raw spectrum, (b) raw spectrum (solid curve) and polynomial fit (dotted curve), (c) differential spectrum (solid curve) and reference spectrum of 15.2-μg/m3 NO2 (dotted curve), (d) residual spectrum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measurement at short UV wavelengths (350-m path length): (a) atmospheric spectrum (solid curve) and reference spectrum of 5.0-μg/m3 SO2 (dotted curve), (b) atmospheric spectrum after SO2 subtraction (solid curve) and reference spectrum of 0.7-μg/m3 NH3 (dotted curve), (c) atmospheric spectrum after SO2 and NH3 subtraction (solid curve) and reference spectrum of 2.8-μg/m3 NO (dotted curve), (d) residual spectrum.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

NO2 data during 24 h for the three directions in Fig. 2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

NO2 and O3 correlations measured over 24 h (400-m path in Fig. 2).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

NO2 data for one week (2000-m path in Fig. 2).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Average SO2 concentrations as a function of the wind direction, 29 May to 14 July 1990 (2000-m path).

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