Abstract

A spatially resolved optical diagnostic for GaCl is described. The technique uses 248-nm excimer laser radiation to photolyze GaCl and also to excite fluorescence in the resulting gallium atoms. This yields gallium fluorescence at 245, 266, 287, 294, 403, and 417 nm. The method is specific to GaCl and is not affected by the presence of a GaCl3 precursor. Gallium fluorescence is linear in both the GaCl partial pressure and the laser energy under specified conditions. The photophysics of this process are contrasted to related GACl studies of dissociative excitation at 193 nm.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. J. Alfano, D. J. Benard. “High temperature characterization of the GaCl3/SiH4/H2 CVD reaction mixture,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2530–2534 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. E. Huffman, “A new high purity doping source for CVD Si:Ga epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 87, 425–430 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. F. Karlicek, B. Hammarlund, J. Ginocchio, “UV absorption spectroscopy for monitoring hydride vapor-phase epitaxy of InGaAsP alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 794–799 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. M. Donnelly, R. F. Karlicek, “Development of laser diagnostic probes for chemical vapor deposition of InP/InGaAsP epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 6399–6407 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. K. Levin, J. G. Winans, “The absorption spectrum of GaCl,” Phys. Rev. 84, 431–440 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. J. Ehrlich, R. M. Osgood, “Alkali-metal resonance-line lasers based on photodissociation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 655–658 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. C. White, “Inversion of the Na resonance line by selective photodissociation of NaI,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 325–327 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Burnham, “Atomic indium photodissociation laser at 451 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 132–134 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. A. Cool, J. B. Koffend, “Two-photon excitation of indium atoms by photodissociation of InCl and InBr,” J. Chem. Phys. 74, 2287–2292 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. J. Ehrlich, J. Maya, R. M. Osgood, “Efficient thallium photodissociation laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 931–933 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. A. Scott, J. A. Piper, “Cross sections for production of atomic thallium states in photodissociation of thallium halides,” J. Chem. Phys. 84, 4299–4303 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. B. Geohagen, A. W. McCown, J. G. Eden, “Photoionization of vapor phase thallium and indium monohalides in the ultraviolet: Absolute cross sections of photofragment spectroscopy by photodetachment of I−,” J. Chem. Phys. 81, 5336–5351 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. M. Schilowitz, J. R. Wiesenfeld, R. H. Young, “Efficient production of atomic thallium (2P3/2) in the photodissociation of thallium (I) iodide at 248 nm,” J. Chem. Phys. 75, 1038–1040 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. S. Chou, T. A. Cool, “Laser operation by dissociation of metal complexes: New transitions in As, Bi, Ga, Ge, Hg, In, Pb, Sb, and TI,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1055–1061 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Hemmati, G. Collins, “Atomic gallium photodissociation laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 844–845 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. B. Childs, “Low pressure mercury arc for ultraviolet calibration,” Appl. Opt. 1, 711–716 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. P. Huber, G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure (Van Nostrand, New York, 1979), Vol. 4, p. 222.
  18. M. Norton, A. Gallagher, “Measurements of lowest S-state lifetimes of gallium, indium, and thallium,” Phys. Rev. A 3, 915–927 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Carlsson, H. Lundberg, W. X. Peng, A. Persson, C. G. Wahlstrom, T. Brage, C. F. Fischer, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of radiative lifetimes in neutral gallium,” Z. Phys. D, 3, 345–351 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. R. Lide, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 71st ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla.1990), pp. 6–51.

1993 (1)

A. J. Alfano, D. J. Benard. “High temperature characterization of the GaCl3/SiH4/H2 CVD reaction mixture,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2530–2534 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J. E. Huffman, “A new high purity doping source for CVD Si:Ga epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 87, 425–430 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (3)

R. F. Karlicek, B. Hammarlund, J. Ginocchio, “UV absorption spectroscopy for monitoring hydride vapor-phase epitaxy of InGaAsP alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 794–799 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Scott, J. A. Piper, “Cross sections for production of atomic thallium states in photodissociation of thallium halides,” J. Chem. Phys. 84, 4299–4303 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Carlsson, H. Lundberg, W. X. Peng, A. Persson, C. G. Wahlstrom, T. Brage, C. F. Fischer, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of radiative lifetimes in neutral gallium,” Z. Phys. D, 3, 345–351 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. B. Geohagen, A. W. McCown, J. G. Eden, “Photoionization of vapor phase thallium and indium monohalides in the ultraviolet: Absolute cross sections of photofragment spectroscopy by photodetachment of I−,” J. Chem. Phys. 81, 5336–5351 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

V. M. Donnelly, R. F. Karlicek, “Development of laser diagnostic probes for chemical vapor deposition of InP/InGaAsP epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 6399–6407 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

T. A. Cool, J. B. Koffend, “Two-photon excitation of indium atoms by photodissociation of InCl and InBr,” J. Chem. Phys. 74, 2287–2292 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Schilowitz, J. R. Wiesenfeld, R. H. Young, “Efficient production of atomic thallium (2P3/2) in the photodissociation of thallium (I) iodide at 248 nm,” J. Chem. Phys. 75, 1038–1040 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

H. Hemmati, G. Collins, “Atomic gallium photodissociation laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 844–845 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Ehrlich, R. M. Osgood, “Alkali-metal resonance-line lasers based on photodissociation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 655–658 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

J. C. White, “Inversion of the Na resonance line by selective photodissociation of NaI,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 325–327 (1978).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Ehrlich, J. Maya, R. M. Osgood, “Efficient thallium photodissociation laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 931–933 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

R. Burnham, “Atomic indium photodissociation laser at 451 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 132–134 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

M. S. Chou, T. A. Cool, “Laser operation by dissociation of metal complexes: New transitions in As, Bi, Ga, Ge, Hg, In, Pb, Sb, and TI,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1055–1061 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

M. Norton, A. Gallagher, “Measurements of lowest S-state lifetimes of gallium, indium, and thallium,” Phys. Rev. A 3, 915–927 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

1951 (1)

F. K. Levin, J. G. Winans, “The absorption spectrum of GaCl,” Phys. Rev. 84, 431–440 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, A. J.

A. J. Alfano, D. J. Benard. “High temperature characterization of the GaCl3/SiH4/H2 CVD reaction mixture,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2530–2534 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Benard, D. J.

A. J. Alfano, D. J. Benard. “High temperature characterization of the GaCl3/SiH4/H2 CVD reaction mixture,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2530–2534 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brage, T.

J. Carlsson, H. Lundberg, W. X. Peng, A. Persson, C. G. Wahlstrom, T. Brage, C. F. Fischer, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of radiative lifetimes in neutral gallium,” Z. Phys. D, 3, 345–351 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Burnham, R.

R. Burnham, “Atomic indium photodissociation laser at 451 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 132–134 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Carlsson, J.

J. Carlsson, H. Lundberg, W. X. Peng, A. Persson, C. G. Wahlstrom, T. Brage, C. F. Fischer, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of radiative lifetimes in neutral gallium,” Z. Phys. D, 3, 345–351 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Childs, C. B.

Chou, M. S.

M. S. Chou, T. A. Cool, “Laser operation by dissociation of metal complexes: New transitions in As, Bi, Ga, Ge, Hg, In, Pb, Sb, and TI,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1055–1061 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Collins, G.

H. Hemmati, G. Collins, “Atomic gallium photodissociation laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 844–845 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Cool, T. A.

T. A. Cool, J. B. Koffend, “Two-photon excitation of indium atoms by photodissociation of InCl and InBr,” J. Chem. Phys. 74, 2287–2292 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Chou, T. A. Cool, “Laser operation by dissociation of metal complexes: New transitions in As, Bi, Ga, Ge, Hg, In, Pb, Sb, and TI,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1055–1061 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, V. M.

V. M. Donnelly, R. F. Karlicek, “Development of laser diagnostic probes for chemical vapor deposition of InP/InGaAsP epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 6399–6407 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Eden, J. G.

D. B. Geohagen, A. W. McCown, J. G. Eden, “Photoionization of vapor phase thallium and indium monohalides in the ultraviolet: Absolute cross sections of photofragment spectroscopy by photodetachment of I−,” J. Chem. Phys. 81, 5336–5351 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ehrlich, D. J.

D. J. Ehrlich, R. M. Osgood, “Alkali-metal resonance-line lasers based on photodissociation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 655–658 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Ehrlich, J. Maya, R. M. Osgood, “Efficient thallium photodissociation laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 931–933 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, C. F.

J. Carlsson, H. Lundberg, W. X. Peng, A. Persson, C. G. Wahlstrom, T. Brage, C. F. Fischer, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of radiative lifetimes in neutral gallium,” Z. Phys. D, 3, 345–351 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, A.

M. Norton, A. Gallagher, “Measurements of lowest S-state lifetimes of gallium, indium, and thallium,” Phys. Rev. A 3, 915–927 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Geohagen, D. B.

D. B. Geohagen, A. W. McCown, J. G. Eden, “Photoionization of vapor phase thallium and indium monohalides in the ultraviolet: Absolute cross sections of photofragment spectroscopy by photodetachment of I−,” J. Chem. Phys. 81, 5336–5351 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ginocchio, J.

R. F. Karlicek, B. Hammarlund, J. Ginocchio, “UV absorption spectroscopy for monitoring hydride vapor-phase epitaxy of InGaAsP alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 794–799 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hammarlund, B.

R. F. Karlicek, B. Hammarlund, J. Ginocchio, “UV absorption spectroscopy for monitoring hydride vapor-phase epitaxy of InGaAsP alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 794–799 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hemmati, H.

H. Hemmati, G. Collins, “Atomic gallium photodissociation laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 844–845 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Herzberg, G.

K. P. Huber, G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure (Van Nostrand, New York, 1979), Vol. 4, p. 222.

Huber, K. P.

K. P. Huber, G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure (Van Nostrand, New York, 1979), Vol. 4, p. 222.

Huffman, J. E.

J. E. Huffman, “A new high purity doping source for CVD Si:Ga epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 87, 425–430 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Karlicek, R. F.

R. F. Karlicek, B. Hammarlund, J. Ginocchio, “UV absorption spectroscopy for monitoring hydride vapor-phase epitaxy of InGaAsP alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 794–799 (1986).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Donnelly, R. F. Karlicek, “Development of laser diagnostic probes for chemical vapor deposition of InP/InGaAsP epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 6399–6407 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Koffend, J. B.

T. A. Cool, J. B. Koffend, “Two-photon excitation of indium atoms by photodissociation of InCl and InBr,” J. Chem. Phys. 74, 2287–2292 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Levin, F. K.

F. K. Levin, J. G. Winans, “The absorption spectrum of GaCl,” Phys. Rev. 84, 431–440 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Lundberg, H.

J. Carlsson, H. Lundberg, W. X. Peng, A. Persson, C. G. Wahlstrom, T. Brage, C. F. Fischer, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of radiative lifetimes in neutral gallium,” Z. Phys. D, 3, 345–351 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Maya, J.

D. J. Ehrlich, J. Maya, R. M. Osgood, “Efficient thallium photodissociation laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 931–933 (1978).
[CrossRef]

McCown, A. W.

D. B. Geohagen, A. W. McCown, J. G. Eden, “Photoionization of vapor phase thallium and indium monohalides in the ultraviolet: Absolute cross sections of photofragment spectroscopy by photodetachment of I−,” J. Chem. Phys. 81, 5336–5351 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Norton, M.

M. Norton, A. Gallagher, “Measurements of lowest S-state lifetimes of gallium, indium, and thallium,” Phys. Rev. A 3, 915–927 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

D. J. Ehrlich, R. M. Osgood, “Alkali-metal resonance-line lasers based on photodissociation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 655–658 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Ehrlich, J. Maya, R. M. Osgood, “Efficient thallium photodissociation laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 931–933 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Peng, W. X.

J. Carlsson, H. Lundberg, W. X. Peng, A. Persson, C. G. Wahlstrom, T. Brage, C. F. Fischer, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of radiative lifetimes in neutral gallium,” Z. Phys. D, 3, 345–351 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Persson, A.

J. Carlsson, H. Lundberg, W. X. Peng, A. Persson, C. G. Wahlstrom, T. Brage, C. F. Fischer, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of radiative lifetimes in neutral gallium,” Z. Phys. D, 3, 345–351 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Piper, J. A.

D. A. Scott, J. A. Piper, “Cross sections for production of atomic thallium states in photodissociation of thallium halides,” J. Chem. Phys. 84, 4299–4303 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Schilowitz, A. M.

A. M. Schilowitz, J. R. Wiesenfeld, R. H. Young, “Efficient production of atomic thallium (2P3/2) in the photodissociation of thallium (I) iodide at 248 nm,” J. Chem. Phys. 75, 1038–1040 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Scott, D. A.

D. A. Scott, J. A. Piper, “Cross sections for production of atomic thallium states in photodissociation of thallium halides,” J. Chem. Phys. 84, 4299–4303 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wahlstrom, C. G.

J. Carlsson, H. Lundberg, W. X. Peng, A. Persson, C. G. Wahlstrom, T. Brage, C. F. Fischer, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of radiative lifetimes in neutral gallium,” Z. Phys. D, 3, 345–351 (1986).
[CrossRef]

White, J. C.

J. C. White, “Inversion of the Na resonance line by selective photodissociation of NaI,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 325–327 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Wiesenfeld, J. R.

A. M. Schilowitz, J. R. Wiesenfeld, R. H. Young, “Efficient production of atomic thallium (2P3/2) in the photodissociation of thallium (I) iodide at 248 nm,” J. Chem. Phys. 75, 1038–1040 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Winans, J. G.

F. K. Levin, J. G. Winans, “The absorption spectrum of GaCl,” Phys. Rev. 84, 431–440 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Young, R. H.

A. M. Schilowitz, J. R. Wiesenfeld, R. H. Young, “Efficient production of atomic thallium (2P3/2) in the photodissociation of thallium (I) iodide at 248 nm,” J. Chem. Phys. 75, 1038–1040 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

D. J. Ehrlich, R. M. Osgood, “Alkali-metal resonance-line lasers based on photodissociation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 655–658 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. C. White, “Inversion of the Na resonance line by selective photodissociation of NaI,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 325–327 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. Burnham, “Atomic indium photodissociation laser at 451 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 132–134 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Ehrlich, J. Maya, R. M. Osgood, “Efficient thallium photodissociation laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 931–933 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. Hemmati, G. Collins, “Atomic gallium photodissociation laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 844–845 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

A. J. Alfano, D. J. Benard. “High temperature characterization of the GaCl3/SiH4/H2 CVD reaction mixture,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2530–2534 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Karlicek, B. Hammarlund, J. Ginocchio, “UV absorption spectroscopy for monitoring hydride vapor-phase epitaxy of InGaAsP alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 794–799 (1986).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Donnelly, R. F. Karlicek, “Development of laser diagnostic probes for chemical vapor deposition of InP/InGaAsP epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 6399–6407 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Chou, T. A. Cool, “Laser operation by dissociation of metal complexes: New transitions in As, Bi, Ga, Ge, Hg, In, Pb, Sb, and TI,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1055–1061 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (4)

T. A. Cool, J. B. Koffend, “Two-photon excitation of indium atoms by photodissociation of InCl and InBr,” J. Chem. Phys. 74, 2287–2292 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Scott, J. A. Piper, “Cross sections for production of atomic thallium states in photodissociation of thallium halides,” J. Chem. Phys. 84, 4299–4303 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Geohagen, A. W. McCown, J. G. Eden, “Photoionization of vapor phase thallium and indium monohalides in the ultraviolet: Absolute cross sections of photofragment spectroscopy by photodetachment of I−,” J. Chem. Phys. 81, 5336–5351 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Schilowitz, J. R. Wiesenfeld, R. H. Young, “Efficient production of atomic thallium (2P3/2) in the photodissociation of thallium (I) iodide at 248 nm,” J. Chem. Phys. 75, 1038–1040 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

J. E. Huffman, “A new high purity doping source for CVD Si:Ga epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 87, 425–430 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

F. K. Levin, J. G. Winans, “The absorption spectrum of GaCl,” Phys. Rev. 84, 431–440 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Norton, A. Gallagher, “Measurements of lowest S-state lifetimes of gallium, indium, and thallium,” Phys. Rev. A 3, 915–927 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. D (1)

J. Carlsson, H. Lundberg, W. X. Peng, A. Persson, C. G. Wahlstrom, T. Brage, C. F. Fischer, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of radiative lifetimes in neutral gallium,” Z. Phys. D, 3, 345–351 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. R. Lide, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 71st ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla.1990), pp. 6–51.

K. P. Huber, G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure (Van Nostrand, New York, 1979), Vol. 4, p. 222.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Small-scale CVD reactor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Laser-induced fluorescence from various gallium atomic states. (a) 245 nm (17x), (b) 266 nm (545x), (c) 287 nm (49x), (d) 294 nm (11x), (e) 403 nm (1x), and (f) 417 nm (1x). Numbers in parentheses are relative amplifications after correction for detection system wavelength response.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Power dependence of 417- and 294-nm Ga fluorescence. The GaCl3 reservoir temperture was 305 K, and the laser energy varied from 1 to 20 mJ.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of 417-nm Ga fluorescence on GaCl3 reservoir temperature.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temporal profile of laser scatter at 248- and 417-nm Ga fluorescence.

Equations (6)

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h v + M X M * + X ,
2 h v + M X M * + X .
GaCl + h v ( 193 nm ) Ga + Cl , Ga + h v ( 193 nm ) Ga + + e , Ga + + e Ga * , Ga * Ga + h v .
GaCl + h v ( 248 nm ) Ga ( 4 p P 2 1 / 2 , 3 / 2 ) + Cl , Ga ( 4 p P 2 1 / 2 , 3 / 2 ) + h v ( 248 nm ) Ga * , Ga * Ga + h v .
5 d D 2 3 / 2 - 4 p P 2 1 / 2 ( 245 nm ) , 6 s S 2 1 / 2 - 4 p P 2 1 / 2 ° ( 266 nm ) , 4 d D 2 3 / 2 - 4 p P 2 1 / 2 ° ( 287 nm ) , 4 d D 2 5 / 2 , 3 / 2 - 4 p P 2 3 / 2 ° ( 294 nm ) , 5 s S 2 1 / 2 - 4 p P 2 1 / 2 ° ( 403 nm ) , and 5 s S 2 1 / 2 - 4 p P 2 3 / 2 ° ( 417 nm ) .
GaCl + h v ( 248 ) Ga ( 4 p P 2 1 / 2 , 3 / 2 ) + Cl , Ga ( 4 p P 2 3 / 2 ) + h v ( 248 ) Ga ( 5 d D 2 3 / 2 , 5 / 2 ) , Ga ( 5 d D 2 3 / 2 ) Ga ( 4 p P 2 1 / 2 ° ) + h v ( 245 nm ) , Ga ( 5 d D 2 3 / 2 ) Ga ( 6 s S 2 1 / 2 , 4 d D 2 3 / 2 , 5 / 2 , 5 s S 2 1 / 2 ) , Ga ( 6 s S 2 1 / 2 ) Ga ( 4 p P 2 1 / 2 ° ) + h v ( 266 nm ) , Ga ( 4 d D 2 3 / 2 , 5 / 2 ) Ga ( 4 p P 2 1 / 2 , 3 / 2 ° ) + h v ( 287 , 294 nm ) , Ga ( 5 s S 2 1 / 2 ) Ga ( 4 p P 2 1 / 2 , 3 / 2 ° ) + h v ( 403 , 417 nm ) .

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