Abstract

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is often used as a high refractive-index material for multilayer optical coatings. However, the optical properties of TiO2 films depend strongly on the deposition process and its parameters. A comparative study of TiO2 films fabricated by conventional electron-beam evaporation and by reactive low-voltage ion plating that uses different phases of Ti–O as starting materials is reported. Results on the variability of TiO2 thin films are analyzed in relation to process parameters. The potential of fabricating high and low refractive-index multilayer stacks with TiO2 only, by employing two different deposition processes, is presented with a practical example.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. See abstracts for the Optical Materials and Thin Films Technical Group Meeting, held at the (Optical Society of America, Annual Meeting, Seattle, Wash., 22October1986.
  2. K. H. Guenther, B. Loo, D. Burns, J. Edgell, D. Windham, K.-H. Muller, “Microstructure analysis of thin films deposited by reactive evaporation and by reactive ion plating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1436–1445 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. OS50 has been supplied by Optron Inc., a division of Canon Inc., Japan.
  4. H. K. Pulker, G. Paesold, E. Ritter, “Refractive indices of TiO2 films produced by reactive evaporation of various titanium-oxygen phases,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2986–2991 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. K. Pulker, Coatings on Glass (Elsevier, New York, 1984), Chap. 6, pp. 262–263.
  6. Ref. 5, Chap. 8, pp.317–319.
  7. J. M. Bennett, E. Pelletier, G. Albrand, J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, C. K. Carniglia, R. A. Schmell, T. H. Allen, T. Tuttle-Hart, K. H. Guenther, A. Saxer, “Comparison of the properties of titanium dioxide films prepared by various techniques,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3303–3317 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Bange, C. R. Ottermann, O. Anderson, U. Jeschkowski, M. Laube, R. Feile, “Investigations of TiO2 films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films 197, 279–285 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. D. Himel, X. Shi, X.-Q. Hu, M. G. Moharam, K. H. Guenther, “Electro-optic beam deflection using the leaky mode of aplanar waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 921–923 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. H. Guenther, “Recent progress in optical coating technology: low voltage ion plating deposition,” in Optical Thin Films and Applications, R. Herrmann, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1270, 211–221 (1990).
  11. K. H. Guenther, “Recent advances in reactive low voltage ion platingdeposition,” in Optical Thin Films III: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1323, 29–38 (1990).
  12. J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of n, k and thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Ogura, T. Aoki, “Stable starting materials of tantalum pentoxide andtitanium dioxide,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1782, 335–342 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1991

K. Bange, C. R. Ottermann, O. Anderson, U. Jeschkowski, M. Laube, R. Feile, “Investigations of TiO2 films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films 197, 279–285 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Himel, X. Shi, X.-Q. Hu, M. G. Moharam, K. H. Guenther, “Electro-optic beam deflection using the leaky mode of aplanar waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 921–923 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

K. H. Guenther, B. Loo, D. Burns, J. Edgell, D. Windham, K.-H. Muller, “Microstructure analysis of thin films deposited by reactive evaporation and by reactive ion plating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1436–1445 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bennett, E. Pelletier, G. Albrand, J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, C. K. Carniglia, R. A. Schmell, T. H. Allen, T. Tuttle-Hart, K. H. Guenther, A. Saxer, “Comparison of the properties of titanium dioxide films prepared by various techniques,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3303–3317 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of n, k and thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Pulker, G. Paesold, E. Ritter, “Refractive indices of TiO2 films produced by reactive evaporation of various titanium-oxygen phases,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2986–2991 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albrand, G.

Allen, T. H.

Anderson, O.

K. Bange, C. R. Ottermann, O. Anderson, U. Jeschkowski, M. Laube, R. Feile, “Investigations of TiO2 films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films 197, 279–285 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, T.

S. Ogura, T. Aoki, “Stable starting materials of tantalum pentoxide andtitanium dioxide,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1782, 335–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bange, K.

K. Bange, C. R. Ottermann, O. Anderson, U. Jeschkowski, M. Laube, R. Feile, “Investigations of TiO2 films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films 197, 279–285 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J. M.

Borgogno, J. P.

Burns, D.

K. H. Guenther, B. Loo, D. Burns, J. Edgell, D. Windham, K.-H. Muller, “Microstructure analysis of thin films deposited by reactive evaporation and by reactive ion plating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1436–1445 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Carniglia, C. K.

Edgell, J.

K. H. Guenther, B. Loo, D. Burns, J. Edgell, D. Windham, K.-H. Muller, “Microstructure analysis of thin films deposited by reactive evaporation and by reactive ion plating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1436–1445 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Feile, R.

K. Bange, C. R. Ottermann, O. Anderson, U. Jeschkowski, M. Laube, R. Feile, “Investigations of TiO2 films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films 197, 279–285 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fillard, J. P.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of n, k and thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gasiot, J.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of n, k and thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, K. H.

M. D. Himel, X. Shi, X.-Q. Hu, M. G. Moharam, K. H. Guenther, “Electro-optic beam deflection using the leaky mode of aplanar waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 921–923 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Guenther, B. Loo, D. Burns, J. Edgell, D. Windham, K.-H. Muller, “Microstructure analysis of thin films deposited by reactive evaporation and by reactive ion plating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1436–1445 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bennett, E. Pelletier, G. Albrand, J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, C. K. Carniglia, R. A. Schmell, T. H. Allen, T. Tuttle-Hart, K. H. Guenther, A. Saxer, “Comparison of the properties of titanium dioxide films prepared by various techniques,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3303–3317 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Guenther, “Recent progress in optical coating technology: low voltage ion plating deposition,” in Optical Thin Films and Applications, R. Herrmann, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1270, 211–221 (1990).

K. H. Guenther, “Recent advances in reactive low voltage ion platingdeposition,” in Optical Thin Films III: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1323, 29–38 (1990).

Himel, M. D.

M. D. Himel, X. Shi, X.-Q. Hu, M. G. Moharam, K. H. Guenther, “Electro-optic beam deflection using the leaky mode of aplanar waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 921–923 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.-Q.

M. D. Himel, X. Shi, X.-Q. Hu, M. G. Moharam, K. H. Guenther, “Electro-optic beam deflection using the leaky mode of aplanar waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 921–923 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jeschkowski, U.

K. Bange, C. R. Ottermann, O. Anderson, U. Jeschkowski, M. Laube, R. Feile, “Investigations of TiO2 films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films 197, 279–285 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Laube, M.

K. Bange, C. R. Ottermann, O. Anderson, U. Jeschkowski, M. Laube, R. Feile, “Investigations of TiO2 films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films 197, 279–285 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lazarides, B.

Loo, B.

K. H. Guenther, B. Loo, D. Burns, J. Edgell, D. Windham, K.-H. Muller, “Microstructure analysis of thin films deposited by reactive evaporation and by reactive ion plating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1436–1445 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Manifacier, J. C.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of n, k and thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

M. D. Himel, X. Shi, X.-Q. Hu, M. G. Moharam, K. H. Guenther, “Electro-optic beam deflection using the leaky mode of aplanar waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 921–923 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Muller, K.-H.

K. H. Guenther, B. Loo, D. Burns, J. Edgell, D. Windham, K.-H. Muller, “Microstructure analysis of thin films deposited by reactive evaporation and by reactive ion plating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1436–1445 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ogura, S.

S. Ogura, T. Aoki, “Stable starting materials of tantalum pentoxide andtitanium dioxide,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1782, 335–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ottermann, C. R.

K. Bange, C. R. Ottermann, O. Anderson, U. Jeschkowski, M. Laube, R. Feile, “Investigations of TiO2 films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films 197, 279–285 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Paesold, G.

Pelletier, E.

Pulker, H. K.

Ritter, E.

Saxer, A.

Schmell, R. A.

Shi, X.

M. D. Himel, X. Shi, X.-Q. Hu, M. G. Moharam, K. H. Guenther, “Electro-optic beam deflection using the leaky mode of aplanar waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 921–923 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tuttle-Hart, T.

Windham, D.

K. H. Guenther, B. Loo, D. Burns, J. Edgell, D. Windham, K.-H. Muller, “Microstructure analysis of thin films deposited by reactive evaporation and by reactive ion plating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1436–1445 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. D. Himel, X. Shi, X.-Q. Hu, M. G. Moharam, K. H. Guenther, “Electro-optic beam deflection using the leaky mode of aplanar waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 921–923 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of n, k and thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

K. H. Guenther, B. Loo, D. Burns, J. Edgell, D. Windham, K.-H. Muller, “Microstructure analysis of thin films deposited by reactive evaporation and by reactive ion plating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1436–1445 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

K. Bange, C. R. Ottermann, O. Anderson, U. Jeschkowski, M. Laube, R. Feile, “Investigations of TiO2 films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films 197, 279–285 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other

See abstracts for the Optical Materials and Thin Films Technical Group Meeting, held at the (Optical Society of America, Annual Meeting, Seattle, Wash., 22October1986.

OS50 has been supplied by Optron Inc., a division of Canon Inc., Japan.

S. Ogura, T. Aoki, “Stable starting materials of tantalum pentoxide andtitanium dioxide,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1782, 335–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Pulker, Coatings on Glass (Elsevier, New York, 1984), Chap. 6, pp. 262–263.

Ref. 5, Chap. 8, pp.317–319.

K. H. Guenther, “Recent progress in optical coating technology: low voltage ion plating deposition,” in Optical Thin Films and Applications, R. Herrmann, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1270, 211–221 (1990).

K. H. Guenther, “Recent advances in reactive low voltage ion platingdeposition,” in Optical Thin Films III: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1323, 29–38 (1990).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of BAP 800 IP system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Hybrid multilayer design with a TiO2(IP)/TiO2(EB) quarter-wave stack of (HL)7 H, where H indicates a high refractive-index layer, and L indicates a low refractive-index layer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured transmittance spectrum of a hybrid multilayer sample produced from the design in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission electron microscopy micrograph of the cross section of the sample whose spectrum is shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical constants at 550 nm of TiO2 films as a function of O2 partial pressure. Starting source material, Ti3O5; process, conventional EB evaporation; rate, 0.4 nm/s (see Table 2).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical constants at 550 nm of TiO2 films as a function of O2 partial pressure. Starting source material, Ti3O5; process, conventional EB evaporation; rate, 0.6 nm/s (see Table 2).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical constants at 550 nm of TiO2 films as a function of O2 partial pressure. Starting source material, Ti3O5; process, conventional EB evaporation; rate, 0.8 nm/s (see Table 2).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Optical constants at 550 nm of TiO2 films as a function of deposition rate. Starting source material, Ti3O5; process, conventional EB evaporation. This figure must be studied in conjunction with Figs. 57 and Table 2.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Extinction coefficient k versus refractive index n of TiO2 films at the 550-nm wavelength. Starting source material, Ti3O5; process, conventional EB evaporation.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Optical constants of TiO2 films at the 550-nm wavelength as a function of the process temperature. Starting source material, Ti3O5; refer to Tables 2 and 4.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Typical RLVIP Process Parameters for Deposition of Oxide Thin Films

Tables Icon

Table 2 Process Parameters and Results of TiO2 Films Deposited by Conventional EB Evaporation with Ti3O5 (OS50) as the Starting Source Material a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Process Parameters and Results of TiO2 Films Deposited by RLVIP with TiO as the Starting Source Material

Tables Icon

Table 4 Process Parameters and Results of TiO2 Films Deposited by RLVIP withTi3O5 (OS50) as the Starting Source Material a

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