Abstract

An optically controlled buildup and erasure of an electric field under the negative electrode in CdTe:In is reviewed both experimentally and theoretically. Below-band-gap impurity-absorbed light (850–920 nm) results in the buildup of a region of very high electric field (E ~ 20 kV/cm) under the negative electrode. Illumination at wavelengths above or near the band gap (800–840 nm) can erase the high electric fields. The writing and erasure of the field follow the illumination pattern and can therefore be used, when combined with the electro-optic or electroabsorption effects, for one- and two-dimensional infrared spatial modulators with signal beams in the 900–1500-nm range. Switching times are a few hundred nanoseconds at moderate intensity levels (milliwatts per square centimeter). We demonstrate a one-dimensional latching array with 170 line pairs/cm resolution, submicrosecond response, and 12-pJ/pixel switching energy. We also demonstrate a two-dimensional infrared spatial light modulator, similar to the PRIZ, which uses this effect. The optically controlled electric fields are large enough for sizable Franz–Keldysh effects, and we demonstrate these effects in both one- and two-dimensional devices.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  55. A. Partovi, J. Millerd, E. M. Garmire, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, S. Trivedi, M. B. Klein, “Photorefractivity at 1.5 μm in CdTerV,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 846–848 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, P. N. Ranon, M. B. Klein, S. Trivedi, “Photorefractivity in ZnTe:V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1052–1054 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

P. Tayebati, J. Kumar, S. Scott, “Photorefractive effect at 633 nm in semi-insulating cadmium sulfide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3366–3368 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

D. Mahgerefteh, J. Feinberg, “Explanation of the apparent sublinear photoconductivity of photorefractive barium titanate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2195–2198 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Partovi, J. Millerd, E. M. Garmire, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, S. Trivedi, M. B. Klein, “Photorefractivity at 1.5 μm in CdTerV,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 846–848 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Glass, “Charge transport nonlinearities: an introduction,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 1–17 (1990).

1989 (1)

1988 (4)

N. C. Giles, S. Hwang, J. F. Schetzina, S. McDevit, C. J. Johnson, “The effect of high temperature anneal on the electrical and optical properties of bulk CdTe:In,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 2656–2665 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. Rajbenbach, J. M. Verdiell, J. P. Huignard, “Visualization of electrical domains in semi-insulating GaAs:Cr and potential use for variable grating mode operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 541–544 (1988).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Walpita, “Anomalous electroabsorption in semi-insulating GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 5495–5499 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Steier, J. Kumar, M. Ziari, “Infrared power limiting and self switching in CdTe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 840–841 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

T. Ido, A. Heurtel, R. Triboulet, Y. Marfaing, “Deep level structure and compensation mechanism in In-doped CdTe crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 48, 781–790 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

V. V. Bryskin, L. I. Korovin, Y. I. Kuz’min, “Role of the injection currents in the evolution of a photoinduced charge in photorefractive crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 29, 757–761 (1986).

V. V. Bryskin, L. I. Korovin, Y. I. Kuz’min, “Exact solution of the photoinduced charge formation dynamics problem in photorefractive crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 28, 79–83 (1986).

1985 (2)

1984 (3)

1983 (3)

Y. Owechko, A. R. Tanguay, “Effects of crystallographic orientation on the electro-optic spatial light modulator amplitude and phase responses,” Opt. Commun. 44, 239–242 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Musa, J. P. Ponpon, J. J. Grob, H. Hage-Ali, R. Stuck, P. Siffert, “Properties of electroless gold contacts on p-type cadmium telluride,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3260–3268 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Werthen, J.-P. Haring, A. L. Fahrenbruch, R. H. Bube, “Surface effects on metal/CdTe junctions and CdTe heterojunctions,” J. Phys. D 16, 2391–2404 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

V. V. Bryskin, L. I. Korovin, V. I. Marakhonov, V. Khomenko, “Initial stage in the redistribution of the photoinduced charges and electric fields ion Bi12SiO20,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 24, 1686–1689 (1982).

V. N. Astratov, A. V. Il’inskil, “Direct investigation of the electric field distribution in a Bi12GeO20 crystal with the aid of the transverse electro-optic effect,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 24, 61–64 (1982).

1981 (2)

M. P. Petrov, A. V. Khomenko, M. V. Krasin’kova, V. I. Marakhonov, M. G. Shlyagin, “The PRIZ image converter and its use in optical data processing systems modulators,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 26, 816–821 (1981).

H. Jaeger, E. Seipp, “Transition resistances of ohmic contacts to p-type CdTe and their time-dependent variation,” J. Electron. Mater. 10, 605–618 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

P. G. Kasherininov, D. G. Matyukhin, V. A. Sladkova, “Nature of the nonlinearity of the lux-ampere charcteristics of metal–semiconductor–metal structures with semi-insulating cadmium telluride crystals,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 14, 763–766 (1980).

F. G. Courreges, A. L. Fagrenbruch, R. H. Bube, “Sputtered indium tin oxide/cadmium telluride junctions and cadmium telluride surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 2175–2183 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

T. Takebe, J. Saraie, T. Tanaka, “Study of the surface barrier of the metal–n-CdTe contact,” Phys. Status Solidi A 47, 123–130 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

J. Touskova, R. Kuzel, “Fundamental properties of Au–CdTe metal-semiconductor contact,” Phys. Status Solidi A 36, 747–755 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. Sifferst, J. Berger, C. Scharager, A. Scaharager, A. Cornet, R. Stuck, R. O. Bell, H. B. Serreze, F. V. Wald, “Polarization in cadmium telluride nuclear radiation detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-23, 159–170 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (3)

C. Canali, M. A. Nicolet, J. W. Mayer, “Transient and steady state space-charge-limited current in CdTe,” Solid-State Electron. 18, 871–874 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Bell, F. V. Wald, “Study of the behavior of traps in CdTe nuclear detectors by optical technique,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-22, 241–245 (1975).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Barnes, K. Zanio, “Photoluminescence in high resistivity CdTe:In,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3959–3964 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

R. O. Bell, G. Entine, H. B. Serreze, “Time dependent polarization of CdTe gamma-ray detectors,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods 117, 267–271 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

V. P. Karpenko, P. G. Kasherininoy, O. A. Matveev, “Photomemory of surface-barrier junction in cadmium telluride,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 4, 794–796 (1970).

1969 (3)

S. Kurtin, T. C. McGill, C. A. Mead, “Fundamental transition in electronic nature of solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 1433 (1969).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Chen, “Optically induced change of the refractive indices in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3389–3396 (1969).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kasherininov, O. A. Matveev, L. V. Maslova, “Investigation of the capacitance characteristics of p-n junctions in CdTe,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 3, 451–454 (1969).

1966 (1)

R. Williams, “Determination of deep centers in conducting GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3411–3416 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

C. T. Sah, V. G. K. Reddi, “Frequency dependence of the reverse biased capacitance of gold-doped silicon p+n step junctions,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-11, 345–349 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Astratov, V. N.

V. N. Astratov, A. V. Il’inskil, V. A. Kiselev, “Stratification of the space charge in the case of screening of a field in crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 26, 1720–1725 (1984).

V. N. Astratov, A. V. Il’inskil, “Direct investigation of the electric field distribution in a Bi12GeO20 crystal with the aid of the transverse electro-optic effect,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 24, 61–64 (1982).

Barnes, C. E.

C. E. Barnes, K. Zanio, “Photoluminescence in high resistivity CdTe:In,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3959–3964 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bell, R. O.

P. Sifferst, J. Berger, C. Scharager, A. Scaharager, A. Cornet, R. Stuck, R. O. Bell, H. B. Serreze, F. V. Wald, “Polarization in cadmium telluride nuclear radiation detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-23, 159–170 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Bell, F. V. Wald, “Study of the behavior of traps in CdTe nuclear detectors by optical technique,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-22, 241–245 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Bell, G. Entine, H. B. Serreze, “Time dependent polarization of CdTe gamma-ray detectors,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods 117, 267–271 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Berger, J.

P. Sifferst, J. Berger, C. Scharager, A. Scaharager, A. Cornet, R. Stuck, R. O. Bell, H. B. Serreze, F. V. Wald, “Polarization in cadmium telluride nuclear radiation detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-23, 159–170 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bryskin, V. V.

V. V. Bryskin, L. I. Korovin, Y. I. Kuz’min, “Role of the injection currents in the evolution of a photoinduced charge in photorefractive crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 29, 757–761 (1986).

V. V. Bryskin, L. I. Korovin, Y. I. Kuz’min, “Exact solution of the photoinduced charge formation dynamics problem in photorefractive crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 28, 79–83 (1986).

V. V. Bryskin, L. I. Korovin, V. I. Marakhonov, V. Khomenko, “Initial stage in the redistribution of the photoinduced charges and electric fields ion Bi12SiO20,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 24, 1686–1689 (1982).

Bube, R. H.

J. G. Werthen, J.-P. Haring, A. L. Fahrenbruch, R. H. Bube, “Surface effects on metal/CdTe junctions and CdTe heterojunctions,” J. Phys. D 16, 2391–2404 (1983).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Courreges, A. L. Fagrenbruch, R. H. Bube, “Sputtered indium tin oxide/cadmium telluride junctions and cadmium telluride surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 2175–2183 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Canali, C.

C. Canali, M. A. Nicolet, J. W. Mayer, “Transient and steady state space-charge-limited current in CdTe,” Solid-State Electron. 18, 871–874 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W. S. C.

Chen, F. S.

F. S. Chen, “Optically induced change of the refractive indices in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3389–3396 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, L.

D. T. H. Liu, L. Cheng, J. Kim, “Applied electric field effect on photorefractive GaAs,” in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices, Vol. 14 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 115–158.

Cornet, A.

P. Sifferst, J. Berger, C. Scharager, A. Scaharager, A. Cornet, R. Stuck, R. O. Bell, H. B. Serreze, F. V. Wald, “Polarization in cadmium telluride nuclear radiation detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-23, 159–170 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Courreges, F. G.

F. G. Courreges, A. L. Fagrenbruch, R. H. Bube, “Sputtered indium tin oxide/cadmium telluride junctions and cadmium telluride surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 2175–2183 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T. E. V.

Entine, G.

R. O. Bell, G. Entine, H. B. Serreze, “Time dependent polarization of CdTe gamma-ray detectors,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods 117, 267–271 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Fagrenbruch, A. L.

F. G. Courreges, A. L. Fagrenbruch, R. H. Bube, “Sputtered indium tin oxide/cadmium telluride junctions and cadmium telluride surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 2175–2183 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Fahrenbruch, A. L.

J. G. Werthen, J.-P. Haring, A. L. Fahrenbruch, R. H. Bube, “Surface effects on metal/CdTe junctions and CdTe heterojunctions,” J. Phys. D 16, 2391–2404 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

D. Mahgerefteh, J. Feinberg, “Explanation of the apparent sublinear photoconductivity of photorefractive barium titanate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2195–2198 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garmire, E. M.

A. Partovi, J. Millerd, E. M. Garmire, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, S. Trivedi, M. B. Klein, “Photorefractivity at 1.5 μm in CdTerV,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 846–848 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, M. H.

E. J. Herbulock, M. H. Garrett, A. R. Tanguay, “Electric field profile effects on photorefractive grating formation in bismuth silicon oxide,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 11 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 143–144.

Giles, N. C.

N. C. Giles, S. Hwang, J. F. Schetzina, S. McDevit, C. J. Johnson, “The effect of high temperature anneal on the electrical and optical properties of bulk CdTe:In,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 2656–2665 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Glass, A. M.

A. M. Glass, “Charge transport nonlinearities: an introduction,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 1–17 (1990).

Grob, J. J.

A. Musa, J. P. Ponpon, J. J. Grob, H. Hage-Ali, R. Stuck, P. Siffert, “Properties of electroless gold contacts on p-type cadmium telluride,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3260–3268 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hage-Ali, H.

A. Musa, J. P. Ponpon, J. J. Grob, H. Hage-Ali, R. Stuck, P. Siffert, “Properties of electroless gold contacts on p-type cadmium telluride,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3260–3268 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Haring, J.-P.

J. G. Werthen, J.-P. Haring, A. L. Fahrenbruch, R. H. Bube, “Surface effects on metal/CdTe junctions and CdTe heterojunctions,” J. Phys. D 16, 2391–2404 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Herbulock, E. J.

E. J. Herbulock, M. H. Garrett, A. R. Tanguay, “Electric field profile effects on photorefractive grating formation in bismuth silicon oxide,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 11 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 143–144.

Heurtel, A.

T. Ido, A. Heurtel, R. Triboulet, Y. Marfaing, “Deep level structure and compensation mechanism in In-doped CdTe crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 48, 781–790 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Huignard, J. P.

H. Rajbenbach, J. M. Verdiell, J. P. Huignard, “Visualization of electrical domains in semi-insulating GaAs:Cr and potential use for variable grating mode operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 541–544 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S.

N. C. Giles, S. Hwang, J. F. Schetzina, S. McDevit, C. J. Johnson, “The effect of high temperature anneal on the electrical and optical properties of bulk CdTe:In,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 2656–2665 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ido, T.

T. Ido, A. Heurtel, R. Triboulet, Y. Marfaing, “Deep level structure and compensation mechanism in In-doped CdTe crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 48, 781–790 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Il’inskil, A. V.

V. N. Astratov, A. V. Il’inskil, V. A. Kiselev, “Stratification of the space charge in the case of screening of a field in crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 26, 1720–1725 (1984).

V. N. Astratov, A. V. Il’inskil, “Direct investigation of the electric field distribution in a Bi12GeO20 crystal with the aid of the transverse electro-optic effect,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 24, 61–64 (1982).

Jaeger, H.

H. Jaeger, E. Seipp, “Transition resistances of ohmic contacts to p-type CdTe and their time-dependent variation,” J. Electron. Mater. 10, 605–618 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, C. J.

N. C. Giles, S. Hwang, J. F. Schetzina, S. McDevit, C. J. Johnson, “The effect of high temperature anneal on the electrical and optical properties of bulk CdTe:In,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 2656–2665 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Karpenko, V. P.

V. P. Karpenko, P. G. Kasherininoy, O. A. Matveev, “Photomemory of surface-barrier junction in cadmium telluride,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 4, 794–796 (1970).

Kasherininov, P. G.

P. G. Kasherininov, D. G. Matyukhin, V. A. Sladkova, “Nature of the nonlinearity of the lux-ampere charcteristics of metal–semiconductor–metal structures with semi-insulating cadmium telluride crystals,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 14, 763–766 (1980).

P. G. Kasherininov, O. A. Matveev, L. V. Maslova, “Investigation of the capacitance characteristics of p-n junctions in CdTe,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 3, 451–454 (1969).

Kasherininoy, P. G.

V. P. Karpenko, P. G. Kasherininoy, O. A. Matveev, “Photomemory of surface-barrier junction in cadmium telluride,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 4, 794–796 (1970).

Khomenko, A. V.

M. P. Petrov, A. V. Khomenko, M. V. Krasin’kova, V. I. Marakhonov, M. G. Shlyagin, “The PRIZ image converter and its use in optical data processing systems modulators,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 26, 816–821 (1981).

M. P. Petrov, A. V. Khomenko, “Photorefractive crystals in PRIZ spatial light modulators,” in Photorefractive Materials and Their Application II, P. Gunter, J.-P. Huignard, eds. Vol. 62 of Topics in Applied Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 325–352.
[CrossRef]

Khomenko, V.

V. V. Bryskin, L. I. Korovin, V. I. Marakhonov, V. Khomenko, “Initial stage in the redistribution of the photoinduced charges and electric fields ion Bi12SiO20,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 24, 1686–1689 (1982).

Kim, J.

D. T. H. Liu, L. Cheng, J. Kim, “Applied electric field effect on photorefractive GaAs,” in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices, Vol. 14 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 115–158.

Kiselev, V. A.

V. N. Astratov, A. V. Il’inskil, V. A. Kiselev, “Stratification of the space charge in the case of screening of a field in crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 26, 1720–1725 (1984).

Klein, M. B.

M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, P. N. Ranon, M. B. Klein, S. Trivedi, “Photorefractivity in ZnTe:V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1052–1054 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Partovi, J. Millerd, E. M. Garmire, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, S. Trivedi, M. B. Klein, “Photorefractivity at 1.5 μm in CdTerV,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 846–848 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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V. V. Bryskin, L. I. Korovin, Y. I. Kuz’min, “Exact solution of the photoinduced charge formation dynamics problem in photorefractive crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 28, 79–83 (1986).

V. V. Bryskin, L. I. Korovin, Y. I. Kuz’min, “Role of the injection currents in the evolution of a photoinduced charge in photorefractive crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 29, 757–761 (1986).

V. V. Bryskin, L. I. Korovin, V. I. Marakhonov, V. Khomenko, “Initial stage in the redistribution of the photoinduced charges and electric fields ion Bi12SiO20,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 24, 1686–1689 (1982).

Krasin’kova, M. V.

M. P. Petrov, A. V. Khomenko, M. V. Krasin’kova, V. I. Marakhonov, M. G. Shlyagin, “The PRIZ image converter and its use in optical data processing systems modulators,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 26, 816–821 (1981).

Kumar, J.

P. Tayebati, J. Kumar, S. Scott, “Photorefractive effect at 633 nm in semi-insulating cadmium sulfide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3366–3368 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Steier, J. Kumar, M. Ziari, “Opto-optical switching in the infrared using CdTe,” Opt. Lett. 14, 224–227 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Steier, J. Kumar, M. Ziari, “Infrared power limiting and self switching in CdTe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 840–841 (1988).
[CrossRef]

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S. Kurtin, T. C. McGill, C. A. Mead, “Fundamental transition in electronic nature of solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 1433 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kuz’min, Y. I.

V. V. Bryskin, L. I. Korovin, Y. I. Kuz’min, “Role of the injection currents in the evolution of a photoinduced charge in photorefractive crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 29, 757–761 (1986).

V. V. Bryskin, L. I. Korovin, Y. I. Kuz’min, “Exact solution of the photoinduced charge formation dynamics problem in photorefractive crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 28, 79–83 (1986).

Kuzel, R.

J. Touskova, R. Kuzel, “Fundamental properties of Au–CdTe metal-semiconductor contact,” Phys. Status Solidi A 36, 747–755 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D. T. H.

D. T. H. Liu, L. Cheng, J. Kim, “Applied electric field effect on photorefractive GaAs,” in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices, Vol. 14 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 115–158.

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V. V. Bryskin, L. I. Korovin, V. I. Marakhonov, V. Khomenko, “Initial stage in the redistribution of the photoinduced charges and electric fields ion Bi12SiO20,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 24, 1686–1689 (1982).

M. P. Petrov, A. V. Khomenko, M. V. Krasin’kova, V. I. Marakhonov, M. G. Shlyagin, “The PRIZ image converter and its use in optical data processing systems modulators,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 26, 816–821 (1981).

Marfaing, Y.

T. Ido, A. Heurtel, R. Triboulet, Y. Marfaing, “Deep level structure and compensation mechanism in In-doped CdTe crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 48, 781–790 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Martini, M.

M. Martini, J. W. Mayer, K. R. Zanio, “Drift velocity and trapping in semiconductors: transient charge technique,” in Applied Solid-State Science, R. Wolfe, eds. (Academic, New York, 1972), Vol. 3, pp. 183–259.

Maslova, L. V.

P. G. Kasherininov, O. A. Matveev, L. V. Maslova, “Investigation of the capacitance characteristics of p-n junctions in CdTe,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 3, 451–454 (1969).

Matveev, O. A.

V. P. Karpenko, P. G. Kasherininoy, O. A. Matveev, “Photomemory of surface-barrier junction in cadmium telluride,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 4, 794–796 (1970).

P. G. Kasherininov, O. A. Matveev, L. V. Maslova, “Investigation of the capacitance characteristics of p-n junctions in CdTe,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 3, 451–454 (1969).

Matyukhin, D. G.

P. G. Kasherininov, D. G. Matyukhin, V. A. Sladkova, “Nature of the nonlinearity of the lux-ampere charcteristics of metal–semiconductor–metal structures with semi-insulating cadmium telluride crystals,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 14, 763–766 (1980).

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C. Canali, M. A. Nicolet, J. W. Mayer, “Transient and steady state space-charge-limited current in CdTe,” Solid-State Electron. 18, 871–874 (1975).
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M. Martini, J. W. Mayer, K. R. Zanio, “Drift velocity and trapping in semiconductors: transient charge technique,” in Applied Solid-State Science, R. Wolfe, eds. (Academic, New York, 1972), Vol. 3, pp. 183–259.

McDevit, S.

N. C. Giles, S. Hwang, J. F. Schetzina, S. McDevit, C. J. Johnson, “The effect of high temperature anneal on the electrical and optical properties of bulk CdTe:In,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 2656–2665 (1988).
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S. Kurtin, T. C. McGill, C. A. Mead, “Fundamental transition in electronic nature of solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 1433 (1969).
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S. Kurtin, T. C. McGill, C. A. Mead, “Fundamental transition in electronic nature of solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 1433 (1969).
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Millerd, J.

A. Partovi, J. Millerd, E. M. Garmire, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, S. Trivedi, M. B. Klein, “Photorefractivity at 1.5 μm in CdTerV,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 846–848 (1990).
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A. Musa, J. P. Ponpon, J. J. Grob, H. Hage-Ali, R. Stuck, P. Siffert, “Properties of electroless gold contacts on p-type cadmium telluride,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3260–3268 (1983).
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C. Canali, M. A. Nicolet, J. W. Mayer, “Transient and steady state space-charge-limited current in CdTe,” Solid-State Electron. 18, 871–874 (1975).
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Owechko, Y.

Y. Owechko, A. R. Tanguay, “Theoretical resolution limitations of electro-optic spatial light modulators. I. Fundamental considerations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 635–643 (1984).
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Y. Owechko, A. R. Tanguay, “Theoretical resolution limitations of electro-optic spatial light modulators. II. Effects of crystallograpic orientation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 644–652 (1984).
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Y. Owechko, A. R. Tanguay, “Effects of crystallographic orientation on the electro-optic spatial light modulator amplitude and phase responses,” Opt. Commun. 44, 239–242 (1983).
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A. Partovi, J. Millerd, E. M. Garmire, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, S. Trivedi, M. B. Klein, “Photorefractivity at 1.5 μm in CdTerV,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 846–848 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, M. P.

M. P. Petrov, A. V. Khomenko, M. V. Krasin’kova, V. I. Marakhonov, M. G. Shlyagin, “The PRIZ image converter and its use in optical data processing systems modulators,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 26, 816–821 (1981).

M. P. Petrov, A. V. Khomenko, “Photorefractive crystals in PRIZ spatial light modulators,” in Photorefractive Materials and Their Application II, P. Gunter, J.-P. Huignard, eds. Vol. 62 of Topics in Applied Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 325–352.
[CrossRef]

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A. Musa, J. P. Ponpon, J. J. Grob, H. Hage-Ali, R. Stuck, P. Siffert, “Properties of electroless gold contacts on p-type cadmium telluride,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3260–3268 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rajbenbach, H.

H. Rajbenbach, J. M. Verdiell, J. P. Huignard, “Visualization of electrical domains in semi-insulating GaAs:Cr and potential use for variable grating mode operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 541–544 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ranon, P. N.

M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, P. N. Ranon, M. B. Klein, S. Trivedi, “Photorefractivity in ZnTe:V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1052–1054 (1992).
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C. T. Sah, V. G. K. Reddi, “Frequency dependence of the reverse biased capacitance of gold-doped silicon p+n step junctions,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-11, 345–349 (1964).
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C. T. Sah, V. G. K. Reddi, “Frequency dependence of the reverse biased capacitance of gold-doped silicon p+n step junctions,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-11, 345–349 (1964).
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Saraie, J.

T. Takebe, J. Saraie, T. Tanaka, “Study of the surface barrier of the metal–n-CdTe contact,” Phys. Status Solidi A 47, 123–130 (1978).
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P. Sifferst, J. Berger, C. Scharager, A. Scaharager, A. Cornet, R. Stuck, R. O. Bell, H. B. Serreze, F. V. Wald, “Polarization in cadmium telluride nuclear radiation detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-23, 159–170 (1976).
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Scharager, C.

P. Sifferst, J. Berger, C. Scharager, A. Scaharager, A. Cornet, R. Stuck, R. O. Bell, H. B. Serreze, F. V. Wald, “Polarization in cadmium telluride nuclear radiation detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-23, 159–170 (1976).
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N. C. Giles, S. Hwang, J. F. Schetzina, S. McDevit, C. J. Johnson, “The effect of high temperature anneal on the electrical and optical properties of bulk CdTe:In,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 2656–2665 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Scott, S.

P. Tayebati, J. Kumar, S. Scott, “Photorefractive effect at 633 nm in semi-insulating cadmium sulfide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3366–3368 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Seipp, E.

H. Jaeger, E. Seipp, “Transition resistances of ohmic contacts to p-type CdTe and their time-dependent variation,” J. Electron. Mater. 10, 605–618 (1981).
[CrossRef]

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P. Sifferst, J. Berger, C. Scharager, A. Scaharager, A. Cornet, R. Stuck, R. O. Bell, H. B. Serreze, F. V. Wald, “Polarization in cadmium telluride nuclear radiation detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-23, 159–170 (1976).
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R. O. Bell, G. Entine, H. B. Serreze, “Time dependent polarization of CdTe gamma-ray detectors,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods 117, 267–271 (1974).
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M. P. Petrov, A. V. Khomenko, M. V. Krasin’kova, V. I. Marakhonov, M. G. Shlyagin, “The PRIZ image converter and its use in optical data processing systems modulators,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 26, 816–821 (1981).

Sifferst, P.

P. Sifferst, J. Berger, C. Scharager, A. Scaharager, A. Cornet, R. Stuck, R. O. Bell, H. B. Serreze, F. V. Wald, “Polarization in cadmium telluride nuclear radiation detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-23, 159–170 (1976).
[CrossRef]

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A. Musa, J. P. Ponpon, J. J. Grob, H. Hage-Ali, R. Stuck, P. Siffert, “Properties of electroless gold contacts on p-type cadmium telluride,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3260–3268 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sladkova, V. A.

P. G. Kasherininov, D. G. Matyukhin, V. A. Sladkova, “Nature of the nonlinearity of the lux-ampere charcteristics of metal–semiconductor–metal structures with semi-insulating cadmium telluride crystals,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 14, 763–766 (1980).

Steier, W. H.

M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, P. N. Ranon, M. B. Klein, S. Trivedi, “Photorefractivity in ZnTe:V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1052–1054 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Partovi, J. Millerd, E. M. Garmire, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, S. Trivedi, M. B. Klein, “Photorefractivity at 1.5 μm in CdTerV,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 846–848 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Steier, J. Kumar, M. Ziari, “Opto-optical switching in the infrared using CdTe,” Opt. Lett. 14, 224–227 (1989).
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W. H. Steier, J. Kumar, M. Ziari, “Infrared power limiting and self switching in CdTe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 840–841 (1988).
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M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, “Optically controlled space charge fields under the electrode region in cadmium telluride,” in Photo-Induced Space Charge Effects in Semiconductors: Electro-optic, Photoconductivity, and the Photorefractive Effect, MRS Symp. Proc. 261, D. D. Nolte, N. M. Haegel, K. W. Goossen, eds. (Material Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa, 1992), pp. 107–112.

M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, “Dynamic optical interconnection branch device using the optically controlled nonuniform electric field distribution in CdTe,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 18 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 52.

M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, “Optical switching in photorefractive cadmium telluride using the optically controlled nonuniform electric field distribution,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 146–147.

M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, “Optically induced and charge-transport-assisted electroabsorptive and electro-optic nonlinearity in cadmium telluride,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 15 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 138.

Stuck, R.

A. Musa, J. P. Ponpon, J. J. Grob, H. Hage-Ali, R. Stuck, P. Siffert, “Properties of electroless gold contacts on p-type cadmium telluride,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3260–3268 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. Sifferst, J. Berger, C. Scharager, A. Scaharager, A. Cornet, R. Stuck, R. O. Bell, H. B. Serreze, F. V. Wald, “Polarization in cadmium telluride nuclear radiation detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-23, 159–170 (1976).
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T. Takebe, J. Saraie, T. Tanaka, “Study of the surface barrier of the metal–n-CdTe contact,” Phys. Status Solidi A 47, 123–130 (1978).
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A. Tanguay, “Material requirements for optical processing and computing devices,” Opt. Eng. 24, 2–18 (1985).

Tanguay, A. R.

Y. Owechko, A. R. Tanguay, “Theoretical resolution limitations of electro-optic spatial light modulators. I. Fundamental considerations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 635–643 (1984).
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Y. Owechko, A. R. Tanguay, “Theoretical resolution limitations of electro-optic spatial light modulators. II. Effects of crystallograpic orientation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 644–652 (1984).
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Y. Owechko, A. R. Tanguay, “Effects of crystallographic orientation on the electro-optic spatial light modulator amplitude and phase responses,” Opt. Commun. 44, 239–242 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Herbulock, M. H. Garrett, A. R. Tanguay, “Electric field profile effects on photorefractive grating formation in bismuth silicon oxide,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 11 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 143–144.

Tayebati, P.

P. Tayebati, J. Kumar, S. Scott, “Photorefractive effect at 633 nm in semi-insulating cadmium sulfide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3366–3368 (1991).
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J. Touskova, R. Kuzel, “Fundamental properties of Au–CdTe metal-semiconductor contact,” Phys. Status Solidi A 36, 747–755 (1976).
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Triboulet, R.

T. Ido, A. Heurtel, R. Triboulet, Y. Marfaing, “Deep level structure and compensation mechanism in In-doped CdTe crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 48, 781–790 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Trivedi, S.

M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, P. N. Ranon, M. B. Klein, S. Trivedi, “Photorefractivity in ZnTe:V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1052–1054 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Partovi, J. Millerd, E. M. Garmire, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, S. Trivedi, M. B. Klein, “Photorefractivity at 1.5 μm in CdTerV,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 846–848 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Verdiell, J. M.

H. Rajbenbach, J. M. Verdiell, J. P. Huignard, “Visualization of electrical domains in semi-insulating GaAs:Cr and potential use for variable grating mode operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 541–544 (1988).
[CrossRef]

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P. Sifferst, J. Berger, C. Scharager, A. Scaharager, A. Cornet, R. Stuck, R. O. Bell, H. B. Serreze, F. V. Wald, “Polarization in cadmium telluride nuclear radiation detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-23, 159–170 (1976).
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M. Martini, J. W. Mayer, K. R. Zanio, “Drift velocity and trapping in semiconductors: transient charge technique,” in Applied Solid-State Science, R. Wolfe, eds. (Academic, New York, 1972), Vol. 3, pp. 183–259.

Ziari, M.

M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, P. N. Ranon, M. B. Klein, S. Trivedi, “Photorefractivity in ZnTe:V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1052–1054 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Partovi, J. Millerd, E. M. Garmire, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, S. Trivedi, M. B. Klein, “Photorefractivity at 1.5 μm in CdTerV,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 846–848 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Steier, J. Kumar, M. Ziari, “Opto-optical switching in the infrared using CdTe,” Opt. Lett. 14, 224–227 (1989).
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W. H. Steier, J. Kumar, M. Ziari, “Infrared power limiting and self switching in CdTe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 840–841 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Ziari, “Charge transport assisted optical nonlinear effects in cadmium telluride and related compounds: materials and devices,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif., 1992).

M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, “Optically controlled space charge fields under the electrode region in cadmium telluride,” in Photo-Induced Space Charge Effects in Semiconductors: Electro-optic, Photoconductivity, and the Photorefractive Effect, MRS Symp. Proc. 261, D. D. Nolte, N. M. Haegel, K. W. Goossen, eds. (Material Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa, 1992), pp. 107–112.

M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, “Optically induced and charge-transport-assisted electroabsorptive and electro-optic nonlinearity in cadmium telluride,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 15 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 138.

M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, “Optical switching in photorefractive cadmium telluride using the optically controlled nonuniform electric field distribution,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 146–147.

M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, “Dynamic optical interconnection branch device using the optically controlled nonuniform electric field distribution in CdTe,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 18 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 52.

Appl. Opt. (1)

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D. T. H. Liu, L. Cheng, J. Kim, “Applied electric field effect on photorefractive GaAs,” in Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices, Vol. 14 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 115–158.

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M. Ziari, “Charge transport assisted optical nonlinear effects in cadmium telluride and related compounds: materials and devices,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif., 1992).

M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, “Optically controlled space charge fields under the electrode region in cadmium telluride,” in Photo-Induced Space Charge Effects in Semiconductors: Electro-optic, Photoconductivity, and the Photorefractive Effect, MRS Symp. Proc. 261, D. D. Nolte, N. M. Haegel, K. W. Goossen, eds. (Material Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa, 1992), pp. 107–112.

M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, “Dynamic optical interconnection branch device using the optically controlled nonuniform electric field distribution in CdTe,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 18 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 52.

M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, “Optical switching in photorefractive cadmium telluride using the optically controlled nonuniform electric field distribution,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 146–147.

M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, “Optically induced and charge-transport-assisted electroabsorptive and electro-optic nonlinearity in cadmium telluride,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 15 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 138.

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M. P. Petrov, A. V. Khomenko, “Photorefractive crystals in PRIZ spatial light modulators,” in Photorefractive Materials and Their Application II, P. Gunter, J.-P. Huignard, eds. Vol. 62 of Topics in Applied Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 325–352.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectrum of In-doped CdTe.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for transverse electro-optic imaging (TEOI). The analyzer and polarizer are oriented at +45° and −45° with respect to the 〈111〉 axis of the CdTe:In sample. The iris is positioned such that the image of the region under the electrode passes through to the photodetector. B.S., beam splitter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) TEOI view under an external illumination at 900 nm and at an applied voltage of 500 V. The negative electrode is the left vertical border of the photograph, and the positive electrode is the right vertical border. The dark and bright patterns under the negative electrode (left) and caused by multiple 90° rotations of the polarization. (b) Pictorial illustration of the field distribution.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Electro-optic mapping of the field distribution in CdTe:In. The data points are in units of Eπ, which is estimated to be ~8.5 kV/cm (±10%). The sample thickness and the interaction lengths were 1.5 and 10 mm, respectively. The electrode ITO coating was limited to an area of 0.9 × 0.9 mm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) TEOI view with an external illumination at 835 nm and at an applied voltage of 500 V. The negative electrode is the left vertical border of the photograph, and the positive electrode is the right vertical border. The dark area under the negative electrode (left) signifies a field-free region, (b) Pictorial illustration of the field distribution.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Field distribution according to Eq. (6) for a deep-level density of N = 8.5 × 1012cm−3. The value of Eπ is 8.5 kV/cm. The distribution is a function of the position in the vicinity of the negative electrode.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transverse and longitudinal field components. The negative electrode is negatively charged. The positive-charge distribution in the bulk follows the illumination pattern. The magnitude and direction of the electric field is governed by the Poisson equation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

One-dimensional optically controlled switching array. The control beams are applied from the top transparent ITO electrode and create or erase the longitudinal field seen by the signal beam. The polarized signal beam is modulated (on/off) or routed by the polarizer.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Principle operation mode of the 1-D switching array. The top trace presents the erase (20 μW/cm−2 at 835 nm) and write (7.5 mW/cm−2 at 900 nm) control beams. The time scale is 20 μs/division. The lower trace is the transmission at 1.5 μm. The application of the erasure beam reduces the transmission to low (off) and the write control sets it high (on). The transmission stays high (latched) until the next erasure pulse is applied.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Optical interconnection branch. The signal is routed to either channel (1, 2, or both) depending on the state of the control input.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Erasure time versus the intensity at 835 nm. The applied voltage is 100 V. The fit has a slope of −1 in the log-log scale.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Absorption spectrum of CdTe:In near the band edge.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Write time versus the intensity at 900 and 877.5 nm. The applied voltage is 100 V. The slope is −0.75 in the log-log scale.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Dependence of erasure time versus the applied voltage. The incident erasure intensity at 835 nm is 5.6 mW/cm−2. A low-intensity write beam was incident upon the sample during this measurement.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Transmitted image of the 1-D switching array. The applied voltage is 200 V. The incident intensity at 844 nm is 85 μW/cm−2.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Nonlinear intensity transmission of an electroabsorption modulation at 852 nm. The simulation curve for the nonlinear transmission corresponds to Eq. (A7). The quadratic fit is to Eq. (A5).

Equations (13)

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T ( x ) = sin 2 [ Γ ( x ) / 2 ] ,
Γ ( x ) = π 3 L λ n 3 r 41 E ( x ) ,
T ( x ) = sin 2 [ π 2 E ( x ) E π ] ,
E π = λ L 3 n 3 r 41 .
W = ( 0 r e N 2 V 0 ) 0 . 5 ,
| E ( x ) | = e N 0 r ( W x ) .
d I ( x ) d ( x ) = α ( x ) I ( x ) .
α ( x ) = a + b x + c x 2 ,
I ( x ) = I 0 exp ( a x + b 2 x 2 + c 3 x 3 ) .
α ( x ) = α lin + k E ( x ) 2 ,
I ( d ) = I 0 exp ( α lin d ) exp ( k V 0 2 d ) .
a = k ( e N ) 2 W 2 + α lin , b = 2 k ( e N ) 2 W , c = k ( e N ) 2 ,
I ( d ) = I 0 exp ( α lin d ) exp [ k 3 ( e N ) 2 W 3 ] ,

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