Abstract

Experiments are conducted to determine the degree of moisture effects in optical thin-film coatings, to determine how to specify moisture stability of these films, and to ensure that performance levels are met after these films are exposed to all anticipated environmental conditions. Three testing techniques, an air oven, a vacuum oven, and water immersion, are evaluated to determine which techniques best characterize the moisture stability of these films. The filters tested fall into three categories, based on their degree of stability: type I, which are inherently stable, type II, which are basically stable except under extreme conditions, and type III, which are unstable.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. A. Macleod, “Microstructure of optical thin films,” in Optical Thin Films, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.325, 21–28 (1982).
  2. T. D. Stefaniak, “Stability of hard coating filters,” in Thin Film Technologies II, J. R. Jacobsson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.652, 339–340 (1986).
  3. K. H. Guenther, “Recent advances in reactive ion plating deposition,” in Optical Thin Films III: New Developments, I. R. Seddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1323, 29–39 (1990).
  4. B. J. Pond, H. Neusbaum, T. C. Du, T. Sobczak, R. A. Schmell, C. K. Carniglia, R. Petty, J. Johnston, G. B. Charlton, “Measurements of spectral shift and stress versus relativehumidity in multilayer coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1992), pp. 386–388.
  5. J. R. McNeil, A. C. Barron, S. R. Wilson, W. C. Herrmann, “Ion-assisted deposition of optical thin films: low energy vs high energy bombardment,” Appl. Opt. 23, 552–559 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. G. Saze, M. J. Messerly, B. Bovard, L. DeSanche, F. J. Van Milligen, H. A. Macleod, “Ion bombardment-induced retarded moisture adsorption inoptical thin filmsAppl. Opt.,” 23, 3633–3637 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. D. Targove, J. P. Lehan, L. L. Lingg, H. A. Macleod, J. A. Leavitt, L. C. McIntyre, “Ion-assisted deposition of lanthanum fluoride thin films,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3733–3737 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

1984 (2)

Barron, A. C.

Bovard, B.

Carniglia, C. K.

B. J. Pond, H. Neusbaum, T. C. Du, T. Sobczak, R. A. Schmell, C. K. Carniglia, R. Petty, J. Johnston, G. B. Charlton, “Measurements of spectral shift and stress versus relativehumidity in multilayer coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1992), pp. 386–388.

Charlton, G. B.

B. J. Pond, H. Neusbaum, T. C. Du, T. Sobczak, R. A. Schmell, C. K. Carniglia, R. Petty, J. Johnston, G. B. Charlton, “Measurements of spectral shift and stress versus relativehumidity in multilayer coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1992), pp. 386–388.

DeSanche, L.

Du, T. C.

B. J. Pond, H. Neusbaum, T. C. Du, T. Sobczak, R. A. Schmell, C. K. Carniglia, R. Petty, J. Johnston, G. B. Charlton, “Measurements of spectral shift and stress versus relativehumidity in multilayer coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1992), pp. 386–388.

Guenther, K. H.

K. H. Guenther, “Recent advances in reactive ion plating deposition,” in Optical Thin Films III: New Developments, I. R. Seddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1323, 29–39 (1990).

Herrmann, W. C.

Johnston, J.

B. J. Pond, H. Neusbaum, T. C. Du, T. Sobczak, R. A. Schmell, C. K. Carniglia, R. Petty, J. Johnston, G. B. Charlton, “Measurements of spectral shift and stress versus relativehumidity in multilayer coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1992), pp. 386–388.

Leavitt, J. A.

Lehan, J. P.

Lingg, L. L.

Macleod, H. A.

McIntyre, L. C.

McNeil, J. R.

Messerly, M. J.

Neusbaum, H.

B. J. Pond, H. Neusbaum, T. C. Du, T. Sobczak, R. A. Schmell, C. K. Carniglia, R. Petty, J. Johnston, G. B. Charlton, “Measurements of spectral shift and stress versus relativehumidity in multilayer coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1992), pp. 386–388.

Petty, R.

B. J. Pond, H. Neusbaum, T. C. Du, T. Sobczak, R. A. Schmell, C. K. Carniglia, R. Petty, J. Johnston, G. B. Charlton, “Measurements of spectral shift and stress versus relativehumidity in multilayer coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1992), pp. 386–388.

Pond, B. J.

B. J. Pond, H. Neusbaum, T. C. Du, T. Sobczak, R. A. Schmell, C. K. Carniglia, R. Petty, J. Johnston, G. B. Charlton, “Measurements of spectral shift and stress versus relativehumidity in multilayer coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1992), pp. 386–388.

Saze, S. G.

Schmell, R. A.

B. J. Pond, H. Neusbaum, T. C. Du, T. Sobczak, R. A. Schmell, C. K. Carniglia, R. Petty, J. Johnston, G. B. Charlton, “Measurements of spectral shift and stress versus relativehumidity in multilayer coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1992), pp. 386–388.

Sobczak, T.

B. J. Pond, H. Neusbaum, T. C. Du, T. Sobczak, R. A. Schmell, C. K. Carniglia, R. Petty, J. Johnston, G. B. Charlton, “Measurements of spectral shift and stress versus relativehumidity in multilayer coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1992), pp. 386–388.

Stefaniak, T. D.

T. D. Stefaniak, “Stability of hard coating filters,” in Thin Film Technologies II, J. R. Jacobsson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.652, 339–340 (1986).

Targove, J. D.

Van Milligen, F. J.

Wilson, S. R.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Other (4)

H. A. Macleod, “Microstructure of optical thin films,” in Optical Thin Films, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.325, 21–28 (1982).

T. D. Stefaniak, “Stability of hard coating filters,” in Thin Film Technologies II, J. R. Jacobsson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.652, 339–340 (1986).

K. H. Guenther, “Recent advances in reactive ion plating deposition,” in Optical Thin Films III: New Developments, I. R. Seddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1323, 29–39 (1990).

B. J. Pond, H. Neusbaum, T. C. Du, T. Sobczak, R. A. Schmell, C. K. Carniglia, R. Petty, J. Johnston, G. B. Charlton, “Measurements of spectral shift and stress versus relativehumidity in multilayer coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1992), pp. 386–388.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Example of filter transmission versus wavelength for notch and blocking filters on one surface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Equipment arrangement for tests made with an air oven or a vacuum oven.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral shift versus time for four-notch filters in an air oven (starting from ambient temperature and RH and ending at 100 °C). We have separated identical shift values of 0.3 nm by plotting them 0.01 nm apart.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral shift versus time for four-blocker filters in an air oven (starting from ambient temperature and RH).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral shift versus time for three-notch filters in a vacuum oven (starting from ambient temperature and RH).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral shift versus time for three-blocker filters in a vacuum oven (starting from ambient temperature and RH).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectral shift versus time for blocker immersed in water (starting from a soak at 100 °C).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectral shift versus time for blocker in a 100 °C air oven (starting from water immersion for several days).

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