Abstract

Stable and efficient self-mode locking in a Q-switched highly doped erbium fiber laser has been demonstrated. The proposed mechanism of the pulse formation based on self-phase modulation agrees well with the observed pulse characteristics.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. W. Smith, “Mode-locking of lasers,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1342–1357 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. E. Spence, P. N. Kean, W. Sibbett, “60-fsec pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 42–44 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Salin, J. Squieer, M. Piche. “Mode locking of Ti:Al2O3 lasers and self focusing: a Gaussian approximation.” Opt. Lett. 16, 1674–1676 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, L. Y. Liu, “Additive pulse mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1736–1745 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Mark, L. Y. Liu, K. L. Hall, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, “Femtosecond pulse generation in a laser with a nonlinear external resonator,” Opt. Lett. 14, 48–50 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Sorgsjan, U. Stamm, C. Ungerand, W. Zschocke, “Characteristics of a neodimium doped fiber laser mode-locked with a linear external cavity,” Opt. Commun. 86, 480–486 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. D. Hale, F. V. Kowalski, “Output characterization of a frequency shifted feedback laser: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 26, 1845–1851 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Statz, C. L. Tang, “Phase locking of modes in lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3923–3927 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. W. Smith, “The self-pulsing laser oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 627–635 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. W. Mocker, R. J. Collins, “Mode competition and self-locking effects in a Q-switched ruby laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 270–273 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. A. Fleck, “Emission of pulse trains by Q-switched lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 131–133 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. J. Kuizenaga, “Short-pulse oscillator development for the Nd:glass laser-fusion systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1694–1708 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. C. Farries, P. R. Morkel, J. E. Townsend, “The properties of the samarium fibre laser,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers, M. J. Digonnet, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1171, 271–278 (1989).
  14. B. Barnes, P. R. Morkel, M. Farries, L. Reekie, D. Payne, “Q-switching in fibre lasers,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers, M. J. Digonnet, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1171, 298–308 (1989).
  15. P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, J. A. Koningstein, J. R. Simpson, “High power Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 371–377 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, New York, 1989).
  17. I. N. Duling, “Effect on dispersion of rare-earth dopants in an optical fiber,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 15 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 48.
  18. R. A. Betts, T. Tjugiarto, Y. L. Xue, P. L. Chu, “Nonlinear refractive index in erbium doped optical fiber: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 908–913 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. G. Wagner, B. A. Lengyel, “Evolution of the giant pulse in a laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2040–2046 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Gabetta, D. Huang, J. Jacobson, M. Ramaswamy, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond pulse generation in Ti:Al2O3 using a microdot mirror mode locker,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1756–1758 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. F. V. Kowalski, S. J. Shattil, P. D. Hale, “Optical pulse generation with a frequency shifted feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 734–736 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. T. Lin, W. A. Gambling, “Polarization effect in fibre lasers: Phenomena, theory and applications,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers II, M. J. Digonnet, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1373, 42–52 (1990).
  23. C. C. Cutler, “Why does linear phase shift cause mode locking?” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 282–288 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1992 (2)

P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, J. A. Koningstein, J. R. Simpson, “High power Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 371–377 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Cutler, “Why does linear phase shift cause mode locking?” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 282–288 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (5)

1990 (1)

P. D. Hale, F. V. Kowalski, “Output characterization of a frequency shifted feedback laser: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 26, 1845–1851 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

1988 (1)

F. V. Kowalski, S. J. Shattil, P. D. Hale, “Optical pulse generation with a frequency shifted feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 734–736 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

D. J. Kuizenaga, “Short-pulse oscillator development for the Nd:glass laser-fusion systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1694–1708 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

P. W. Smith, “Mode-locking of lasers,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1342–1357 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

J. A. Fleck, “Emission of pulse trains by Q-switched lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 131–133 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

P. W. Smith, “The self-pulsing laser oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 627–635 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1965 (2)

H. W. Mocker, R. J. Collins, “Mode competition and self-locking effects in a Q-switched ruby laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 270–273 (1965).
[CrossRef]

H. Statz, C. L. Tang, “Phase locking of modes in lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3923–3927 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

W. G. Wagner, B. A. Lengyel, “Evolution of the giant pulse in a laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2040–2046 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, New York, 1989).

Barnes, B.

B. Barnes, P. R. Morkel, M. Farries, L. Reekie, D. Payne, “Q-switching in fibre lasers,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers, M. J. Digonnet, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1171, 298–308 (1989).

Betts, R. A.

R. A. Betts, T. Tjugiarto, Y. L. Xue, P. L. Chu, “Nonlinear refractive index in erbium doped optical fiber: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 908–913 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chrostowski, J.

P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, J. A. Koningstein, J. R. Simpson, “High power Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 371–377 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. L.

R. A. Betts, T. Tjugiarto, Y. L. Xue, P. L. Chu, “Nonlinear refractive index in erbium doped optical fiber: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 908–913 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Collins, R. J.

H. W. Mocker, R. J. Collins, “Mode competition and self-locking effects in a Q-switched ruby laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 270–273 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Cutler, C. C.

C. C. Cutler, “Why does linear phase shift cause mode locking?” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 282–288 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Duling, I. N.

I. N. Duling, “Effect on dispersion of rare-earth dopants in an optical fiber,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 15 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 48.

Farries, M.

B. Barnes, P. R. Morkel, M. Farries, L. Reekie, D. Payne, “Q-switching in fibre lasers,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers, M. J. Digonnet, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1171, 298–308 (1989).

Farries, M. C.

M. C. Farries, P. R. Morkel, J. E. Townsend, “The properties of the samarium fibre laser,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers, M. J. Digonnet, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1171, 271–278 (1989).

Fleck, J. A.

J. A. Fleck, “Emission of pulse trains by Q-switched lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 131–133 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gabetta, G.

Gambling, W. A.

J. T. Lin, W. A. Gambling, “Polarization effect in fibre lasers: Phenomena, theory and applications,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers II, M. J. Digonnet, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1373, 42–52 (1990).

Hale, P. D.

P. D. Hale, F. V. Kowalski, “Output characterization of a frequency shifted feedback laser: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 26, 1845–1851 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. V. Kowalski, S. J. Shattil, P. D. Hale, “Optical pulse generation with a frequency shifted feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 734–736 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hall, K. L.

Haus, H. A.

Huang, D.

Ippen, E. P.

Jacobson, J.

Kean, P. N.

Koningstein, J. A.

P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, J. A. Koningstein, J. R. Simpson, “High power Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 371–377 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F. V.

P. D. Hale, F. V. Kowalski, “Output characterization of a frequency shifted feedback laser: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 26, 1845–1851 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. V. Kowalski, S. J. Shattil, P. D. Hale, “Optical pulse generation with a frequency shifted feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 734–736 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kuizenaga, D. J.

D. J. Kuizenaga, “Short-pulse oscillator development for the Nd:glass laser-fusion systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1694–1708 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lengyel, B. A.

W. G. Wagner, B. A. Lengyel, “Evolution of the giant pulse in a laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2040–2046 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. T.

J. T. Lin, W. A. Gambling, “Polarization effect in fibre lasers: Phenomena, theory and applications,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers II, M. J. Digonnet, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1373, 42–52 (1990).

Liu, L. Y.

Mark, J.

Mocker, H. W.

H. W. Mocker, R. J. Collins, “Mode competition and self-locking effects in a Q-switched ruby laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 270–273 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Morkel, P. R.

B. Barnes, P. R. Morkel, M. Farries, L. Reekie, D. Payne, “Q-switching in fibre lasers,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers, M. J. Digonnet, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1171, 298–308 (1989).

M. C. Farries, P. R. Morkel, J. E. Townsend, “The properties of the samarium fibre laser,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers, M. J. Digonnet, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1171, 271–278 (1989).

Myslinski, P.

P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, J. A. Koningstein, J. R. Simpson, “High power Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 371–377 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D.

B. Barnes, P. R. Morkel, M. Farries, L. Reekie, D. Payne, “Q-switching in fibre lasers,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers, M. J. Digonnet, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1171, 298–308 (1989).

Piche, M.

Ramaswamy, M.

Reekie, L.

B. Barnes, P. R. Morkel, M. Farries, L. Reekie, D. Payne, “Q-switching in fibre lasers,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers, M. J. Digonnet, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1171, 298–308 (1989).

Salin, F.

Shattil, S. J.

F. V. Kowalski, S. J. Shattil, P. D. Hale, “Optical pulse generation with a frequency shifted feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 734–736 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

Simpson, J. R.

P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, J. A. Koningstein, J. R. Simpson, “High power Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 371–377 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. W.

P. W. Smith, “Mode-locking of lasers,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1342–1357 (1970).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Smith, “The self-pulsing laser oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 627–635 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Sorgsjan, G.

G. Sorgsjan, U. Stamm, C. Ungerand, W. Zschocke, “Characteristics of a neodimium doped fiber laser mode-locked with a linear external cavity,” Opt. Commun. 86, 480–486 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Spence, D. E.

Squieer, J.

Stamm, U.

G. Sorgsjan, U. Stamm, C. Ungerand, W. Zschocke, “Characteristics of a neodimium doped fiber laser mode-locked with a linear external cavity,” Opt. Commun. 86, 480–486 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Statz, H.

H. Statz, C. L. Tang, “Phase locking of modes in lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3923–3927 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. L.

H. Statz, C. L. Tang, “Phase locking of modes in lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3923–3927 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Tjugiarto, T.

R. A. Betts, T. Tjugiarto, Y. L. Xue, P. L. Chu, “Nonlinear refractive index in erbium doped optical fiber: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 908–913 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, J. E.

M. C. Farries, P. R. Morkel, J. E. Townsend, “The properties of the samarium fibre laser,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers, M. J. Digonnet, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1171, 271–278 (1989).

Ungerand, C.

G. Sorgsjan, U. Stamm, C. Ungerand, W. Zschocke, “Characteristics of a neodimium doped fiber laser mode-locked with a linear external cavity,” Opt. Commun. 86, 480–486 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, W. G.

W. G. Wagner, B. A. Lengyel, “Evolution of the giant pulse in a laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2040–2046 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Xue, Y. L.

R. A. Betts, T. Tjugiarto, Y. L. Xue, P. L. Chu, “Nonlinear refractive index in erbium doped optical fiber: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 908–913 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zschocke, W.

G. Sorgsjan, U. Stamm, C. Ungerand, W. Zschocke, “Characteristics of a neodimium doped fiber laser mode-locked with a linear external cavity,” Opt. Commun. 86, 480–486 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. W. Mocker, R. J. Collins, “Mode competition and self-locking effects in a Q-switched ruby laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 270–273 (1965).
[CrossRef]

F. V. Kowalski, S. J. Shattil, P. D. Hale, “Optical pulse generation with a frequency shifted feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 734–736 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron (1)

P. D. Hale, F. V. Kowalski, “Output characterization of a frequency shifted feedback laser: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 26, 1845–1851 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

D. J. Kuizenaga, “Short-pulse oscillator development for the Nd:glass laser-fusion systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1694–1708 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, J. A. Koningstein, J. R. Simpson, “High power Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 371–377 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Betts, T. Tjugiarto, Y. L. Xue, P. L. Chu, “Nonlinear refractive index in erbium doped optical fiber: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 908–913 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Smith, “The self-pulsing laser oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 627–635 (1967).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Cutler, “Why does linear phase shift cause mode locking?” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 282–288 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

W. G. Wagner, B. A. Lengyel, “Evolution of the giant pulse in a laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2040–2046 (1963).
[CrossRef]

H. Statz, C. L. Tang, “Phase locking of modes in lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3923–3927 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. Sorgsjan, U. Stamm, C. Ungerand, W. Zschocke, “Characteristics of a neodimium doped fiber laser mode-locked with a linear external cavity,” Opt. Commun. 86, 480–486 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. A. Fleck, “Emission of pulse trains by Q-switched lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 131–133 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. W. Smith, “Mode-locking of lasers,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1342–1357 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

M. C. Farries, P. R. Morkel, J. E. Townsend, “The properties of the samarium fibre laser,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers, M. J. Digonnet, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1171, 271–278 (1989).

B. Barnes, P. R. Morkel, M. Farries, L. Reekie, D. Payne, “Q-switching in fibre lasers,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers, M. J. Digonnet, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1171, 298–308 (1989).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, New York, 1989).

I. N. Duling, “Effect on dispersion of rare-earth dopants in an optical fiber,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 15 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 48.

J. T. Lin, W. A. Gambling, “Polarization effect in fibre lasers: Phenomena, theory and applications,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers II, M. J. Digonnet, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1373, 42–52 (1990).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Erbium-doped Q-switched single-mode fiber laser

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

High-power pulse from a Q-switched erbium fiber laser: P0 = 230 W ΔτFWHM = 8 ns.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Self-mode-locked pulses from a Q-switched erbium fiber laser.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L D = T 0 2 β 2 ,
L NL = 1 γ P 0 ,
γ = 2 π n 2 λ 0 A eff ,
Δ ν NL = 2 δ ω max 2 π = 0.273 γ z e f f P 0 T 0 ,

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