Abstract

Coating stress and spectral shift are affected by changing from ambient to vacuum environments. This change can affect optical systems that are aligned in air and used in a vacuum or in a dry environment. Spectral shifts up to 3% and reflected wave-front changes up to 0.35 waves peak to valley are reported for conventional electron-beam deposition and ion-assisted deposition. Alternatively, ion-beam sputtered coatings have virtually no changes between different pressure environments.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O'Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 392–393 (1991).
  2. H. R. Aldag, “The development of a high average power dye laser,” in Technical Digest for the International Conference on Laser 89′ (STS, McLean, Va., 1989), paper HG.1.
  3. R. G. Morton, V. G. Draggoo, “Reliable High Average Power High Pulse Energy Dye Laser,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1981), pp. ThS7-1–ThS7-2.
  4. I. L. Bass, R. E. Bonanno, R. P. Hackel, P. R. Hammond, “High-average-power dye laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6993–7006 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. K. Pulker, E. Jung, “Correlation between film structure and sorption behaviour of vapour deposited ZnS, cryolite, and MgF2 films,” Thin Solid Films 9, 57–66 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. A. Macleod, “Structure-related optical properties of thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 418–422 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. K. Pulker, “Stres, adherence, hardness, and density of optical thin films,” in Optical Thin Films, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.325, 84–92 (1982).
  8. H. K. Pulker, J. Maser, “The origin of mechanical stress in vacuum-deposited MgF2 and ZnS films,” Thin Solid Films 59, 65–76 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Kinosita, M. Nishibori, “Porosity of MgF2 films–evaluation based on changes in refractive index due to adsorption of vapors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 6, 730–733 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Ogura, N. Sugawara, R. Hiraga, “Refractive index and packing density for MgF2 films: correlation of temperature dependence with water sorption,” Thin Solid Films 30, 3–10 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. A. Macleod, “Microstructure of optical thin films,” in Optical Thin Films, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.325, 21–28 (1982).
  12. S. Ogura, H. A. Macleod, “Water sorption phenomena in optical thin films,” Thin Solid Films 34, 371–375 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. J. Martin, H. A. Macleod, R. P. Netterfield, C. G. Pacey, W. G. Sainty, “Ion-beam-assisted deposition of thin films,” Appl. Opt. 22, 178–184 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, “Modification of the optical and structural properties of dielectric ZrO2 films by ion-assisted deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 235–241 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, P. J. Martin, S. H. Sie, “Properties of CeO2 thin films prepared by oxygen-ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2267–2272 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. Gurtler, U. Jeschknowski, E. Conrath, “Experiences with the reactive low voltage ion plating in optical thin film production,” in Thin Film Technologies III, K. H. Guenther, H. K. Pulker, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1019, 179–183 (1988).
  17. W. C. Herrmann, D. E. Morton, “Thin-film coating filter stability under different environmental conditions,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
  18. H. K. Pulker, J. Edlinger, M. Buhler, “Ion plating optical films,” in Sixth International Conference on Ion and Plasma Assisted Techniques (CEP Consultants, Edinburgh, 1987), pp. 371–381.
  19. J. Edlinger, J. Ramm, H. K. Pulker, “Stability of the spectral characteristics of ion plated interference filters,” in Thin Film Technologies III, K. H. Guenther, H. K. Pulker, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1019, 179–183 (1988).
  20. F. L. Williams, J. J. McNally, G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. R. McNeil, “Summary abstract: Low-temperature deposition of optical coatings using assisted deposition techniques,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 2159–2161 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. J. McNally, “Properties of optical thin films deposited using ion assisted deposition,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.678, 151–159 (1986).
  22. T. M. Donovan, P. A. Temple, S.-C. Wu, T. A. Tombrello, “The relative importance of interface and volume absorptions in optical coatings,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1979, H. E. Bennett, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newman, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.568, 237–246 (1979).
  23. B. E. Cole, J. J. Moravec, R. G. Ahonen, L. B. Ehlert, “The use of ion beam sputtered optical coatings as protective overcoats,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 372–375 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. T. Pawlewicz, T. R. Culver, J. H. Zachistal, E. J. Prevost, J. D. Traylor, C. E. Wheeler, “Ion assisted evaporative coatings of 2-meter optics,” in Large Optics II, R. E. Parks, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1618, 1–13 (1991).
  25. A. E. Ennos, “Stresses developed in optical film coatings,” Appl. Opt. 5, 51–61 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. H. Windischmann, “Intrinsic stress in sputtered thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2431–2436 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  27. B. J. Pond, J. I. DeBar, C. K. Carniglia, T. Raj, “Stress reduction of ion-beam-sputtered mixed-oxide coatings by baking,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1988, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newman, M. J. Solieau, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.775, 311–319 (1988).
  28. R. Rastogi, V. Dharmadhikari, A. Diebold, “Stress variation with temperature time and its correlation to film structure and deposition parameters,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2453–2458 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Murakami, “Deformation in thin films by thermal strain,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2469–2476 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. Priest, H. L. Caswell, Y. Budo, “Mechanical stresses in silicon oxide films,” Vacuum 12, 301–306 (1962).
    [CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (3)

H. Windischmann, “Intrinsic stress in sputtered thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2431–2436 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Rastogi, V. Dharmadhikari, A. Diebold, “Stress variation with temperature time and its correlation to film structure and deposition parameters,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2453–2458 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Murakami, “Deformation in thin films by thermal strain,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2469–2476 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

F. L. Williams, J. J. McNally, G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. R. McNeil, “Summary abstract: Low-temperature deposition of optical coatings using assisted deposition techniques,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 2159–2161 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

S. Ogura, H. A. Macleod, “Water sorption phenomena in optical thin films,” Thin Solid Films 34, 371–375 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Macleod, “Structure-related optical properties of thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 418–422 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1984 (2)

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, “Modification of the optical and structural properties of dielectric ZrO2 films by ion-assisted deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 235–241 (1984).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Cole, J. J. Moravec, R. G. Ahonen, L. B. Ehlert, “The use of ion beam sputtered optical coatings as protective overcoats,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 372–375 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1979 (1)

H. K. Pulker, J. Maser, “The origin of mechanical stress in vacuum-deposited MgF2 and ZnS films,” Thin Solid Films 59, 65–76 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

S. Ogura, N. Sugawara, R. Hiraga, “Refractive index and packing density for MgF2 films: correlation of temperature dependence with water sorption,” Thin Solid Films 30, 3–10 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

H. K. Pulker, E. Jung, “Correlation between film structure and sorption behaviour of vapour deposited ZnS, cryolite, and MgF2 films,” Thin Solid Films 9, 57–66 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

K. Kinosita, M. Nishibori, “Porosity of MgF2 films–evaluation based on changes in refractive index due to adsorption of vapors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 6, 730–733 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

1962 (1)

J. Priest, H. L. Caswell, Y. Budo, “Mechanical stresses in silicon oxide films,” Vacuum 12, 301–306 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Ahonen, R. G.

B. E. Cole, J. J. Moravec, R. G. Ahonen, L. B. Ehlert, “The use of ion beam sputtered optical coatings as protective overcoats,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 372–375 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Aldag, H. R.

H. R. Aldag, “The development of a high average power dye laser,” in Technical Digest for the International Conference on Laser 89′ (STS, McLean, Va., 1989), paper HG.1.

Al-Jumaily, G. A.

F. L. Williams, J. J. McNally, G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. R. McNeil, “Summary abstract: Low-temperature deposition of optical coatings using assisted deposition techniques,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 2159–2161 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bass, I. L.

I. L. Bass, R. E. Bonanno, R. P. Hackel, P. R. Hammond, “High-average-power dye laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6993–7006 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O'Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 392–393 (1991).

Bliss, E. S.

I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O'Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 392–393 (1991).

Bonanno, R. E.

I. L. Bass, R. E. Bonanno, R. P. Hackel, P. R. Hammond, “High-average-power dye laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6993–7006 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O'Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 392–393 (1991).

Budo, Y.

J. Priest, H. L. Caswell, Y. Budo, “Mechanical stresses in silicon oxide films,” Vacuum 12, 301–306 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Buhler, M.

H. K. Pulker, J. Edlinger, M. Buhler, “Ion plating optical films,” in Sixth International Conference on Ion and Plasma Assisted Techniques (CEP Consultants, Edinburgh, 1987), pp. 371–381.

Carniglia, C. K.

B. J. Pond, J. I. DeBar, C. K. Carniglia, T. Raj, “Stress reduction of ion-beam-sputtered mixed-oxide coatings by baking,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1988, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newman, M. J. Solieau, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.775, 311–319 (1988).

Castle, P.

I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O'Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 392–393 (1991).

Caswell, H. L.

J. Priest, H. L. Caswell, Y. Budo, “Mechanical stresses in silicon oxide films,” Vacuum 12, 301–306 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Cole, B. E.

B. E. Cole, J. J. Moravec, R. G. Ahonen, L. B. Ehlert, “The use of ion beam sputtered optical coatings as protective overcoats,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 372–375 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Conrath, E.

K. Gurtler, U. Jeschknowski, E. Conrath, “Experiences with the reactive low voltage ion plating in optical thin film production,” in Thin Film Technologies III, K. H. Guenther, H. K. Pulker, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1019, 179–183 (1988).

Culver, T. R.

W. T. Pawlewicz, T. R. Culver, J. H. Zachistal, E. J. Prevost, J. D. Traylor, C. E. Wheeler, “Ion assisted evaporative coatings of 2-meter optics,” in Large Optics II, R. E. Parks, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1618, 1–13 (1991).

DeBar, J. I.

B. J. Pond, J. I. DeBar, C. K. Carniglia, T. Raj, “Stress reduction of ion-beam-sputtered mixed-oxide coatings by baking,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1988, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newman, M. J. Solieau, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.775, 311–319 (1988).

Dharmadhikari, V.

R. Rastogi, V. Dharmadhikari, A. Diebold, “Stress variation with temperature time and its correlation to film structure and deposition parameters,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2453–2458 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Diebold, A.

R. Rastogi, V. Dharmadhikari, A. Diebold, “Stress variation with temperature time and its correlation to film structure and deposition parameters,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2453–2458 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Donovan, T. M.

T. M. Donovan, P. A. Temple, S.-C. Wu, T. A. Tombrello, “The relative importance of interface and volume absorptions in optical coatings,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1979, H. E. Bennett, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newman, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.568, 237–246 (1979).

Draggoo, V. G.

R. G. Morton, V. G. Draggoo, “Reliable High Average Power High Pulse Energy Dye Laser,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1981), pp. ThS7-1–ThS7-2.

Edlinger, J.

J. Edlinger, J. Ramm, H. K. Pulker, “Stability of the spectral characteristics of ion plated interference filters,” in Thin Film Technologies III, K. H. Guenther, H. K. Pulker, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1019, 179–183 (1988).

H. K. Pulker, J. Edlinger, M. Buhler, “Ion plating optical films,” in Sixth International Conference on Ion and Plasma Assisted Techniques (CEP Consultants, Edinburgh, 1987), pp. 371–381.

Ehlert, L. B.

B. E. Cole, J. J. Moravec, R. G. Ahonen, L. B. Ehlert, “The use of ion beam sputtered optical coatings as protective overcoats,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 372–375 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ennos, A. E.

Feldman, M.

I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O'Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 392–393 (1991).

Gurtler, K.

K. Gurtler, U. Jeschknowski, E. Conrath, “Experiences with the reactive low voltage ion plating in optical thin film production,” in Thin Film Technologies III, K. H. Guenther, H. K. Pulker, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1019, 179–183 (1988).

Hackel, R. P.

I. L. Bass, R. E. Bonanno, R. P. Hackel, P. R. Hammond, “High-average-power dye laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6993–7006 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O'Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 392–393 (1991).

Hammond, P.

I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O'Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 392–393 (1991).

Hammond, P. R.

Herrmann, W. C.

W. C. Herrmann, D. E. Morton, “Thin-film coating filter stability under different environmental conditions,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Hiraga, R.

S. Ogura, N. Sugawara, R. Hiraga, “Refractive index and packing density for MgF2 films: correlation of temperature dependence with water sorption,” Thin Solid Films 30, 3–10 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Jeschknowski, U.

K. Gurtler, U. Jeschknowski, E. Conrath, “Experiences with the reactive low voltage ion plating in optical thin film production,” in Thin Film Technologies III, K. H. Guenther, H. K. Pulker, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1019, 179–183 (1988).

Johnson, S. A.

I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O'Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 392–393 (1991).

Jung, E.

H. K. Pulker, E. Jung, “Correlation between film structure and sorption behaviour of vapour deposited ZnS, cryolite, and MgF2 films,” Thin Solid Films 9, 57–66 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kichinski, R.

I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O'Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 392–393 (1991).

Kinosita, K.

K. Kinosita, M. Nishibori, “Porosity of MgF2 films–evaluation based on changes in refractive index due to adsorption of vapors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 6, 730–733 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, “Structure-related optical properties of thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 418–422 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. Ogura, H. A. Macleod, “Water sorption phenomena in optical thin films,” Thin Solid Films 34, 371–375 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Martin, H. A. Macleod, R. P. Netterfield, C. G. Pacey, W. G. Sainty, “Ion-beam-assisted deposition of thin films,” Appl. Opt. 22, 178–184 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Macleod, “Microstructure of optical thin films,” in Optical Thin Films, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.325, 21–28 (1982).

Martin, P. J.

Maser, J.

H. K. Pulker, J. Maser, “The origin of mechanical stress in vacuum-deposited MgF2 and ZnS films,” Thin Solid Films 59, 65–76 (1979).
[CrossRef]

McNally, J. J.

F. L. Williams, J. J. McNally, G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. R. McNeil, “Summary abstract: Low-temperature deposition of optical coatings using assisted deposition techniques,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 2159–2161 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. J. McNally, “Properties of optical thin films deposited using ion assisted deposition,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.678, 151–159 (1986).

McNeil, J. R.

F. L. Williams, J. J. McNally, G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. R. McNeil, “Summary abstract: Low-temperature deposition of optical coatings using assisted deposition techniques,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 2159–2161 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Moravec, J. J.

B. E. Cole, J. J. Moravec, R. G. Ahonen, L. B. Ehlert, “The use of ion beam sputtered optical coatings as protective overcoats,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 372–375 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Morton, D. E.

W. C. Herrmann, D. E. Morton, “Thin-film coating filter stability under different environmental conditions,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Morton, R. G.

R. G. Morton, V. G. Draggoo, “Reliable High Average Power High Pulse Energy Dye Laser,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1981), pp. ThS7-1–ThS7-2.

Murakami, M.

M. Murakami, “Deformation in thin films by thermal strain,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2469–2476 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Neeb, K.

I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O'Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 392–393 (1991).

Netterfield, R. P.

Nishibori, M.

K. Kinosita, M. Nishibori, “Porosity of MgF2 films–evaluation based on changes in refractive index due to adsorption of vapors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 6, 730–733 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Ogura, S.

S. Ogura, H. A. Macleod, “Water sorption phenomena in optical thin films,” Thin Solid Films 34, 371–375 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. Ogura, N. Sugawara, R. Hiraga, “Refractive index and packing density for MgF2 films: correlation of temperature dependence with water sorption,” Thin Solid Films 30, 3–10 (1975).
[CrossRef]

O'Neil, R. W.

I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O'Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 392–393 (1991).

Pacey, C. G.

Paisner, J. A.

I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O'Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 392–393 (1991).

Paris, R. D.

I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O'Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 392–393 (1991).

Pawlewicz, W. T.

W. T. Pawlewicz, T. R. Culver, J. H. Zachistal, E. J. Prevost, J. D. Traylor, C. E. Wheeler, “Ion assisted evaporative coatings of 2-meter optics,” in Large Optics II, R. E. Parks, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1618, 1–13 (1991).

Pond, B. J.

B. J. Pond, J. I. DeBar, C. K. Carniglia, T. Raj, “Stress reduction of ion-beam-sputtered mixed-oxide coatings by baking,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1988, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newman, M. J. Solieau, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.775, 311–319 (1988).

Prevost, E. J.

W. T. Pawlewicz, T. R. Culver, J. H. Zachistal, E. J. Prevost, J. D. Traylor, C. E. Wheeler, “Ion assisted evaporative coatings of 2-meter optics,” in Large Optics II, R. E. Parks, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1618, 1–13 (1991).

Priest, J.

J. Priest, H. L. Caswell, Y. Budo, “Mechanical stresses in silicon oxide films,” Vacuum 12, 301–306 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Pulker, H. K.

H. K. Pulker, J. Maser, “The origin of mechanical stress in vacuum-deposited MgF2 and ZnS films,” Thin Solid Films 59, 65–76 (1979).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Pulker, E. Jung, “Correlation between film structure and sorption behaviour of vapour deposited ZnS, cryolite, and MgF2 films,” Thin Solid Films 9, 57–66 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Edlinger, J. Ramm, H. K. Pulker, “Stability of the spectral characteristics of ion plated interference filters,” in Thin Film Technologies III, K. H. Guenther, H. K. Pulker, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1019, 179–183 (1988).

H. K. Pulker, J. Edlinger, M. Buhler, “Ion plating optical films,” in Sixth International Conference on Ion and Plasma Assisted Techniques (CEP Consultants, Edinburgh, 1987), pp. 371–381.

H. K. Pulker, “Stres, adherence, hardness, and density of optical thin films,” in Optical Thin Films, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.325, 84–92 (1982).

Raj, T.

B. J. Pond, J. I. DeBar, C. K. Carniglia, T. Raj, “Stress reduction of ion-beam-sputtered mixed-oxide coatings by baking,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1988, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newman, M. J. Solieau, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.775, 311–319 (1988).

Ramm, J.

J. Edlinger, J. Ramm, H. K. Pulker, “Stability of the spectral characteristics of ion plated interference filters,” in Thin Film Technologies III, K. H. Guenther, H. K. Pulker, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1019, 179–183 (1988).

Rastogi, R.

R. Rastogi, V. Dharmadhikari, A. Diebold, “Stress variation with temperature time and its correlation to film structure and deposition parameters,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2453–2458 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sainty, W. G.

Salmon, J. T.

I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O'Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 392–393 (1991).

Sie, S. H.

Sugawara, N.

S. Ogura, N. Sugawara, R. Hiraga, “Refractive index and packing density for MgF2 films: correlation of temperature dependence with water sorption,” Thin Solid Films 30, 3–10 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Temple, P. A.

T. M. Donovan, P. A. Temple, S.-C. Wu, T. A. Tombrello, “The relative importance of interface and volume absorptions in optical coatings,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1979, H. E. Bennett, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newman, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.568, 237–246 (1979).

Tombrello, T. A.

T. M. Donovan, P. A. Temple, S.-C. Wu, T. A. Tombrello, “The relative importance of interface and volume absorptions in optical coatings,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1979, H. E. Bennett, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newman, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.568, 237–246 (1979).

Traylor, J. D.

W. T. Pawlewicz, T. R. Culver, J. H. Zachistal, E. J. Prevost, J. D. Traylor, C. E. Wheeler, “Ion assisted evaporative coatings of 2-meter optics,” in Large Optics II, R. E. Parks, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1618, 1–13 (1991).

Wheeler, C. E.

W. T. Pawlewicz, T. R. Culver, J. H. Zachistal, E. J. Prevost, J. D. Traylor, C. E. Wheeler, “Ion assisted evaporative coatings of 2-meter optics,” in Large Optics II, R. E. Parks, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1618, 1–13 (1991).

Williams, F. L.

F. L. Williams, J. J. McNally, G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. R. McNeil, “Summary abstract: Low-temperature deposition of optical coatings using assisted deposition techniques,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 2159–2161 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Windischmann, H.

H. Windischmann, “Intrinsic stress in sputtered thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2431–2436 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-C.

T. M. Donovan, P. A. Temple, S.-C. Wu, T. A. Tombrello, “The relative importance of interface and volume absorptions in optical coatings,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1979, H. E. Bennett, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newman, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.568, 237–246 (1979).

Zachistal, J. H.

W. T. Pawlewicz, T. R. Culver, J. H. Zachistal, E. J. Prevost, J. D. Traylor, C. E. Wheeler, “Ion assisted evaporative coatings of 2-meter optics,” in Large Optics II, R. E. Parks, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1618, 1–13 (1991).

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, “Modification of the optical and structural properties of dielectric ZrO2 films by ion-assisted deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 235–241 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

K. Kinosita, M. Nishibori, “Porosity of MgF2 films–evaluation based on changes in refractive index due to adsorption of vapors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 6, 730–733 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (6)

F. L. Williams, J. J. McNally, G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. R. McNeil, “Summary abstract: Low-temperature deposition of optical coatings using assisted deposition techniques,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 2159–2161 (1987).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Cole, J. J. Moravec, R. G. Ahonen, L. B. Ehlert, “The use of ion beam sputtered optical coatings as protective overcoats,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 372–375 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Macleod, “Structure-related optical properties of thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 418–422 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. Windischmann, “Intrinsic stress in sputtered thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2431–2436 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Rastogi, V. Dharmadhikari, A. Diebold, “Stress variation with temperature time and its correlation to film structure and deposition parameters,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2453–2458 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Murakami, “Deformation in thin films by thermal strain,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2469–2476 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (4)

H. K. Pulker, E. Jung, “Correlation between film structure and sorption behaviour of vapour deposited ZnS, cryolite, and MgF2 films,” Thin Solid Films 9, 57–66 (1971).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Pulker, J. Maser, “The origin of mechanical stress in vacuum-deposited MgF2 and ZnS films,” Thin Solid Films 59, 65–76 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. Ogura, H. A. Macleod, “Water sorption phenomena in optical thin films,” Thin Solid Films 34, 371–375 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. Ogura, N. Sugawara, R. Hiraga, “Refractive index and packing density for MgF2 films: correlation of temperature dependence with water sorption,” Thin Solid Films 30, 3–10 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum (1)

J. Priest, H. L. Caswell, Y. Budo, “Mechanical stresses in silicon oxide films,” Vacuum 12, 301–306 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

B. J. Pond, J. I. DeBar, C. K. Carniglia, T. Raj, “Stress reduction of ion-beam-sputtered mixed-oxide coatings by baking,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1988, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newman, M. J. Solieau, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.775, 311–319 (1988).

H. A. Macleod, “Microstructure of optical thin films,” in Optical Thin Films, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.325, 21–28 (1982).

J. J. McNally, “Properties of optical thin films deposited using ion assisted deposition,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.678, 151–159 (1986).

T. M. Donovan, P. A. Temple, S.-C. Wu, T. A. Tombrello, “The relative importance of interface and volume absorptions in optical coatings,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1979, H. E. Bennett, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newman, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.568, 237–246 (1979).

W. T. Pawlewicz, T. R. Culver, J. H. Zachistal, E. J. Prevost, J. D. Traylor, C. E. Wheeler, “Ion assisted evaporative coatings of 2-meter optics,” in Large Optics II, R. E. Parks, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1618, 1–13 (1991).

I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O'Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 392–393 (1991).

H. R. Aldag, “The development of a high average power dye laser,” in Technical Digest for the International Conference on Laser 89′ (STS, McLean, Va., 1989), paper HG.1.

R. G. Morton, V. G. Draggoo, “Reliable High Average Power High Pulse Energy Dye Laser,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1981), pp. ThS7-1–ThS7-2.

K. Gurtler, U. Jeschknowski, E. Conrath, “Experiences with the reactive low voltage ion plating in optical thin film production,” in Thin Film Technologies III, K. H. Guenther, H. K. Pulker, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1019, 179–183 (1988).

W. C. Herrmann, D. E. Morton, “Thin-film coating filter stability under different environmental conditions,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

H. K. Pulker, J. Edlinger, M. Buhler, “Ion plating optical films,” in Sixth International Conference on Ion and Plasma Assisted Techniques (CEP Consultants, Edinburgh, 1987), pp. 371–381.

J. Edlinger, J. Ramm, H. K. Pulker, “Stability of the spectral characteristics of ion plated interference filters,” in Thin Film Technologies III, K. H. Guenther, H. K. Pulker, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1019, 179–183 (1988).

H. K. Pulker, “Stres, adherence, hardness, and density of optical thin films,” in Optical Thin Films, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.325, 84–92 (1982).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Test setup for spectral measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Interferometer test setup for reflected wave-front measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral shifts measured during 1984 survey at wavelengths between 400 and 600 nm as functions of layers in the design in a 10−7 Torr, 120 °C environment.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Broadband spectral shift of leaker mirror (T = 1%) coating showing the change in transmission as a function of wavelength in a 10−3 Torr, 20 °C environment after 72 h.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral shifts measured during and after stabilization as a function of time in a 10−3 Torr, 20 °C environment for leaker mirrors of the same design from 2 different runs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral shifts measured during recent measurements at wavelengths between 500 and 700 nm as a function of layers in the design at 10−3 Torr, 20 °C. Two coatings with unusually low spectral shift are also shown (they are indicated by asterisks).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectral shifts measured at wavelengths from 550 to 600 nm as a function of time in a 10−3 Torr, 20 °C environment.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectral shifts as functions of time in a 10−3 Torr, 20 °C environment at two wavelengths for one part.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Spectral shifts as functions of wavelength in a 10−3 Torr, 20 °C environment for a typical e-beam coating as well as for two e-beam coatings that demonstrate an abnormally low shift.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Stress change during vacuum exposure.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Change of stress in air after vacuum exposure for vendor A.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Change of stress in air after vacuum exposure for vendor B.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Change of stress in air after vacuum exposure for vendor C.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of Reflected Wave-Front Changes that are due to Vacuum Exposure

Tables Icon

Table 2 Effects of Annealing on Reflected Wave-Front and Spectral Locations

Tables Icon

Table 3 Effects of O2 Deposition Pressure on Stress in SiO2 layers

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