Abstract

We present an experimental study on the use of the time-domain optical memory for image storage and high-speed image processing. We focus on examining the fidelity of the recalled images and their spatial resolution as well as various image-processing operations offered by the memory. The recalled images were found to be of good quality because of their phase-conjugate nature. This unique feature further motivated us to examine the feasibility of fiber optics being used for image transmission, an issue important to the development of such a memory device. Two primary processing operations, two-image convolution and correlation, were demonstrated, and implications of the results for high-speed pattern recognition and optical interconnections are discussed.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Castro, D. Haarer, R. M. Macfarlane, H. P. Trammsdorff, “Frequency selective optical data storage,” U.S. patent4,101,976 (18July1978); A. Szabo, “Frequency selective optical memory,” U.S. patent3,896,420 (22July1975).
  2. W. E. Moerner, “Molecular electronics for frequency domain optical storage: persistent spectral hole-burning: a review,” J. Mol. Electron. 1, 55–71 (1985).
  3. See, for example, P. Gunter, J. P. Huignard, eds., Photorefractive Materials and Applications (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1988), Vols. 1 and 2.
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Hunter, F. Kiamilev, S. Esener, D. A. Parthenopoulos, P. M. Rentzepis, “Potentials of two-photon-based three-dimensional memories for high performance computing,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2058–2066 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. I. D. Abella, N. A. Kurnt, S. R. Hartmann, “Photon echoes,” Phy. Rev. 141, 391–406 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. W. Mossberg, “Time domain data storage,” U.S. patent4,459,682 (10July1984); “Time-domain frequency-selective optical data storage,” Opt. Lett. 7, 77–79 (1982).
    [PubMed]
  7. Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, T. W. Mossberg, “Coherent transient optical pulse-shape storage/recall using frequency-swept excitation pulses,” Opt. Lett. 11, 724–726 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. K. Kim, R. Kachru, “Multiple-bit long-term data storage by backward-stimulated echo in Eu3+:YA103,” Opt. Lett. 14, 423–425 (1989); “Long-term image storage and phase conjugation by a backward-stimulated echo in Pr3+: LaF3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 305–308 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, T. W. Mossberg, “Real-time optical waveform convolver/cross correlator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 714–716 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. A. Shen, Y. S. Bai, R. Kachru, “Reprogrammable optical matched filter for biphase-coded pulse compression,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1079–1081 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. Y. Xu, S. Kroll, D. L. Heustis, R. Kachru, “Nanosecond image processing using stimulated photon echoes,” Opt. Lett. 15, 562–564 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. N. W. Carlson, W. R. Babbitt, T. W. Mossberg, “Storage and phase conjugation of light pulses using stimulated photon echoes,” Opt. Lett. 8, 623–625 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. K. Kim, R. Kachru, “Storage and phase conjugation of multiple images using backward-stimulated echoes in Pr3+: LaF3,” Opt. Lett. 12, 593–595 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. X. A. Shen, R. Kachru, “High-speed pattern recognition by using stimulated echoes,” Opt. Lett. 17, 520–522 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. T. W. Mossberg, R. Kachru, S. R. Hartmann, A. M. Flusberg, “Echoes in gaseous media: a generalized theory of rephasing phenomena,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 1976–1996 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Fujita, H. Nakatsuka, H. Nakanishi, M. Matsuoka, “Backward echo in two-level systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 974–977 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. M. Pepper, J. AuYeung, D. Fekete, A. Yariv, “Spatial convolution and correlation of optical fields via degenerate four-wave mixing,” Opt. Lett. 3, 7–9 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), pp. 77–100.
  19. N. S. Shiren, “Generation of time-reversed optical wave fronts by backward-wave photon echoes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 299–300 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  20. N. W. Carlson, Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, T. W. Mossberg, “Temporally programmed free-induction decay,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 1572–1574 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Mitsunaga, R. G. Brewer, “Generalized perturbation theory of coherent optical emission,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 1605–1613 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. Yariv, “Three-dimensional pictorial transmission in optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 88–89 (1976).
    [CrossRef]

1992 (2)

1990 (2)

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

1985 (2)

W. E. Moerner, “Molecular electronics for frequency domain optical storage: persistent spectral hole-burning: a review,” J. Mol. Electron. 1, 55–71 (1985).

M. Mitsunaga, R. G. Brewer, “Generalized perturbation theory of coherent optical emission,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 1605–1613 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

N. W. Carlson, Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, T. W. Mossberg, “Temporally programmed free-induction decay,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 1572–1574 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, T. W. Mossberg, “Real-time optical waveform convolver/cross correlator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 714–716 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1979 (2)

T. W. Mossberg, R. Kachru, S. R. Hartmann, A. M. Flusberg, “Echoes in gaseous media: a generalized theory of rephasing phenomena,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 1976–1996 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, H. Nakatsuka, H. Nakanishi, M. Matsuoka, “Backward echo in two-level systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 974–977 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

D. M. Pepper, J. AuYeung, D. Fekete, A. Yariv, “Spatial convolution and correlation of optical fields via degenerate four-wave mixing,” Opt. Lett. 3, 7–9 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. S. Shiren, “Generation of time-reversed optical wave fronts by backward-wave photon echoes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 299–300 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

A. Yariv, “Three-dimensional pictorial transmission in optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 88–89 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

I. D. Abella, N. A. Kurnt, S. R. Hartmann, “Photon echoes,” Phy. Rev. 141, 391–406 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Abella, I. D.

I. D. Abella, N. A. Kurnt, S. R. Hartmann, “Photon echoes,” Phy. Rev. 141, 391–406 (1966).
[CrossRef]

AuYeung, J.

Babbitt, W. R.

Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, T. W. Mossberg, “Coherent transient optical pulse-shape storage/recall using frequency-swept excitation pulses,” Opt. Lett. 11, 724–726 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, T. W. Mossberg, “Real-time optical waveform convolver/cross correlator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 714–716 (1984).
[CrossRef]

N. W. Carlson, Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, T. W. Mossberg, “Temporally programmed free-induction decay,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 1572–1574 (1984).
[CrossRef]

N. W. Carlson, W. R. Babbitt, T. W. Mossberg, “Storage and phase conjugation of light pulses using stimulated photon echoes,” Opt. Lett. 8, 623–625 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, Y. S.

X. A. Shen, Y. S. Bai, R. Kachru, “Reprogrammable optical matched filter for biphase-coded pulse compression,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1079–1081 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, T. W. Mossberg, “Coherent transient optical pulse-shape storage/recall using frequency-swept excitation pulses,” Opt. Lett. 11, 724–726 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, T. W. Mossberg, “Real-time optical waveform convolver/cross correlator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 714–716 (1984).
[CrossRef]

N. W. Carlson, Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, T. W. Mossberg, “Temporally programmed free-induction decay,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 1572–1574 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Brewer, R. G.

M. Mitsunaga, R. G. Brewer, “Generalized perturbation theory of coherent optical emission,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 1605–1613 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlson, N. W.

N. W. Carlson, Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, T. W. Mossberg, “Temporally programmed free-induction decay,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 1572–1574 (1984).
[CrossRef]

N. W. Carlson, W. R. Babbitt, T. W. Mossberg, “Storage and phase conjugation of light pulses using stimulated photon echoes,” Opt. Lett. 8, 623–625 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castro, G.

G. Castro, D. Haarer, R. M. Macfarlane, H. P. Trammsdorff, “Frequency selective optical data storage,” U.S. patent4,101,976 (18July1978); A. Szabo, “Frequency selective optical memory,” U.S. patent3,896,420 (22July1975).

Esener, S.

Fekete, D.

Flusberg, A. M.

T. W. Mossberg, R. Kachru, S. R. Hartmann, A. M. Flusberg, “Echoes in gaseous media: a generalized theory of rephasing phenomena,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 1976–1996 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

M. Fujita, H. Nakatsuka, H. Nakanishi, M. Matsuoka, “Backward echo in two-level systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 974–977 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), pp. 77–100.

Haarer, D.

G. Castro, D. Haarer, R. M. Macfarlane, H. P. Trammsdorff, “Frequency selective optical data storage,” U.S. patent4,101,976 (18July1978); A. Szabo, “Frequency selective optical memory,” U.S. patent3,896,420 (22July1975).

Hartmann, S. R.

T. W. Mossberg, R. Kachru, S. R. Hartmann, A. M. Flusberg, “Echoes in gaseous media: a generalized theory of rephasing phenomena,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 1976–1996 (1979).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Abella, N. A. Kurnt, S. R. Hartmann, “Photon echoes,” Phy. Rev. 141, 391–406 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Heustis, D. L.

Hunter, S.

Kachru, R.

Kiamilev, F.

Kim, M. K.

Kroll, S.

Kurnt, N. A.

I. D. Abella, N. A. Kurnt, S. R. Hartmann, “Photon echoes,” Phy. Rev. 141, 391–406 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Macfarlane, R. M.

G. Castro, D. Haarer, R. M. Macfarlane, H. P. Trammsdorff, “Frequency selective optical data storage,” U.S. patent4,101,976 (18July1978); A. Szabo, “Frequency selective optical memory,” U.S. patent3,896,420 (22July1975).

Matsuoka, M.

M. Fujita, H. Nakatsuka, H. Nakanishi, M. Matsuoka, “Backward echo in two-level systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 974–977 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mitsunaga, M.

M. Mitsunaga, R. G. Brewer, “Generalized perturbation theory of coherent optical emission,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 1605–1613 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moerner, W. E.

W. E. Moerner, “Molecular electronics for frequency domain optical storage: persistent spectral hole-burning: a review,” J. Mol. Electron. 1, 55–71 (1985).

Mossberg, T. W.

Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, T. W. Mossberg, “Coherent transient optical pulse-shape storage/recall using frequency-swept excitation pulses,” Opt. Lett. 11, 724–726 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, T. W. Mossberg, “Real-time optical waveform convolver/cross correlator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 714–716 (1984).
[CrossRef]

N. W. Carlson, Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, T. W. Mossberg, “Temporally programmed free-induction decay,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 1572–1574 (1984).
[CrossRef]

N. W. Carlson, W. R. Babbitt, T. W. Mossberg, “Storage and phase conjugation of light pulses using stimulated photon echoes,” Opt. Lett. 8, 623–625 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Mossberg, R. Kachru, S. R. Hartmann, A. M. Flusberg, “Echoes in gaseous media: a generalized theory of rephasing phenomena,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 1976–1996 (1979).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Mossberg, “Time domain data storage,” U.S. patent4,459,682 (10July1984); “Time-domain frequency-selective optical data storage,” Opt. Lett. 7, 77–79 (1982).
[PubMed]

Nakanishi, H.

M. Fujita, H. Nakatsuka, H. Nakanishi, M. Matsuoka, “Backward echo in two-level systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 974–977 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Nakatsuka, H.

M. Fujita, H. Nakatsuka, H. Nakanishi, M. Matsuoka, “Backward echo in two-level systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 974–977 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Parthenopoulos, D. A.

Pepper, D. M.

Rentzepis, P. M.

Shen, X. A.

Shiren, N. S.

N. S. Shiren, “Generation of time-reversed optical wave fronts by backward-wave photon echoes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 299–300 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Trammsdorff, H. P.

G. Castro, D. Haarer, R. M. Macfarlane, H. P. Trammsdorff, “Frequency selective optical data storage,” U.S. patent4,101,976 (18July1978); A. Szabo, “Frequency selective optical memory,” U.S. patent3,896,420 (22July1975).

Xu, E. Y.

Yariv, A.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, T. W. Mossberg, “Real-time optical waveform convolver/cross correlator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 714–716 (1984).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Shiren, “Generation of time-reversed optical wave fronts by backward-wave photon echoes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 299–300 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, “Three-dimensional pictorial transmission in optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 88–89 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Electron. (1)

W. E. Moerner, “Molecular electronics for frequency domain optical storage: persistent spectral hole-burning: a review,” J. Mol. Electron. 1, 55–71 (1985).

Opt. Lett. (8)

Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, T. W. Mossberg, “Coherent transient optical pulse-shape storage/recall using frequency-swept excitation pulses,” Opt. Lett. 11, 724–726 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Kim, R. Kachru, “Multiple-bit long-term data storage by backward-stimulated echo in Eu3+:YA103,” Opt. Lett. 14, 423–425 (1989); “Long-term image storage and phase conjugation by a backward-stimulated echo in Pr3+: LaF3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 305–308 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Pepper, J. AuYeung, D. Fekete, A. Yariv, “Spatial convolution and correlation of optical fields via degenerate four-wave mixing,” Opt. Lett. 3, 7–9 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. A. Shen, Y. S. Bai, R. Kachru, “Reprogrammable optical matched filter for biphase-coded pulse compression,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1079–1081 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Y. Xu, S. Kroll, D. L. Heustis, R. Kachru, “Nanosecond image processing using stimulated photon echoes,” Opt. Lett. 15, 562–564 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. W. Carlson, W. R. Babbitt, T. W. Mossberg, “Storage and phase conjugation of light pulses using stimulated photon echoes,” Opt. Lett. 8, 623–625 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Kim, R. Kachru, “Storage and phase conjugation of multiple images using backward-stimulated echoes in Pr3+: LaF3,” Opt. Lett. 12, 593–595 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. A. Shen, R. Kachru, “High-speed pattern recognition by using stimulated echoes,” Opt. Lett. 17, 520–522 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phy. Rev. (1)

I. D. Abella, N. A. Kurnt, S. R. Hartmann, “Photon echoes,” Phy. Rev. 141, 391–406 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

T. W. Mossberg, R. Kachru, S. R. Hartmann, A. M. Flusberg, “Echoes in gaseous media: a generalized theory of rephasing phenomena,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 1976–1996 (1979).
[CrossRef]

N. W. Carlson, Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, T. W. Mossberg, “Temporally programmed free-induction decay,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 1572–1574 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitsunaga, R. G. Brewer, “Generalized perturbation theory of coherent optical emission,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 1605–1613 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Fujita, H. Nakatsuka, H. Nakanishi, M. Matsuoka, “Backward echo in two-level systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 974–977 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

T. W. Mossberg, “Time domain data storage,” U.S. patent4,459,682 (10July1984); “Time-domain frequency-selective optical data storage,” Opt. Lett. 7, 77–79 (1982).
[PubMed]

See, for example, P. Gunter, J. P. Huignard, eds., Photorefractive Materials and Applications (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1988), Vols. 1 and 2.
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), pp. 77–100.

G. Castro, D. Haarer, R. M. Macfarlane, H. P. Trammsdorff, “Frequency selective optical data storage,” U.S. patent4,101,976 (18July1978); A. Szabo, “Frequency selective optical memory,” U.S. patent3,896,420 (22July1975).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the experimental apparatus for image storage and image processing in TDOM: BS’s, beam splitters; BE’s, beam expanders; M’s, mirrors; DL, dye laser; OD’s, optical delay lines; CCD, intensifier CCD camera; SF, spatial filter. The part labeled Optional is used to demonstrate phase conjugation. (b) Temporal sequence of the input and echo pulses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental results showing the fidelity and spatial resolution of the image retrieved from TDOM: (a) input data image (resolution chart), (b) echo image.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental demonstration of phase conjugation: (a) input data image, (b) after passage through a multimode optical fiber, (c) echo image retrieved.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental results showing the use of TDOM to perform the following: (a), (b) two-image correlations; (c), (d) two-image convolutions.

Equations (2)

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P u 1 * ( x , y ) u 2 ( x , y ) u 3 ( x , y ) exp [ i ( k 1 + k 2 + k 3 ) r ] ,
E e u 3 ( x , y ) u 2 ( x , y ) * u 1 ( x , y ) ,

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