Abstract

Durable, uniform, and reproducible amorphous silicon and amorphous silicon nitride thin films deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition that are appropriate for the design and fabrication of optical interference filters in the near-infrared region are found. Optical and physicalk properties of single-layer films are discussed. The durability and performance of Fabry–Perot interference filters and a 15-layer long-pass edge filter in the near-infrared region designed and fabricated with these two thin-film materials are also reported.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. J. Kushner, “Simulation of the gas-phase processes in remote-plasma-activated chemical-vapor deposition of silicon dielectrics using rare gas-silane-ammonia mixtures,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4173–4189 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. L. Smith, A. S. Alimonda, C. C. Chen, S. E. Ready, B. Wacker, “Mechanism of SiNxHy deposition from NH3–SiH4 plasma,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 137, 614–623 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Maeda, I. Umezu, “Atomic microstructure and electronic properties of a-SiNx:H deposited by radio frequency glow discharge,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 2745–2754 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. D. Partlow, W. J. Choyke, J. M. Bennett, R. M. Silva, “Optical characterization of low-scatter, plasma-deposited thin films,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials (1983), H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., NBS (U.S.) Spec. Pub.688, 302–310 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Boher, P. Houdy, L. Hennett, J. P. Delaboundiniere, M. Kuhner, P. Muller, Z. G. Li, D. J. Smith, “Silicon/silicon oxide and silicon/silicon nitride multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optical application,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1049–1060 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Itoh, S. Nitta, S. Nonomura, “Optical properties of amorphous multilayers a-Si:H/a-Si3N4:H with random well or barrier layer thickness,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 114, 723–725 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. R. Philipp, “Optical properties of silicon nitride,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 120, 295–300 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Y. Tsai, L. C. Kao, F. C. Ho, “Optical characterization of amorphous SiNx:H films prepared by plasma-enhanced CVD,” presented at the Materials Research Society Fall Meeting, Boston, Mass., 30 November–4 December 1992.
  9. N. Ibaraki, H. Fritzsche, “Properties of amorphous semiconducting a-Si:H/a-SiNx:H multilayer films and of a-SiNx:H alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 5791–5799 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Abeles, T. Tiedje, “Amorphous semiconductor superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 3003–3006 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. A. Dobrowolski, F. C. Ho, A. Waldorf, “Determination of optical constants of thin film coating materials based on inverse synthesis,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3191–3200 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. Li, Y.-H. Yen, “Wideband monitoring and measuring system for optical coatings,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2889–2894 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Shah, J. Dutta, N. Wyrsch, K. Prasad, H. Curtins, F. Finger, A. Howling, C. Hollenstein, “VHF plasma deposition: a comparative overview,” presented at the Materials Research Society Spring Meeting, San Francisco, Calif., 27 April–1 May 1992.

1992 (1)

M. J. Kushner, “Simulation of the gas-phase processes in remote-plasma-activated chemical-vapor deposition of silicon dielectrics using rare gas-silane-ammonia mixtures,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4173–4189 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

K. Maeda, I. Umezu, “Atomic microstructure and electronic properties of a-SiNx:H deposited by radio frequency glow discharge,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 2745–2754 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Boher, P. Houdy, L. Hennett, J. P. Delaboundiniere, M. Kuhner, P. Muller, Z. G. Li, D. J. Smith, “Silicon/silicon oxide and silicon/silicon nitride multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optical application,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1049–1060 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

D. L. Smith, A. S. Alimonda, C. C. Chen, S. E. Ready, B. Wacker, “Mechanism of SiNxHy deposition from NH3–SiH4 plasma,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 137, 614–623 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

T. Itoh, S. Nitta, S. Nonomura, “Optical properties of amorphous multilayers a-Si:H/a-Si3N4:H with random well or barrier layer thickness,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 114, 723–725 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, Y.-H. Yen, “Wideband monitoring and measuring system for optical coatings,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2889–2894 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

N. Ibaraki, H. Fritzsche, “Properties of amorphous semiconducting a-Si:H/a-SiNx:H multilayer films and of a-SiNx:H alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 5791–5799 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

1973 (1)

H. R. Philipp, “Optical properties of silicon nitride,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 120, 295–300 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Abeles, B.

B. Abeles, T. Tiedje, “Amorphous semiconductor superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 3003–3006 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Alimonda, A. S.

D. L. Smith, A. S. Alimonda, C. C. Chen, S. E. Ready, B. Wacker, “Mechanism of SiNxHy deposition from NH3–SiH4 plasma,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 137, 614–623 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J. M.

W. D. Partlow, W. J. Choyke, J. M. Bennett, R. M. Silva, “Optical characterization of low-scatter, plasma-deposited thin films,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials (1983), H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., NBS (U.S.) Spec. Pub.688, 302–310 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Boher, P.

P. Boher, P. Houdy, L. Hennett, J. P. Delaboundiniere, M. Kuhner, P. Muller, Z. G. Li, D. J. Smith, “Silicon/silicon oxide and silicon/silicon nitride multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optical application,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1049–1060 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. C.

D. L. Smith, A. S. Alimonda, C. C. Chen, S. E. Ready, B. Wacker, “Mechanism of SiNxHy deposition from NH3–SiH4 plasma,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 137, 614–623 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Choyke, W. J.

W. D. Partlow, W. J. Choyke, J. M. Bennett, R. M. Silva, “Optical characterization of low-scatter, plasma-deposited thin films,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials (1983), H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., NBS (U.S.) Spec. Pub.688, 302–310 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Curtins, H.

A. Shah, J. Dutta, N. Wyrsch, K. Prasad, H. Curtins, F. Finger, A. Howling, C. Hollenstein, “VHF plasma deposition: a comparative overview,” presented at the Materials Research Society Spring Meeting, San Francisco, Calif., 27 April–1 May 1992.

Delaboundiniere, J. P.

P. Boher, P. Houdy, L. Hennett, J. P. Delaboundiniere, M. Kuhner, P. Muller, Z. G. Li, D. J. Smith, “Silicon/silicon oxide and silicon/silicon nitride multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optical application,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1049–1060 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Dutta, J.

A. Shah, J. Dutta, N. Wyrsch, K. Prasad, H. Curtins, F. Finger, A. Howling, C. Hollenstein, “VHF plasma deposition: a comparative overview,” presented at the Materials Research Society Spring Meeting, San Francisco, Calif., 27 April–1 May 1992.

Finger, F.

A. Shah, J. Dutta, N. Wyrsch, K. Prasad, H. Curtins, F. Finger, A. Howling, C. Hollenstein, “VHF plasma deposition: a comparative overview,” presented at the Materials Research Society Spring Meeting, San Francisco, Calif., 27 April–1 May 1992.

Fritzsche, H.

N. Ibaraki, H. Fritzsche, “Properties of amorphous semiconducting a-Si:H/a-SiNx:H multilayer films and of a-SiNx:H alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 5791–5799 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hennett, L.

P. Boher, P. Houdy, L. Hennett, J. P. Delaboundiniere, M. Kuhner, P. Muller, Z. G. Li, D. J. Smith, “Silicon/silicon oxide and silicon/silicon nitride multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optical application,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1049–1060 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ho, F. C.

J. A. Dobrowolski, F. C. Ho, A. Waldorf, “Determination of optical constants of thin film coating materials based on inverse synthesis,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3191–3200 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Y. Tsai, L. C. Kao, F. C. Ho, “Optical characterization of amorphous SiNx:H films prepared by plasma-enhanced CVD,” presented at the Materials Research Society Fall Meeting, Boston, Mass., 30 November–4 December 1992.

Hollenstein, C.

A. Shah, J. Dutta, N. Wyrsch, K. Prasad, H. Curtins, F. Finger, A. Howling, C. Hollenstein, “VHF plasma deposition: a comparative overview,” presented at the Materials Research Society Spring Meeting, San Francisco, Calif., 27 April–1 May 1992.

Houdy, P.

P. Boher, P. Houdy, L. Hennett, J. P. Delaboundiniere, M. Kuhner, P. Muller, Z. G. Li, D. J. Smith, “Silicon/silicon oxide and silicon/silicon nitride multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optical application,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1049–1060 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Howling, A.

A. Shah, J. Dutta, N. Wyrsch, K. Prasad, H. Curtins, F. Finger, A. Howling, C. Hollenstein, “VHF plasma deposition: a comparative overview,” presented at the Materials Research Society Spring Meeting, San Francisco, Calif., 27 April–1 May 1992.

Ibaraki, N.

N. Ibaraki, H. Fritzsche, “Properties of amorphous semiconducting a-Si:H/a-SiNx:H multilayer films and of a-SiNx:H alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 5791–5799 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, T.

T. Itoh, S. Nitta, S. Nonomura, “Optical properties of amorphous multilayers a-Si:H/a-Si3N4:H with random well or barrier layer thickness,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 114, 723–725 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kao, L. C.

R. Y. Tsai, L. C. Kao, F. C. Ho, “Optical characterization of amorphous SiNx:H films prepared by plasma-enhanced CVD,” presented at the Materials Research Society Fall Meeting, Boston, Mass., 30 November–4 December 1992.

Kuhner, M.

P. Boher, P. Houdy, L. Hennett, J. P. Delaboundiniere, M. Kuhner, P. Muller, Z. G. Li, D. J. Smith, “Silicon/silicon oxide and silicon/silicon nitride multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optical application,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1049–1060 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kushner, M. J.

M. J. Kushner, “Simulation of the gas-phase processes in remote-plasma-activated chemical-vapor deposition of silicon dielectrics using rare gas-silane-ammonia mixtures,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4173–4189 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

Li, Z. G.

P. Boher, P. Houdy, L. Hennett, J. P. Delaboundiniere, M. Kuhner, P. Muller, Z. G. Li, D. J. Smith, “Silicon/silicon oxide and silicon/silicon nitride multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optical application,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1049–1060 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, K.

K. Maeda, I. Umezu, “Atomic microstructure and electronic properties of a-SiNx:H deposited by radio frequency glow discharge,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 2745–2754 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Muller, P.

P. Boher, P. Houdy, L. Hennett, J. P. Delaboundiniere, M. Kuhner, P. Muller, Z. G. Li, D. J. Smith, “Silicon/silicon oxide and silicon/silicon nitride multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optical application,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1049–1060 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nitta, S.

T. Itoh, S. Nitta, S. Nonomura, “Optical properties of amorphous multilayers a-Si:H/a-Si3N4:H with random well or barrier layer thickness,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 114, 723–725 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nonomura, S.

T. Itoh, S. Nitta, S. Nonomura, “Optical properties of amorphous multilayers a-Si:H/a-Si3N4:H with random well or barrier layer thickness,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 114, 723–725 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Partlow, W. D.

W. D. Partlow, W. J. Choyke, J. M. Bennett, R. M. Silva, “Optical characterization of low-scatter, plasma-deposited thin films,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials (1983), H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., NBS (U.S.) Spec. Pub.688, 302–310 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Philipp, H. R.

H. R. Philipp, “Optical properties of silicon nitride,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 120, 295–300 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, K.

A. Shah, J. Dutta, N. Wyrsch, K. Prasad, H. Curtins, F. Finger, A. Howling, C. Hollenstein, “VHF plasma deposition: a comparative overview,” presented at the Materials Research Society Spring Meeting, San Francisco, Calif., 27 April–1 May 1992.

Ready, S. E.

D. L. Smith, A. S. Alimonda, C. C. Chen, S. E. Ready, B. Wacker, “Mechanism of SiNxHy deposition from NH3–SiH4 plasma,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 137, 614–623 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shah, A.

A. Shah, J. Dutta, N. Wyrsch, K. Prasad, H. Curtins, F. Finger, A. Howling, C. Hollenstein, “VHF plasma deposition: a comparative overview,” presented at the Materials Research Society Spring Meeting, San Francisco, Calif., 27 April–1 May 1992.

Silva, R. M.

W. D. Partlow, W. J. Choyke, J. M. Bennett, R. M. Silva, “Optical characterization of low-scatter, plasma-deposited thin films,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials (1983), H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., NBS (U.S.) Spec. Pub.688, 302–310 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. J.

P. Boher, P. Houdy, L. Hennett, J. P. Delaboundiniere, M. Kuhner, P. Muller, Z. G. Li, D. J. Smith, “Silicon/silicon oxide and silicon/silicon nitride multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optical application,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1049–1060 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. L.

D. L. Smith, A. S. Alimonda, C. C. Chen, S. E. Ready, B. Wacker, “Mechanism of SiNxHy deposition from NH3–SiH4 plasma,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 137, 614–623 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tiedje, T.

B. Abeles, T. Tiedje, “Amorphous semiconductor superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 3003–3006 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, R. Y.

R. Y. Tsai, L. C. Kao, F. C. Ho, “Optical characterization of amorphous SiNx:H films prepared by plasma-enhanced CVD,” presented at the Materials Research Society Fall Meeting, Boston, Mass., 30 November–4 December 1992.

Umezu, I.

K. Maeda, I. Umezu, “Atomic microstructure and electronic properties of a-SiNx:H deposited by radio frequency glow discharge,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 2745–2754 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wacker, B.

D. L. Smith, A. S. Alimonda, C. C. Chen, S. E. Ready, B. Wacker, “Mechanism of SiNxHy deposition from NH3–SiH4 plasma,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 137, 614–623 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Waldorf, A.

Wyrsch, N.

A. Shah, J. Dutta, N. Wyrsch, K. Prasad, H. Curtins, F. Finger, A. Howling, C. Hollenstein, “VHF plasma deposition: a comparative overview,” presented at the Materials Research Society Spring Meeting, San Francisco, Calif., 27 April–1 May 1992.

Yen, Y.-H.

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. J. Kushner, “Simulation of the gas-phase processes in remote-plasma-activated chemical-vapor deposition of silicon dielectrics using rare gas-silane-ammonia mixtures,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4173–4189 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Maeda, I. Umezu, “Atomic microstructure and electronic properties of a-SiNx:H deposited by radio frequency glow discharge,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 2745–2754 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (2)

D. L. Smith, A. S. Alimonda, C. C. Chen, S. E. Ready, B. Wacker, “Mechanism of SiNxHy deposition from NH3–SiH4 plasma,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 137, 614–623 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Philipp, “Optical properties of silicon nitride,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 120, 295–300 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

T. Itoh, S. Nitta, S. Nonomura, “Optical properties of amorphous multilayers a-Si:H/a-Si3N4:H with random well or barrier layer thickness,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 114, 723–725 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. Boher, P. Houdy, L. Hennett, J. P. Delaboundiniere, M. Kuhner, P. Muller, Z. G. Li, D. J. Smith, “Silicon/silicon oxide and silicon/silicon nitride multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optical application,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1049–1060 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

N. Ibaraki, H. Fritzsche, “Properties of amorphous semiconducting a-Si:H/a-SiNx:H multilayer films and of a-SiNx:H alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 5791–5799 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

B. Abeles, T. Tiedje, “Amorphous semiconductor superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 3003–3006 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

A. Shah, J. Dutta, N. Wyrsch, K. Prasad, H. Curtins, F. Finger, A. Howling, C. Hollenstein, “VHF plasma deposition: a comparative overview,” presented at the Materials Research Society Spring Meeting, San Francisco, Calif., 27 April–1 May 1992.

R. Y. Tsai, L. C. Kao, F. C. Ho, “Optical characterization of amorphous SiNx:H films prepared by plasma-enhanced CVD,” presented at the Materials Research Society Fall Meeting, Boston, Mass., 30 November–4 December 1992.

W. D. Partlow, W. J. Choyke, J. M. Bennett, R. M. Silva, “Optical characterization of low-scatter, plasma-deposited thin films,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials (1983), H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., NBS (U.S.) Spec. Pub.688, 302–310 (1985).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of the PECVD apparatus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured spectral transmittance (T) and near-normal reflectance (R) curves of the a-Si:H thin film deposited by PECVD for 20 min.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured spectral transmittance (T) and near normal reflectance (R) curves of the a-SiNx:H thin film deposited by PECVD for 30 min.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variations of the geometric film thicknesses for a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H thin films versus the deposition time.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured spectral transmittance curves of the five-layer bandpass filters. The solid curves and the filled circles represent the experimentally measured and the calculated spectral transmittances, respectively, (a) air/HLHHLH/glass, (b) air/0.96H0.96L0.96H0.96H0.96L0.96H/glass.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured spectral transmittance curves of the 15-layer long-pass edge filter. The solid curve and the filled circles represent the experimentally measured and the calculated spectral transmittances, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured spectral transmittance curves of the long-pass edge filter at different sample positions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Variations of the wavelength of the transmission point of 50% versus the aging time of exposure of the long-pass edge filter to the atmosphere.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Variations of the spectral transmittance curves of the long-pass edge filter after the environmental stability and the humidity tests.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Deposition Conditions for a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H Thin Films

Tables Icon

Table 2 Averaged Dispersive Refractive Indices of a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H Thin Films

Tables Icon

Table 3 Design Parameters Optimized for the 15-Layer Long-Pass Edge Filter

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