Abstract

Special substrate-film designs are used to measure roughness-induced scattering and scattering from the volume of optical thin films separately. So theoretical models of surface roughness and volume scattering become applicable to the experimental data, and quantitative information on thin-film microstructure can be derived. Measuring total integrated and angle-resolved scattering on oxide, fluoride, and chalcogenide films of different film thicknesses yields the evolution law of microstructural growth, which for the majority of investigated films roughly follows a square-root dependence on film thickness. Packing densities of fluoride films calculated from volume-scattering data are found to agree with results from quartz-crystal monitoring.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Amra, P. Roche, E. Pelletier, “Interface roughness cross-correlation laws deduced from scattering diagram measurements on optical multilayers: effect of material grain size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1087–1093 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  2. L. Mattsson, “Light scattering and characterization of thin films,” in Thin Film Technologies II, J. R. Jacobsson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.652, 215–222 (1986).
  3. G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. J. McNally, J. R. McNeil, W. C. Herrmann, “Effect of ion assisted deposition on optical scatter and surface microstructure of thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 651–655 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. A. J. Al-Douri, O. S. Heavens, “The role of rate of deposition and substrate temperature on the structure and loss of zinc sulfide and magnesium fluoride films,” J. Phys. D 16, 927–937 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  5. C. Amra, “Diffusion de la lumière dans les traitements optiques multicouches,” Dossier d'habilitation à diriger des recherches (Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Physique de Marseille, Marseille, France, 1990).
  6. C. Amra, “From light scattering to the microstructure of thin film multilayers,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 215–217.
  7. K. H. Guenther, H. L. Gruber, H. K. Pulker, “Morphology and light scattering of dielectric multilayer systems,” Thin Solid Films 34, 363–367 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. K. Carniglia, “Scalar scattering theory for multilayer optical coatings,” Opt. Eng. 18, 104–114 (1979).
  9. C. Amra, L. Bruel, C. Grezes-Besset, “Comparison of surface and bulk scattering in optical coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 233–235.
  10. S. Kassam, A. Duparré, K. Hehl, P. Bussemer, J. Neubert, “Light scattering from the volume of optical thin films: theory and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1304–1313 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. P. Bussemer, K. Hehl, S. Kassam, “Theory of light scattering from rough surfaces and interfaces and from volume inhomogeneities in an optical layer stack,” Waves Random Media 1, 207–221 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. M. Elson, J. P. Rahn, J. M. Bennett, “Relationship of the total integrated scattering from multilayer-coated optics to angle of incidence, polarization, correlation length, and roughness cross correlation properties,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3207–3219 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. A. Duparré, R. Dohle, H. Müller, “Relation between light scattering and morphology of columnar structured optical thin films,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 1383–1390 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. M. Elson, “Infrared light scattering from surfaces covered with multiple dielectric overlayers,” Appl. Opt. 16, 2872–2881 (1977).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. P. Bousquet, F. Flory, P. Roche, “Scattering from multilayer thin films: theory and experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1115–1123 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  16. A. Duparré, H. G. Walther, “Surface smoothing and roughening by dielectric thin film deposition,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1393–1395 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. R. Messier, “Toward quantification of thin film morphology,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 496–499 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. M. Elson, “Theory of light scattering from a rough surface in an inhomogeneous dielectric permittivity,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 5460–5480 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. Duparré, E. Welsch, H.-G. Walther, N. Kaiser, H. Müller, E. Hacker, H. Lauth, J. Meyer, P. Weissbrodt, “Structure-related bulk losses in ZrO2 optical thin films,” Thin Solid Films 187, 275–288 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  20. C. Amra, P. Bousquet, “Scattering from surfaces and multilayer coatings: recent advances for a better investigation of experiment,” in Surface Measurement and Characterization, J. M. Bennett, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1009, 82–97 (1988).
  21. K. H. Guenther, P. G. Wierer, J. M. Bennett, “Surface roughness measurement of low-scatter mirrors and roughness standards,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3820–3836 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. C. F. Hickey, C. Amra, E. Pelletier, “Scattering study of single layer titania films,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2754–2761 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. M. Reichling, E. Welsch, A. Duparré, E. Matthias, “Laterally and depth resolved photothermal absorption measurements on ZrO2 and MgF2 single layer films,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1782 (to be published).
  24. H. Truckenbrodt, A. Duparré, U. Schuhmann, “Roughness and defect characterization of optical surfaces by light scattering measurements,” in Specification and Measurement of Optical Systems, L. R. Baker, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1781, 139–151 (1992).
  25. J. Neubert, “Beitrag zur Untersuchung der Grenzflächen-Korrelationseigenschaften dünner optischer Schichten nach der Streulichtmethode,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Jena, Jena, Germany, 1991).
  26. B. A. Movchan, A. V. Demchishin, “Study of the structure and properties of thin vacuum condensates of nickel, titanium, tungsten, aluminium oxide and zirconium dioxide,” Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 28, 653–660 (1969).
  27. K. H. Guenther, “Microstructure of vapor-deposited optical coatings,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3806–3816 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. E. N. Farabough, A. Feldman, J. Sun, Y. N. Sun, “Examination of thin films in the ZrO2–SiO2 system by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 1671–1674 (1987).
    [Crossref]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

P. Bussemer, K. Hehl, S. Kassam, “Theory of light scattering from rough surfaces and interfaces and from volume inhomogeneities in an optical layer stack,” Waves Random Media 1, 207–221 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

A. Duparré, E. Welsch, H.-G. Walther, N. Kaiser, H. Müller, E. Hacker, H. Lauth, J. Meyer, P. Weissbrodt, “Structure-related bulk losses in ZrO2 optical thin films,” Thin Solid Films 187, 275–288 (1990).
[Crossref]

A. Duparré, R. Dohle, H. Müller, “Relation between light scattering and morphology of columnar structured optical thin films,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 1383–1390 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

1987 (2)

E. N. Farabough, A. Feldman, J. Sun, Y. N. Sun, “Examination of thin films in the ZrO2–SiO2 system by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 1671–1674 (1987).
[Crossref]

C. Amra, P. Roche, E. Pelletier, “Interface roughness cross-correlation laws deduced from scattering diagram measurements on optical multilayers: effect of material grain size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1087–1093 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

R. Messier, “Toward quantification of thin film morphology,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 496–499 (1986).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. J. McNally, J. R. McNeil, W. C. Herrmann, “Effect of ion assisted deposition on optical scatter and surface microstructure of thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 651–655 (1985).
[Crossref]

1984 (3)

1983 (2)

A. A. J. Al-Douri, O. S. Heavens, “The role of rate of deposition and substrate temperature on the structure and loss of zinc sulfide and magnesium fluoride films,” J. Phys. D 16, 927–937 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. M. Elson, J. P. Rahn, J. M. Bennett, “Relationship of the total integrated scattering from multilayer-coated optics to angle of incidence, polarization, correlation length, and roughness cross correlation properties,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3207–3219 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

1979 (1)

C. K. Carniglia, “Scalar scattering theory for multilayer optical coatings,” Opt. Eng. 18, 104–114 (1979).

1977 (1)

1976 (1)

K. H. Guenther, H. L. Gruber, H. K. Pulker, “Morphology and light scattering of dielectric multilayer systems,” Thin Solid Films 34, 363–367 (1976).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

B. A. Movchan, A. V. Demchishin, “Study of the structure and properties of thin vacuum condensates of nickel, titanium, tungsten, aluminium oxide and zirconium dioxide,” Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 28, 653–660 (1969).

Al-Douri, A. A. J.

A. A. J. Al-Douri, O. S. Heavens, “The role of rate of deposition and substrate temperature on the structure and loss of zinc sulfide and magnesium fluoride films,” J. Phys. D 16, 927–937 (1983).
[Crossref]

Al-Jumaily, G. A.

G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. J. McNally, J. R. McNeil, W. C. Herrmann, “Effect of ion assisted deposition on optical scatter and surface microstructure of thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 651–655 (1985).
[Crossref]

Amra, C.

C. F. Hickey, C. Amra, E. Pelletier, “Scattering study of single layer titania films,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2754–2761 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Amra, P. Roche, E. Pelletier, “Interface roughness cross-correlation laws deduced from scattering diagram measurements on optical multilayers: effect of material grain size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1087–1093 (1987).
[Crossref]

C. Amra, “Diffusion de la lumière dans les traitements optiques multicouches,” Dossier d'habilitation à diriger des recherches (Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Physique de Marseille, Marseille, France, 1990).

C. Amra, “From light scattering to the microstructure of thin film multilayers,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 215–217.

C. Amra, L. Bruel, C. Grezes-Besset, “Comparison of surface and bulk scattering in optical coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 233–235.

C. Amra, P. Bousquet, “Scattering from surfaces and multilayer coatings: recent advances for a better investigation of experiment,” in Surface Measurement and Characterization, J. M. Bennett, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1009, 82–97 (1988).

Bennett, J. M.

Bousquet, P.

P. Bousquet, F. Flory, P. Roche, “Scattering from multilayer thin films: theory and experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1115–1123 (1981).
[Crossref]

C. Amra, P. Bousquet, “Scattering from surfaces and multilayer coatings: recent advances for a better investigation of experiment,” in Surface Measurement and Characterization, J. M. Bennett, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1009, 82–97 (1988).

Bruel, L.

C. Amra, L. Bruel, C. Grezes-Besset, “Comparison of surface and bulk scattering in optical coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 233–235.

Bussemer, P.

S. Kassam, A. Duparré, K. Hehl, P. Bussemer, J. Neubert, “Light scattering from the volume of optical thin films: theory and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1304–1313 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bussemer, K. Hehl, S. Kassam, “Theory of light scattering from rough surfaces and interfaces and from volume inhomogeneities in an optical layer stack,” Waves Random Media 1, 207–221 (1991).
[Crossref]

Carniglia, C. K.

C. K. Carniglia, “Scalar scattering theory for multilayer optical coatings,” Opt. Eng. 18, 104–114 (1979).

Demchishin, A. V.

B. A. Movchan, A. V. Demchishin, “Study of the structure and properties of thin vacuum condensates of nickel, titanium, tungsten, aluminium oxide and zirconium dioxide,” Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 28, 653–660 (1969).

Dohle, R.

A. Duparré, R. Dohle, H. Müller, “Relation between light scattering and morphology of columnar structured optical thin films,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 1383–1390 (1990).
[Crossref]

Duparré, A.

S. Kassam, A. Duparré, K. Hehl, P. Bussemer, J. Neubert, “Light scattering from the volume of optical thin films: theory and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1304–1313 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Duparré, R. Dohle, H. Müller, “Relation between light scattering and morphology of columnar structured optical thin films,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 1383–1390 (1990).
[Crossref]

A. Duparré, E. Welsch, H.-G. Walther, N. Kaiser, H. Müller, E. Hacker, H. Lauth, J. Meyer, P. Weissbrodt, “Structure-related bulk losses in ZrO2 optical thin films,” Thin Solid Films 187, 275–288 (1990).
[Crossref]

A. Duparré, H. G. Walther, “Surface smoothing and roughening by dielectric thin film deposition,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1393–1395 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Reichling, E. Welsch, A. Duparré, E. Matthias, “Laterally and depth resolved photothermal absorption measurements on ZrO2 and MgF2 single layer films,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1782 (to be published).

H. Truckenbrodt, A. Duparré, U. Schuhmann, “Roughness and defect characterization of optical surfaces by light scattering measurements,” in Specification and Measurement of Optical Systems, L. R. Baker, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1781, 139–151 (1992).

Elson, J. M.

Farabough, E. N.

E. N. Farabough, A. Feldman, J. Sun, Y. N. Sun, “Examination of thin films in the ZrO2–SiO2 system by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 1671–1674 (1987).
[Crossref]

Feldman, A.

E. N. Farabough, A. Feldman, J. Sun, Y. N. Sun, “Examination of thin films in the ZrO2–SiO2 system by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 1671–1674 (1987).
[Crossref]

Flory, F.

Grezes-Besset, C.

C. Amra, L. Bruel, C. Grezes-Besset, “Comparison of surface and bulk scattering in optical coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 233–235.

Gruber, H. L.

K. H. Guenther, H. L. Gruber, H. K. Pulker, “Morphology and light scattering of dielectric multilayer systems,” Thin Solid Films 34, 363–367 (1976).
[Crossref]

Guenther, K. H.

Hacker, E.

A. Duparré, E. Welsch, H.-G. Walther, N. Kaiser, H. Müller, E. Hacker, H. Lauth, J. Meyer, P. Weissbrodt, “Structure-related bulk losses in ZrO2 optical thin films,” Thin Solid Films 187, 275–288 (1990).
[Crossref]

Heavens, O. S.

A. A. J. Al-Douri, O. S. Heavens, “The role of rate of deposition and substrate temperature on the structure and loss of zinc sulfide and magnesium fluoride films,” J. Phys. D 16, 927–937 (1983).
[Crossref]

Hehl, K.

S. Kassam, A. Duparré, K. Hehl, P. Bussemer, J. Neubert, “Light scattering from the volume of optical thin films: theory and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1304–1313 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bussemer, K. Hehl, S. Kassam, “Theory of light scattering from rough surfaces and interfaces and from volume inhomogeneities in an optical layer stack,” Waves Random Media 1, 207–221 (1991).
[Crossref]

Herrmann, W. C.

G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. J. McNally, J. R. McNeil, W. C. Herrmann, “Effect of ion assisted deposition on optical scatter and surface microstructure of thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 651–655 (1985).
[Crossref]

Hickey, C. F.

Kaiser, N.

A. Duparré, E. Welsch, H.-G. Walther, N. Kaiser, H. Müller, E. Hacker, H. Lauth, J. Meyer, P. Weissbrodt, “Structure-related bulk losses in ZrO2 optical thin films,” Thin Solid Films 187, 275–288 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kassam, S.

S. Kassam, A. Duparré, K. Hehl, P. Bussemer, J. Neubert, “Light scattering from the volume of optical thin films: theory and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1304–1313 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bussemer, K. Hehl, S. Kassam, “Theory of light scattering from rough surfaces and interfaces and from volume inhomogeneities in an optical layer stack,” Waves Random Media 1, 207–221 (1991).
[Crossref]

Lauth, H.

A. Duparré, E. Welsch, H.-G. Walther, N. Kaiser, H. Müller, E. Hacker, H. Lauth, J. Meyer, P. Weissbrodt, “Structure-related bulk losses in ZrO2 optical thin films,” Thin Solid Films 187, 275–288 (1990).
[Crossref]

Matthias, E.

M. Reichling, E. Welsch, A. Duparré, E. Matthias, “Laterally and depth resolved photothermal absorption measurements on ZrO2 and MgF2 single layer films,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1782 (to be published).

Mattsson, L.

L. Mattsson, “Light scattering and characterization of thin films,” in Thin Film Technologies II, J. R. Jacobsson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.652, 215–222 (1986).

McNally, J. J.

G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. J. McNally, J. R. McNeil, W. C. Herrmann, “Effect of ion assisted deposition on optical scatter and surface microstructure of thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 651–655 (1985).
[Crossref]

McNeil, J. R.

G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. J. McNally, J. R. McNeil, W. C. Herrmann, “Effect of ion assisted deposition on optical scatter and surface microstructure of thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 651–655 (1985).
[Crossref]

Messier, R.

R. Messier, “Toward quantification of thin film morphology,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 496–499 (1986).
[Crossref]

Meyer, J.

A. Duparré, E. Welsch, H.-G. Walther, N. Kaiser, H. Müller, E. Hacker, H. Lauth, J. Meyer, P. Weissbrodt, “Structure-related bulk losses in ZrO2 optical thin films,” Thin Solid Films 187, 275–288 (1990).
[Crossref]

Movchan, B. A.

B. A. Movchan, A. V. Demchishin, “Study of the structure and properties of thin vacuum condensates of nickel, titanium, tungsten, aluminium oxide and zirconium dioxide,” Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 28, 653–660 (1969).

Müller, H.

A. Duparré, E. Welsch, H.-G. Walther, N. Kaiser, H. Müller, E. Hacker, H. Lauth, J. Meyer, P. Weissbrodt, “Structure-related bulk losses in ZrO2 optical thin films,” Thin Solid Films 187, 275–288 (1990).
[Crossref]

A. Duparré, R. Dohle, H. Müller, “Relation between light scattering and morphology of columnar structured optical thin films,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 1383–1390 (1990).
[Crossref]

Neubert, J.

S. Kassam, A. Duparré, K. Hehl, P. Bussemer, J. Neubert, “Light scattering from the volume of optical thin films: theory and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1304–1313 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Neubert, “Beitrag zur Untersuchung der Grenzflächen-Korrelationseigenschaften dünner optischer Schichten nach der Streulichtmethode,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Jena, Jena, Germany, 1991).

Pelletier, E.

Pulker, H. K.

K. H. Guenther, H. L. Gruber, H. K. Pulker, “Morphology and light scattering of dielectric multilayer systems,” Thin Solid Films 34, 363–367 (1976).
[Crossref]

Rahn, J. P.

Reichling, M.

M. Reichling, E. Welsch, A. Duparré, E. Matthias, “Laterally and depth resolved photothermal absorption measurements on ZrO2 and MgF2 single layer films,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1782 (to be published).

Roche, P.

Schuhmann, U.

H. Truckenbrodt, A. Duparré, U. Schuhmann, “Roughness and defect characterization of optical surfaces by light scattering measurements,” in Specification and Measurement of Optical Systems, L. R. Baker, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1781, 139–151 (1992).

Sun, J.

E. N. Farabough, A. Feldman, J. Sun, Y. N. Sun, “Examination of thin films in the ZrO2–SiO2 system by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 1671–1674 (1987).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y. N.

E. N. Farabough, A. Feldman, J. Sun, Y. N. Sun, “Examination of thin films in the ZrO2–SiO2 system by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 1671–1674 (1987).
[Crossref]

Truckenbrodt, H.

H. Truckenbrodt, A. Duparré, U. Schuhmann, “Roughness and defect characterization of optical surfaces by light scattering measurements,” in Specification and Measurement of Optical Systems, L. R. Baker, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1781, 139–151 (1992).

Walther, H. G.

Walther, H.-G.

A. Duparré, E. Welsch, H.-G. Walther, N. Kaiser, H. Müller, E. Hacker, H. Lauth, J. Meyer, P. Weissbrodt, “Structure-related bulk losses in ZrO2 optical thin films,” Thin Solid Films 187, 275–288 (1990).
[Crossref]

Weissbrodt, P.

A. Duparré, E. Welsch, H.-G. Walther, N. Kaiser, H. Müller, E. Hacker, H. Lauth, J. Meyer, P. Weissbrodt, “Structure-related bulk losses in ZrO2 optical thin films,” Thin Solid Films 187, 275–288 (1990).
[Crossref]

Welsch, E.

A. Duparré, E. Welsch, H.-G. Walther, N. Kaiser, H. Müller, E. Hacker, H. Lauth, J. Meyer, P. Weissbrodt, “Structure-related bulk losses in ZrO2 optical thin films,” Thin Solid Films 187, 275–288 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. Reichling, E. Welsch, A. Duparré, E. Matthias, “Laterally and depth resolved photothermal absorption measurements on ZrO2 and MgF2 single layer films,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1782 (to be published).

Wierer, P. G.

Appl. Opt. (7)

Fiz. Met. Metalloved. (1)

B. A. Movchan, A. V. Demchishin, “Study of the structure and properties of thin vacuum condensates of nickel, titanium, tungsten, aluminium oxide and zirconium dioxide,” Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 28, 653–660 (1969).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. Duparré, R. Dohle, H. Müller, “Relation between light scattering and morphology of columnar structured optical thin films,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 1383–1390 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

A. A. J. Al-Douri, O. S. Heavens, “The role of rate of deposition and substrate temperature on the structure and loss of zinc sulfide and magnesium fluoride films,” J. Phys. D 16, 927–937 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (3)

G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. J. McNally, J. R. McNeil, W. C. Herrmann, “Effect of ion assisted deposition on optical scatter and surface microstructure of thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 651–655 (1985).
[Crossref]

R. Messier, “Toward quantification of thin film morphology,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 496–499 (1986).
[Crossref]

E. N. Farabough, A. Feldman, J. Sun, Y. N. Sun, “Examination of thin films in the ZrO2–SiO2 system by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 1671–1674 (1987).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. K. Carniglia, “Scalar scattering theory for multilayer optical coatings,” Opt. Eng. 18, 104–114 (1979).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. M. Elson, “Theory of light scattering from a rough surface in an inhomogeneous dielectric permittivity,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 5460–5480 (1984).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (2)

A. Duparré, E. Welsch, H.-G. Walther, N. Kaiser, H. Müller, E. Hacker, H. Lauth, J. Meyer, P. Weissbrodt, “Structure-related bulk losses in ZrO2 optical thin films,” Thin Solid Films 187, 275–288 (1990).
[Crossref]

K. H. Guenther, H. L. Gruber, H. K. Pulker, “Morphology and light scattering of dielectric multilayer systems,” Thin Solid Films 34, 363–367 (1976).
[Crossref]

Waves Random Media (1)

P. Bussemer, K. Hehl, S. Kassam, “Theory of light scattering from rough surfaces and interfaces and from volume inhomogeneities in an optical layer stack,” Waves Random Media 1, 207–221 (1991).
[Crossref]

Other (8)

C. Amra, P. Bousquet, “Scattering from surfaces and multilayer coatings: recent advances for a better investigation of experiment,” in Surface Measurement and Characterization, J. M. Bennett, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1009, 82–97 (1988).

C. Amra, L. Bruel, C. Grezes-Besset, “Comparison of surface and bulk scattering in optical coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 233–235.

C. Amra, “Diffusion de la lumière dans les traitements optiques multicouches,” Dossier d'habilitation à diriger des recherches (Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Physique de Marseille, Marseille, France, 1990).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sample configurations used for volume-scattering and surface-scattering measurements at normal incidence. f, dielectric film; s, substrate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross-sectional TEM picture (C-Pt replica) of an Al-overcoated PbF2 film.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TIS measurement setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

ARS measurement setup.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured ARS (s polarization, λ = 633 nm): (a) surface scattering of Al-overcoated films (upper curve, 3λ PbF2 film; lower curve, BK-7 substrate); (b) volume scattering of a 5λ PbF2 film.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured ARS on BaF2 films (s polarization, λ = 633 nm): (a) surface scattering of an Al-overcoated 3λ film, (b) volume scattering of a 3λ film.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Total integrated surface-scattering measurements on MgF2 films on BK-7 substrates. Film thicknesses d = 690 nm (upper curve) and d′ = 410 nm (lower curve). Both samples were overcoated with Al.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Evolutionary Exponent κ Estimated from TISs and TISv Measurements (λ = 633 nm)

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Table 2 Packing Densities Obtained from TISv Measurements (λ = 633 nm) on PbF2 and BaF2 Films

Equations (8)

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d P s P 0 d Ω = F s g s ( k ) ,
TIS s = F s τ s 2 σ s 2 λ 4 ,
τ s d κ s .
κ s = ln [ TIS s ( d ) / TIS s ( d ) ] 4 ln ( d / d ) ,
d P υ P 0 d Ω = F υ g υ ( k ) ,
TIS υ = F υ τ υ 2 σ υ 2 λ 2 ,
σ υ 2 = ( n void 2 n 2 ) p 2 ( 1 p ) .
κ υ = ln { [ m TIS υ ( m ) ] / [ m TIS υ ( m ) ] } 2 ln ( m / m ) .

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