Abstract

Photothermal reflectance and photothermal displacement measurements of optical absorption and thermal conductivity are reported for electron-beam- (EB) deposited and ion-plated (IP) thin films of TiO2, Ta2O5, and ZrO2. Of the particular set of samples investigated, the EB films have higher absorption than the IP films. The absorption of the EB samples decreases over a period of ∼90 min on irradiations with an Ar-ion laser of 488-nm wavelength. By contrast, the absorption of the IP samples changes insignificantly or not at all. Photothermal displacement area scans of coating surfaces yield lower defect densities for the IP samples compared with the EB samples for all three oxide materials. The feasibility and limitations of photothermal measurements for thin-film optical and thermal characterizations are discussed.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. H. Guenther, M. D. Himel, K. Balasubramanian, X.-Q. Hu, R. Chow, C. J. Stolz, “Laser-quality coatings deposited by reactive low voltage ion plating,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 34–35.
  2. For a definition of absorption and absorptance, see draft international standard ISO-DIS 9211 Part 1 (available from the International Standardization Organization, ISO, Geneva, Switzerland, or national member bodies such as the American National Standards Institute).
  3. D. L. Decker, L. G. Koshigoe, E. J. Ashley, “Thermal properties of optical thin film materials,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1984, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.727, 291–297 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. D. Jacobs, D. G. Angeley, D. S. Smith, J. C. Lambropoulos, “Thermal conductivity measurements of dielectric thin films on optical substrates,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, P54 (1986).
  5. J. C. Lambropoulos, M. R. Jolly, C. A. Amsden, S. E. Gilman, M. J. Simicropi, D. Diakomihalis, S. D. Jacobs, “Thermal conductivity of dielectric thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4230–4242 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Reichling, Z. L. Wu, E. Welsch, D. Schäfer, E. Matthias, “High frequency photothermal reflectivity and displacement measurements on thin film samples,” in Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena III, D. Bicanic, ed., Vol. 69 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), pp. 698–701.
  7. D. Ristau, J. Ebert, “Development of a thermographic laser calorimeter,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4571–4578 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. A. Olmstead, N. M. Amer, S. Kohn, D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara, “Photothermal displacement spectroscopy: an optical probe for solids and surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 32, 141–154 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Opsal, A. Rosencwaig, D. L. Willenborg, “Thermal-wave detection and thin film thickness measurements with laser beam deflection,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3169–3176 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, K. Friedrich, P. Eckhardt, “Separation of optical thin-film and substrate absorption by means of photothermal surface deformation technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6575–6578 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Commandré, P. Roche, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy for the study of thin films and optical coatings: Measurement of absorption losses and detection of photo-induced changes,” in Optical Thin Films and Applications, R. Herrmann, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1270, 82–93 (1990).
  12. W. C. Mundy, R. S. Hughes, C. K. Carniglia, “Photothermal deflection microscopy of dielectric thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 985–987 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. A. Abate, A. W. Schmid, H. J. Guardalbian, D. J. Smith, S. D. Jacobs, “Characterization of micron-sized optical defects by photothermal deflection microscopy,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1983, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ.688, 385–392 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Welsch, “Photothermal surface deformation technique—a goal for nondestructive evaluation in thin film optics,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 2159–2176 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Chow, G. E. Loomis, “Reducing defect density in hafnia optical coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 168–171.
  16. Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, E. Welsch, D. Schäfer, Z. X. Fan, E. Matthias, “Defect characterization for thin films through thermal wave detection,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 271–282 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Reichling, E. Welsch, A. Duparré, E. Matthias, “Laterally and depth resolved photothermal absorption measurements on ZrO2 and MgF2 single-layers films,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1782, 366–376 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Rosencwaig, J. Opsal, W. L. Smith, D. L. Willenborg, “Detection of thermal waves through optical reflectance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 1013–1015 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. Batz, “Thermal and wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” in Semiconductors and Semimetals, R. K. Willardson, A. C. Beer, eds. (Academic, New York, 1972), Vol. 9, 316–396.
  20. W. B. Jackson, N. M. Amer, A. C. Boccarra, D. Fournier, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy and detection,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1333–1344 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. F. Stewart, D. J. Gallant, “Ultraviolet thin film coating characterization,” in Boulder Damage Symposium: 1984, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.727, 272–284 (1986).
  22. A. C. Boccara, D. Fournier, J. C. Badoz, “Thermo-optical spectroscopy: Detection by the mirage effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 130–132 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. H. Guenther, Boon Loo, D. Burns, J. Edgell, D. Windham, K.-H. Müller, “Microstructure analysis of thin films deposited by reactive evaporation and by reactive ion-plating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1436–1445 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, H. Grönbeck, Z. X. Fan, D. Schäfer, E. Matthias, “Photothermal measurements of thermal conductivity of optical coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 331–345 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Z. L. Wu, Z. X. Fan, D. Schäfer, E. Matthias, “Measurement of absorption losses in thin films by photothermal displacement technique,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Trends and New Applications in Thin Films, Suppl. 259 (Le Vide, Les Couches Minces, France, 1991), pp. 107–109.
  26. K. H. Guenther, “Nodular defects in dielectric multilayers and thick single layers,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1034–1038 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Z. L. Wu, Z. X. Fan, D. Schäfer, “In-situ investigation of laser-conditioning of optical coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 362–374 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  28. T. C. Kimble, M. D. Himel, K. H. Guenther, “Optical waveguide characterization of dielectric films deposited by reactive low-voltage ion plating,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
  29. K. H. Guenther, K. Balasubramanian, X.-Q. Hu, S. Baumann, M. Edgell, R. Chow, F. Rainer, C. Stolz, “Comparison of elemental composition and optical absorption of high damage threshold oxide coatings deposited by reactive electron beam evaporation and reactive low voltage ion plating,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 350–352.

1991

E. Welsch, “Photothermal surface deformation technique—a goal for nondestructive evaluation in thin film optics,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 2159–2176 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, K. Friedrich, P. Eckhardt, “Separation of optical thin-film and substrate absorption by means of photothermal surface deformation technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6575–6578 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

J. C. Lambropoulos, M. R. Jolly, C. A. Amsden, S. E. Gilman, M. J. Simicropi, D. Diakomihalis, S. D. Jacobs, “Thermal conductivity of dielectric thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4230–4242 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Guenther, Boon Loo, D. Burns, J. Edgell, D. Windham, K.-H. Müller, “Microstructure analysis of thin films deposited by reactive evaporation and by reactive ion-plating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1436–1445 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986

S. D. Jacobs, D. G. Angeley, D. S. Smith, J. C. Lambropoulos, “Thermal conductivity measurements of dielectric thin films on optical substrates,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, P54 (1986).

D. Ristau, J. Ebert, “Development of a thermographic laser calorimeter,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4571–4578 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

A. Rosencwaig, J. Opsal, W. L. Smith, D. L. Willenborg, “Detection of thermal waves through optical reflectance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 1013–1015 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983

M. A. Olmstead, N. M. Amer, S. Kohn, D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara, “Photothermal displacement spectroscopy: an optical probe for solids and surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 32, 141–154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Mundy, R. S. Hughes, C. K. Carniglia, “Photothermal deflection microscopy of dielectric thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 985–987 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Opsal, A. Rosencwaig, D. L. Willenborg, “Thermal-wave detection and thin film thickness measurements with laser beam deflection,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3169–3176 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

1980

A. C. Boccara, D. Fournier, J. C. Badoz, “Thermo-optical spectroscopy: Detection by the mirage effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 130–132 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Abate, J. A.

J. A. Abate, A. W. Schmid, H. J. Guardalbian, D. J. Smith, S. D. Jacobs, “Characterization of micron-sized optical defects by photothermal deflection microscopy,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1983, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ.688, 385–392 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Albrand, G.

M. Commandré, P. Roche, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy for the study of thin films and optical coatings: Measurement of absorption losses and detection of photo-induced changes,” in Optical Thin Films and Applications, R. Herrmann, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1270, 82–93 (1990).

Amer, N. M.

M. A. Olmstead, N. M. Amer, S. Kohn, D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara, “Photothermal displacement spectroscopy: an optical probe for solids and surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 32, 141–154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Jackson, N. M. Amer, A. C. Boccarra, D. Fournier, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy and detection,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1333–1344 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amsden, C. A.

J. C. Lambropoulos, M. R. Jolly, C. A. Amsden, S. E. Gilman, M. J. Simicropi, D. Diakomihalis, S. D. Jacobs, “Thermal conductivity of dielectric thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4230–4242 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Angeley, D. G.

S. D. Jacobs, D. G. Angeley, D. S. Smith, J. C. Lambropoulos, “Thermal conductivity measurements of dielectric thin films on optical substrates,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, P54 (1986).

Ashley, E. J.

D. L. Decker, L. G. Koshigoe, E. J. Ashley, “Thermal properties of optical thin film materials,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1984, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.727, 291–297 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Badoz, J. C.

A. C. Boccara, D. Fournier, J. C. Badoz, “Thermo-optical spectroscopy: Detection by the mirage effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 130–132 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Balasubramanian, K.

K. H. Guenther, M. D. Himel, K. Balasubramanian, X.-Q. Hu, R. Chow, C. J. Stolz, “Laser-quality coatings deposited by reactive low voltage ion plating,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 34–35.

K. H. Guenther, K. Balasubramanian, X.-Q. Hu, S. Baumann, M. Edgell, R. Chow, F. Rainer, C. Stolz, “Comparison of elemental composition and optical absorption of high damage threshold oxide coatings deposited by reactive electron beam evaporation and reactive low voltage ion plating,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 350–352.

Batz, B.

B. Batz, “Thermal and wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” in Semiconductors and Semimetals, R. K. Willardson, A. C. Beer, eds. (Academic, New York, 1972), Vol. 9, 316–396.

Baumann, S.

K. H. Guenther, K. Balasubramanian, X.-Q. Hu, S. Baumann, M. Edgell, R. Chow, F. Rainer, C. Stolz, “Comparison of elemental composition and optical absorption of high damage threshold oxide coatings deposited by reactive electron beam evaporation and reactive low voltage ion plating,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 350–352.

Boccara, A. C.

M. A. Olmstead, N. M. Amer, S. Kohn, D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara, “Photothermal displacement spectroscopy: an optical probe for solids and surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 32, 141–154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Boccara, D. Fournier, J. C. Badoz, “Thermo-optical spectroscopy: Detection by the mirage effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 130–132 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Boccarra, A. C.

Boon Loo,

K. H. Guenther, Boon Loo, D. Burns, J. Edgell, D. Windham, K.-H. Müller, “Microstructure analysis of thin films deposited by reactive evaporation and by reactive ion-plating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1436–1445 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Burns, D.

K. H. Guenther, Boon Loo, D. Burns, J. Edgell, D. Windham, K.-H. Müller, “Microstructure analysis of thin films deposited by reactive evaporation and by reactive ion-plating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1436–1445 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Carniglia, C. K.

W. C. Mundy, R. S. Hughes, C. K. Carniglia, “Photothermal deflection microscopy of dielectric thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 985–987 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Chow, R.

K. H. Guenther, M. D. Himel, K. Balasubramanian, X.-Q. Hu, R. Chow, C. J. Stolz, “Laser-quality coatings deposited by reactive low voltage ion plating,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 34–35.

R. Chow, G. E. Loomis, “Reducing defect density in hafnia optical coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 168–171.

K. H. Guenther, K. Balasubramanian, X.-Q. Hu, S. Baumann, M. Edgell, R. Chow, F. Rainer, C. Stolz, “Comparison of elemental composition and optical absorption of high damage threshold oxide coatings deposited by reactive electron beam evaporation and reactive low voltage ion plating,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 350–352.

Commandré, M.

M. Commandré, P. Roche, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy for the study of thin films and optical coatings: Measurement of absorption losses and detection of photo-induced changes,” in Optical Thin Films and Applications, R. Herrmann, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1270, 82–93 (1990).

Decker, D. L.

D. L. Decker, L. G. Koshigoe, E. J. Ashley, “Thermal properties of optical thin film materials,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1984, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.727, 291–297 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Diakomihalis, D.

J. C. Lambropoulos, M. R. Jolly, C. A. Amsden, S. E. Gilman, M. J. Simicropi, D. Diakomihalis, S. D. Jacobs, “Thermal conductivity of dielectric thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4230–4242 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Duparré, A.

M. Reichling, E. Welsch, A. Duparré, E. Matthias, “Laterally and depth resolved photothermal absorption measurements on ZrO2 and MgF2 single-layers films,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1782, 366–376 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ebert, J.

Eckhardt, P.

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, K. Friedrich, P. Eckhardt, “Separation of optical thin-film and substrate absorption by means of photothermal surface deformation technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6575–6578 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Edgell, J.

K. H. Guenther, Boon Loo, D. Burns, J. Edgell, D. Windham, K.-H. Müller, “Microstructure analysis of thin films deposited by reactive evaporation and by reactive ion-plating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1436–1445 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Edgell, M.

K. H. Guenther, K. Balasubramanian, X.-Q. Hu, S. Baumann, M. Edgell, R. Chow, F. Rainer, C. Stolz, “Comparison of elemental composition and optical absorption of high damage threshold oxide coatings deposited by reactive electron beam evaporation and reactive low voltage ion plating,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 350–352.

Fan, Z. X.

Z. L. Wu, Z. X. Fan, D. Schäfer, E. Matthias, “Measurement of absorption losses in thin films by photothermal displacement technique,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Trends and New Applications in Thin Films, Suppl. 259 (Le Vide, Les Couches Minces, France, 1991), pp. 107–109.

Z. L. Wu, Z. X. Fan, D. Schäfer, “In-situ investigation of laser-conditioning of optical coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 362–374 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, H. Grönbeck, Z. X. Fan, D. Schäfer, E. Matthias, “Photothermal measurements of thermal conductivity of optical coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 331–345 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, E. Welsch, D. Schäfer, Z. X. Fan, E. Matthias, “Defect characterization for thin films through thermal wave detection,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 271–282 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, D.

M. A. Olmstead, N. M. Amer, S. Kohn, D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara, “Photothermal displacement spectroscopy: an optical probe for solids and surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 32, 141–154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Jackson, N. M. Amer, A. C. Boccarra, D. Fournier, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy and detection,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1333–1344 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Boccara, D. Fournier, J. C. Badoz, “Thermo-optical spectroscopy: Detection by the mirage effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 130–132 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Friedrich, K.

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, K. Friedrich, P. Eckhardt, “Separation of optical thin-film and substrate absorption by means of photothermal surface deformation technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6575–6578 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gallant, D. J.

A. F. Stewart, D. J. Gallant, “Ultraviolet thin film coating characterization,” in Boulder Damage Symposium: 1984, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.727, 272–284 (1986).

Gilman, S. E.

J. C. Lambropoulos, M. R. Jolly, C. A. Amsden, S. E. Gilman, M. J. Simicropi, D. Diakomihalis, S. D. Jacobs, “Thermal conductivity of dielectric thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4230–4242 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Grönbeck, H.

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, H. Grönbeck, Z. X. Fan, D. Schäfer, E. Matthias, “Photothermal measurements of thermal conductivity of optical coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 331–345 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Guardalbian, H. J.

J. A. Abate, A. W. Schmid, H. J. Guardalbian, D. J. Smith, S. D. Jacobs, “Characterization of micron-sized optical defects by photothermal deflection microscopy,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1983, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ.688, 385–392 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, K. H.

K. H. Guenther, Boon Loo, D. Burns, J. Edgell, D. Windham, K.-H. Müller, “Microstructure analysis of thin films deposited by reactive evaporation and by reactive ion-plating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1436–1445 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Guenther, “Nodular defects in dielectric multilayers and thick single layers,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1034–1038 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Guenther, M. D. Himel, K. Balasubramanian, X.-Q. Hu, R. Chow, C. J. Stolz, “Laser-quality coatings deposited by reactive low voltage ion plating,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 34–35.

K. H. Guenther, K. Balasubramanian, X.-Q. Hu, S. Baumann, M. Edgell, R. Chow, F. Rainer, C. Stolz, “Comparison of elemental composition and optical absorption of high damage threshold oxide coatings deposited by reactive electron beam evaporation and reactive low voltage ion plating,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 350–352.

T. C. Kimble, M. D. Himel, K. H. Guenther, “Optical waveguide characterization of dielectric films deposited by reactive low-voltage ion plating,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Himel, M. D.

T. C. Kimble, M. D. Himel, K. H. Guenther, “Optical waveguide characterization of dielectric films deposited by reactive low-voltage ion plating,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

K. H. Guenther, M. D. Himel, K. Balasubramanian, X.-Q. Hu, R. Chow, C. J. Stolz, “Laser-quality coatings deposited by reactive low voltage ion plating,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 34–35.

Hu, X.-Q.

K. H. Guenther, M. D. Himel, K. Balasubramanian, X.-Q. Hu, R. Chow, C. J. Stolz, “Laser-quality coatings deposited by reactive low voltage ion plating,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 34–35.

K. H. Guenther, K. Balasubramanian, X.-Q. Hu, S. Baumann, M. Edgell, R. Chow, F. Rainer, C. Stolz, “Comparison of elemental composition and optical absorption of high damage threshold oxide coatings deposited by reactive electron beam evaporation and reactive low voltage ion plating,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 350–352.

Hughes, R. S.

W. C. Mundy, R. S. Hughes, C. K. Carniglia, “Photothermal deflection microscopy of dielectric thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 985–987 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, W. B.

Jacobs, S. D.

J. C. Lambropoulos, M. R. Jolly, C. A. Amsden, S. E. Gilman, M. J. Simicropi, D. Diakomihalis, S. D. Jacobs, “Thermal conductivity of dielectric thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4230–4242 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jacobs, D. G. Angeley, D. S. Smith, J. C. Lambropoulos, “Thermal conductivity measurements of dielectric thin films on optical substrates,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, P54 (1986).

J. A. Abate, A. W. Schmid, H. J. Guardalbian, D. J. Smith, S. D. Jacobs, “Characterization of micron-sized optical defects by photothermal deflection microscopy,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1983, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ.688, 385–392 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jolly, M. R.

J. C. Lambropoulos, M. R. Jolly, C. A. Amsden, S. E. Gilman, M. J. Simicropi, D. Diakomihalis, S. D. Jacobs, “Thermal conductivity of dielectric thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4230–4242 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, T. C.

T. C. Kimble, M. D. Himel, K. H. Guenther, “Optical waveguide characterization of dielectric films deposited by reactive low-voltage ion plating,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Kohn, S.

M. A. Olmstead, N. M. Amer, S. Kohn, D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara, “Photothermal displacement spectroscopy: an optical probe for solids and surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 32, 141–154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Koshigoe, L. G.

D. L. Decker, L. G. Koshigoe, E. J. Ashley, “Thermal properties of optical thin film materials,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1984, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.727, 291–297 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lambropoulos, J. C.

J. C. Lambropoulos, M. R. Jolly, C. A. Amsden, S. E. Gilman, M. J. Simicropi, D. Diakomihalis, S. D. Jacobs, “Thermal conductivity of dielectric thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4230–4242 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jacobs, D. G. Angeley, D. S. Smith, J. C. Lambropoulos, “Thermal conductivity measurements of dielectric thin films on optical substrates,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, P54 (1986).

Loomis, G. E.

R. Chow, G. E. Loomis, “Reducing defect density in hafnia optical coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 168–171.

Matthias, E.

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, E. Welsch, D. Schäfer, Z. X. Fan, E. Matthias, “Defect characterization for thin films through thermal wave detection,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 271–282 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, H. Grönbeck, Z. X. Fan, D. Schäfer, E. Matthias, “Photothermal measurements of thermal conductivity of optical coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 331–345 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Reichling, Z. L. Wu, E. Welsch, D. Schäfer, E. Matthias, “High frequency photothermal reflectivity and displacement measurements on thin film samples,” in Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena III, D. Bicanic, ed., Vol. 69 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), pp. 698–701.

Z. L. Wu, Z. X. Fan, D. Schäfer, E. Matthias, “Measurement of absorption losses in thin films by photothermal displacement technique,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Trends and New Applications in Thin Films, Suppl. 259 (Le Vide, Les Couches Minces, France, 1991), pp. 107–109.

M. Reichling, E. Welsch, A. Duparré, E. Matthias, “Laterally and depth resolved photothermal absorption measurements on ZrO2 and MgF2 single-layers films,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1782, 366–376 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Müller, K.-H.

K. H. Guenther, Boon Loo, D. Burns, J. Edgell, D. Windham, K.-H. Müller, “Microstructure analysis of thin films deposited by reactive evaporation and by reactive ion-plating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1436–1445 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mundy, W. C.

W. C. Mundy, R. S. Hughes, C. K. Carniglia, “Photothermal deflection microscopy of dielectric thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 985–987 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Olmstead, M. A.

M. A. Olmstead, N. M. Amer, S. Kohn, D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara, “Photothermal displacement spectroscopy: an optical probe for solids and surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 32, 141–154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opsal, J.

A. Rosencwaig, J. Opsal, W. L. Smith, D. L. Willenborg, “Detection of thermal waves through optical reflectance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 1013–1015 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opsal, A. Rosencwaig, D. L. Willenborg, “Thermal-wave detection and thin film thickness measurements with laser beam deflection,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3169–3176 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelletier, E.

M. Commandré, P. Roche, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy for the study of thin films and optical coatings: Measurement of absorption losses and detection of photo-induced changes,” in Optical Thin Films and Applications, R. Herrmann, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1270, 82–93 (1990).

Rainer, F.

K. H. Guenther, K. Balasubramanian, X.-Q. Hu, S. Baumann, M. Edgell, R. Chow, F. Rainer, C. Stolz, “Comparison of elemental composition and optical absorption of high damage threshold oxide coatings deposited by reactive electron beam evaporation and reactive low voltage ion plating,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 350–352.

Reichling, M.

M. Reichling, Z. L. Wu, E. Welsch, D. Schäfer, E. Matthias, “High frequency photothermal reflectivity and displacement measurements on thin film samples,” in Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena III, D. Bicanic, ed., Vol. 69 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), pp. 698–701.

M. Reichling, E. Welsch, A. Duparré, E. Matthias, “Laterally and depth resolved photothermal absorption measurements on ZrO2 and MgF2 single-layers films,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1782, 366–376 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, H. Grönbeck, Z. X. Fan, D. Schäfer, E. Matthias, “Photothermal measurements of thermal conductivity of optical coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 331–345 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, E. Welsch, D. Schäfer, Z. X. Fan, E. Matthias, “Defect characterization for thin films through thermal wave detection,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 271–282 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ristau, D.

Roche, P.

M. Commandré, P. Roche, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy for the study of thin films and optical coatings: Measurement of absorption losses and detection of photo-induced changes,” in Optical Thin Films and Applications, R. Herrmann, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1270, 82–93 (1990).

Rosencwaig, A.

A. Rosencwaig, J. Opsal, W. L. Smith, D. L. Willenborg, “Detection of thermal waves through optical reflectance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 1013–1015 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opsal, A. Rosencwaig, D. L. Willenborg, “Thermal-wave detection and thin film thickness measurements with laser beam deflection,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3169–3176 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schäfer, D.

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, H. Grönbeck, Z. X. Fan, D. Schäfer, E. Matthias, “Photothermal measurements of thermal conductivity of optical coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 331–345 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, E. Welsch, D. Schäfer, Z. X. Fan, E. Matthias, “Defect characterization for thin films through thermal wave detection,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 271–282 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Reichling, Z. L. Wu, E. Welsch, D. Schäfer, E. Matthias, “High frequency photothermal reflectivity and displacement measurements on thin film samples,” in Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena III, D. Bicanic, ed., Vol. 69 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), pp. 698–701.

Z. L. Wu, Z. X. Fan, D. Schäfer, E. Matthias, “Measurement of absorption losses in thin films by photothermal displacement technique,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Trends and New Applications in Thin Films, Suppl. 259 (Le Vide, Les Couches Minces, France, 1991), pp. 107–109.

Z. L. Wu, Z. X. Fan, D. Schäfer, “In-situ investigation of laser-conditioning of optical coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 362–374 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, A. W.

J. A. Abate, A. W. Schmid, H. J. Guardalbian, D. J. Smith, S. D. Jacobs, “Characterization of micron-sized optical defects by photothermal deflection microscopy,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1983, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ.688, 385–392 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Simicropi, M. J.

J. C. Lambropoulos, M. R. Jolly, C. A. Amsden, S. E. Gilman, M. J. Simicropi, D. Diakomihalis, S. D. Jacobs, “Thermal conductivity of dielectric thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4230–4242 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. J.

J. A. Abate, A. W. Schmid, H. J. Guardalbian, D. J. Smith, S. D. Jacobs, “Characterization of micron-sized optical defects by photothermal deflection microscopy,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1983, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ.688, 385–392 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. S.

S. D. Jacobs, D. G. Angeley, D. S. Smith, J. C. Lambropoulos, “Thermal conductivity measurements of dielectric thin films on optical substrates,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, P54 (1986).

Smith, W. L.

A. Rosencwaig, J. Opsal, W. L. Smith, D. L. Willenborg, “Detection of thermal waves through optical reflectance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 1013–1015 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, A. F.

A. F. Stewart, D. J. Gallant, “Ultraviolet thin film coating characterization,” in Boulder Damage Symposium: 1984, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.727, 272–284 (1986).

Stolz, C.

K. H. Guenther, K. Balasubramanian, X.-Q. Hu, S. Baumann, M. Edgell, R. Chow, F. Rainer, C. Stolz, “Comparison of elemental composition and optical absorption of high damage threshold oxide coatings deposited by reactive electron beam evaporation and reactive low voltage ion plating,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 350–352.

Stolz, C. J.

K. H. Guenther, M. D. Himel, K. Balasubramanian, X.-Q. Hu, R. Chow, C. J. Stolz, “Laser-quality coatings deposited by reactive low voltage ion plating,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 34–35.

Walther, H. G.

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, K. Friedrich, P. Eckhardt, “Separation of optical thin-film and substrate absorption by means of photothermal surface deformation technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6575–6578 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Welsch, E.

E. Welsch, “Photothermal surface deformation technique—a goal for nondestructive evaluation in thin film optics,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 2159–2176 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, K. Friedrich, P. Eckhardt, “Separation of optical thin-film and substrate absorption by means of photothermal surface deformation technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6575–6578 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Reichling, Z. L. Wu, E. Welsch, D. Schäfer, E. Matthias, “High frequency photothermal reflectivity and displacement measurements on thin film samples,” in Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena III, D. Bicanic, ed., Vol. 69 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), pp. 698–701.

M. Reichling, E. Welsch, A. Duparré, E. Matthias, “Laterally and depth resolved photothermal absorption measurements on ZrO2 and MgF2 single-layers films,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1782, 366–376 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, E. Welsch, D. Schäfer, Z. X. Fan, E. Matthias, “Defect characterization for thin films through thermal wave detection,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 271–282 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Willenborg, D. L.

A. Rosencwaig, J. Opsal, W. L. Smith, D. L. Willenborg, “Detection of thermal waves through optical reflectance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 1013–1015 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opsal, A. Rosencwaig, D. L. Willenborg, “Thermal-wave detection and thin film thickness measurements with laser beam deflection,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3169–3176 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windham, D.

K. H. Guenther, Boon Loo, D. Burns, J. Edgell, D. Windham, K.-H. Müller, “Microstructure analysis of thin films deposited by reactive evaporation and by reactive ion-plating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1436–1445 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z. L.

Z. L. Wu, Z. X. Fan, D. Schäfer, E. Matthias, “Measurement of absorption losses in thin films by photothermal displacement technique,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Trends and New Applications in Thin Films, Suppl. 259 (Le Vide, Les Couches Minces, France, 1991), pp. 107–109.

Z. L. Wu, Z. X. Fan, D. Schäfer, “In-situ investigation of laser-conditioning of optical coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 362–374 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Reichling, Z. L. Wu, E. Welsch, D. Schäfer, E. Matthias, “High frequency photothermal reflectivity and displacement measurements on thin film samples,” in Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena III, D. Bicanic, ed., Vol. 69 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), pp. 698–701.

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, H. Grönbeck, Z. X. Fan, D. Schäfer, E. Matthias, “Photothermal measurements of thermal conductivity of optical coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 331–345 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, E. Welsch, D. Schäfer, Z. X. Fan, E. Matthias, “Defect characterization for thin films through thermal wave detection,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 271–282 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. A

M. A. Olmstead, N. M. Amer, S. Kohn, D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara, “Photothermal displacement spectroscopy: an optical probe for solids and surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 32, 141–154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. C. Mundy, R. S. Hughes, C. K. Carniglia, “Photothermal deflection microscopy of dielectric thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 985–987 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Rosencwaig, J. Opsal, W. L. Smith, D. L. Willenborg, “Detection of thermal waves through optical reflectance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 1013–1015 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Boccara, D. Fournier, J. C. Badoz, “Thermo-optical spectroscopy: Detection by the mirage effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 130–132 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, K. Friedrich, P. Eckhardt, “Separation of optical thin-film and substrate absorption by means of photothermal surface deformation technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6575–6578 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Lambropoulos, M. R. Jolly, C. A. Amsden, S. E. Gilman, M. J. Simicropi, D. Diakomihalis, S. D. Jacobs, “Thermal conductivity of dielectric thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4230–4242 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

E. Welsch, “Photothermal surface deformation technique—a goal for nondestructive evaluation in thin film optics,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 2159–2176 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

S. D. Jacobs, D. G. Angeley, D. S. Smith, J. C. Lambropoulos, “Thermal conductivity measurements of dielectric thin films on optical substrates,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, P54 (1986).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

K. H. Guenther, Boon Loo, D. Burns, J. Edgell, D. Windham, K.-H. Müller, “Microstructure analysis of thin films deposited by reactive evaporation and by reactive ion-plating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1436–1445 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, H. Grönbeck, Z. X. Fan, D. Schäfer, E. Matthias, “Photothermal measurements of thermal conductivity of optical coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 331–345 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Wu, Z. X. Fan, D. Schäfer, E. Matthias, “Measurement of absorption losses in thin films by photothermal displacement technique,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Trends and New Applications in Thin Films, Suppl. 259 (Le Vide, Les Couches Minces, France, 1991), pp. 107–109.

B. Batz, “Thermal and wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” in Semiconductors and Semimetals, R. K. Willardson, A. C. Beer, eds. (Academic, New York, 1972), Vol. 9, 316–396.

K. H. Guenther, M. D. Himel, K. Balasubramanian, X.-Q. Hu, R. Chow, C. J. Stolz, “Laser-quality coatings deposited by reactive low voltage ion plating,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 34–35.

For a definition of absorption and absorptance, see draft international standard ISO-DIS 9211 Part 1 (available from the International Standardization Organization, ISO, Geneva, Switzerland, or national member bodies such as the American National Standards Institute).

D. L. Decker, L. G. Koshigoe, E. J. Ashley, “Thermal properties of optical thin film materials,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1984, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.727, 291–297 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. Chow, G. E. Loomis, “Reducing defect density in hafnia optical coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 168–171.

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, E. Welsch, D. Schäfer, Z. X. Fan, E. Matthias, “Defect characterization for thin films through thermal wave detection,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 271–282 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Reichling, E. Welsch, A. Duparré, E. Matthias, “Laterally and depth resolved photothermal absorption measurements on ZrO2 and MgF2 single-layers films,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1782, 366–376 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Commandré, P. Roche, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy for the study of thin films and optical coatings: Measurement of absorption losses and detection of photo-induced changes,” in Optical Thin Films and Applications, R. Herrmann, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1270, 82–93 (1990).

J. A. Abate, A. W. Schmid, H. J. Guardalbian, D. J. Smith, S. D. Jacobs, “Characterization of micron-sized optical defects by photothermal deflection microscopy,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1983, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ.688, 385–392 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Reichling, Z. L. Wu, E. Welsch, D. Schäfer, E. Matthias, “High frequency photothermal reflectivity and displacement measurements on thin film samples,” in Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena III, D. Bicanic, ed., Vol. 69 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), pp. 698–701.

A. F. Stewart, D. J. Gallant, “Ultraviolet thin film coating characterization,” in Boulder Damage Symposium: 1984, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.727, 272–284 (1986).

Z. L. Wu, Z. X. Fan, D. Schäfer, “In-situ investigation of laser-conditioning of optical coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 362–374 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Kimble, M. D. Himel, K. H. Guenther, “Optical waveguide characterization of dielectric films deposited by reactive low-voltage ion plating,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

K. H. Guenther, K. Balasubramanian, X.-Q. Hu, S. Baumann, M. Edgell, R. Chow, F. Rainer, C. Stolz, “Comparison of elemental composition and optical absorption of high damage threshold oxide coatings deposited by reactive electron beam evaporation and reactive low voltage ion plating,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 350–352.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of high-frequency PTR and PTD measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of apparatus used for PTR and PTD measurements at the Physics Department, Free University in Berlin (Germany).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

PTD amplitude (a.u., ∝ absorption) measured for the following thin-film samples: (a) EB Ta2O5, (b) EB ZrO2, (c) IP Ta2O5, (d) IP ZrO2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Defect maps of IP and EB thin films of (a) ZrO2 and (b) TiO2 obtained by the PTD area scans. The square area at the center of the EB ZrO2 sample had been preconditioned with Ar-ion laser irradiation (0.2 W, 488-nm wavelength). Scale of scanned area, 3.6 mm = 0.1 mm on the film surface.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical Absorption A (at 514 nm, Measured by PTD) and Thermal Conductivity k (Measured by PTR) of Thin Oxide Films

Tables Icon

Table 2 Defect Density (in inverse square millimeters) of Various Optical Coatings Measured by PTD Techniques

Metrics