Abstract

This paper describes the airborne tunable laser absorption spectrometer, a tunable diode laser instrument designed for in situ trace-gas measurement in the lower stratosphere from an ER-2 high-altitude research aircraft. Laser-wavelength modulation and second-harmonic detection are employed to achieve the required constituent detection sensitivity. The airborne tunable laser absorption spectrometer was used in two polar ozone campaigns, the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment and the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition, and measured nitrous oxide with a response time of 1s and an accuracy ≤ 10%.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  2. G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast-response, high-precision carbon monoxide sensor using a tunable diode laser absorption technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 2071–2081 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. T. Menzies, C. R. Webster, E. D. Hinkley, “Balloon-borne diode-laser absorption spectrometer for measurements of stratospheric trace species,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2655–2664 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. F. Tuck, R. T. Watson, E. P. Condon, J. J. Margitan, O. B. Toon, “The planning and execution of ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft flights over Antarctica, August and September 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,181–11,222 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Turco, A. Plumb, E. Condon, “The Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition: prologue,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 317–320 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
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  8. E. D. Hinkley, R. T. Ku, P. L. Kelley, “Techniques for detection of molecular pollutants by absorption of laser radiation,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, ed. (Springer, New York1976), Chap. 6.
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Reid, J. Shewchun, B. K. Garside, E. A. Ballik, “High sensitivity pollution detection employing tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 17, 300–307 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Reid, B. K. Garside, J. Shewchun, M. El-Sherbiny, E. A. Ballik, “High sensitivity point monitoring of atmospheric gases employing tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1806–1810 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Reid, M. El-Sherbiny, B. K. Garside, E. A. Ballik, “Sensitivity limits of a tunable diode laser spectrometer, with application to the detection of NO2 at the 100-ppt level,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3349–3354 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. T. Cassidy, J. Reid, “Atmospheric pressure monitoring of trace gases using tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1185–1190 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. R. Webster, R. T. Menzies, “In-situ measurement of stratospheric nitric oxide using a balloon-borne tunable diode laser spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1140–1142 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. R. D. May, C. R. Webster, “In-situ stratospheric measurements of HNO3 and HCl near 30 km using the balloon-borne laser in-situ sensor tunable diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,343–16,350 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, “Tunable diode laser systems for measuring trace gases in tropospheric air,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 17, 352A–364A (1983); D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, erratum Environ. Sci. Technol. 17, 510A (1983).
    [PubMed]
  18. D. R. Hastie, M. D. Miller, “Balloon-borne tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for multispecies trace gas measurements in the stratosphere,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3694–3701 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, L. L. Lowes, P. W. Schaper, J.-F. Blavier, R. H. Norton, “Infrared aircraft measurements of stratospheric composition over Antarctica during September 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,571–16,596 (1989), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  20. W. G. Mankin, M. T. Coffey, A. Goldman, M. R. Schoeberl, L. R. Lait, P. A. Newman, “Airborne measurements of stratospheric constituents over the Arctic in the winter of 1989,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 473–476 (1990), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. S. Eng, J. F. Butler, K. J. Linden, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy: an invited review,” Opt. Eng. 19, 945–960 (1980).
  22. C. R. Webster, “Brewster-plate spoiler: a novel method for reducing the amplitude of interference fringes that limit tunable-laser absorption sensitivities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1464–1470 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. A Silver, A. C. Stanton, “Optical interference fringe reduction in laser absorption experiments,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1914–1916 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. T. Cassidy, J. Reid, “Harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—two-tone modulation,” Appl. Phys. B 29, 279–285 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Fried, R. Sams, W. W. Berg, “Application of tunable diode laser absorption for trace stratospheric measurements of HCl: laboratory results,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1867–1880 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. A. Mucha, “Standard addition technique for quantitative trace gas analysis using derivative infrared diode laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 36, 393–400 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. H. I. Schiff, D. R. Karecki, G. W. Harris, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, “A tunable diode laser system for aircraft measurements of trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10,147–10,153 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, S. E. Strahan, “ATLAS instrument characterization: accuracy of the AASE and AAOE nitrous oxide data sets,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 481–484(1990).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. F. Weiss, “The temporal and spatial distribution of tropospheric nitrous oxide,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7185–7195 (1981); R. F. Weiss, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif. 92093 (personal communication).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. R. Podolske, M. Loewenstein, S. E. Strahan, K. R. Chan, “Stratospheric nitrous oxide distribution in the southern hemisphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,767–16,772 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  32. M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, S. E. Strahan, “Nitrous oxide as a dynamical tracer in the 1987 Airborne Artarctic Ozone Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,589–11,598 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  33. S. E. Strahan, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, M. H. Proffitt, K. K. Kelly, “Correlation of N2O and ozone in the southern polar vortex during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,749–16,756 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  34. D. W. Fahey, S. Solomon, S. R. Kawa, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, S. E. Strahan, K. R. Chan, “A diagnostic for denitrification in the winter polar stratospheres,” Nature (London) 345, 698–702 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  35. M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Ozone loss in the Arctic polar vortex inferred from high-altitude aircraft measurements,” Nature (London) 347, 31–36 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1990

R. Turco, A. Plumb, E. Condon, “The Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition: prologue,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 317–320 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. G. Mankin, M. T. Coffey, A. Goldman, M. R. Schoeberl, L. R. Lait, P. A. Newman, “Airborne measurements of stratospheric constituents over the Arctic in the winter of 1989,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 473–476 (1990), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

H. I. Schiff, D. R. Karecki, G. W. Harris, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, “A tunable diode laser system for aircraft measurements of trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10,147–10,153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, S. E. Strahan, “ATLAS instrument characterization: accuracy of the AASE and AAOE nitrous oxide data sets,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 481–484(1990).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Fahey, S. Solomon, S. R. Kawa, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, S. E. Strahan, K. R. Chan, “A diagnostic for denitrification in the winter polar stratospheres,” Nature (London) 345, 698–702 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Ozone loss in the Arctic polar vortex inferred from high-altitude aircraft measurements,” Nature (London) 347, 31–36 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

J. R. Podolske, M. Loewenstein, S. E. Strahan, K. R. Chan, “Stratospheric nitrous oxide distribution in the southern hemisphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,767–16,772 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, S. E. Strahan, “Nitrous oxide as a dynamical tracer in the 1987 Airborne Artarctic Ozone Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,589–11,598 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Strahan, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, M. H. Proffitt, K. K. Kelly, “Correlation of N2O and ozone in the southern polar vortex during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,749–16,756 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, L. L. Lowes, P. W. Schaper, J.-F. Blavier, R. H. Norton, “Infrared aircraft measurements of stratospheric composition over Antarctica during September 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,571–16,596 (1989), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

A. F. Tuck, R. T. Watson, E. P. Condon, J. J. Margitan, O. B. Toon, “The planning and execution of ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft flights over Antarctica, August and September 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,181–11,222 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. D. May, C. R. Webster, “In-situ stratospheric measurements of HNO3 and HCl near 30 km using the balloon-borne laser in-situ sensor tunable diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,343–16,350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

J. A Silver, A. C. Stanton, “Optical interference fringe reduction in laser absorption experiments,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1914–1916 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, “Simultaneous in-situ measurements and diurnal variations of NO, NO2, O3, NO2, CH4, H2O, and CO2 in the 40- to 26-km region using an open path tunable diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 11,931–11,950 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast-response, high-precision carbon monoxide sensor using a tunable diode laser absorption technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 2071–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985

C. R. Webster, “Brewster-plate spoiler: a novel method for reducing the amplitude of interference fringes that limit tunable-laser absorption sensitivities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1464–1470 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Hastie, M. D. Miller, “Balloon-borne tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for multispecies trace gas measurements in the stratosphere,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3694–3701 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

1983

R. T. Menzies, C. R. Webster, E. D. Hinkley, “Balloon-borne diode-laser absorption spectrometer for measurements of stratospheric trace species,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2655–2664 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, “Tunable diode laser systems for measuring trace gases in tropospheric air,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 17, 352A–364A (1983); D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, erratum Environ. Sci. Technol. 17, 510A (1983).
[PubMed]

1982

1981

R. F. Weiss, “The temporal and spatial distribution of tropospheric nitrous oxide,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7185–7195 (1981); R. F. Weiss, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif. 92093 (personal communication).
[CrossRef]

J. Reid, D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

1978

J. Reid, B. K. Garside, J. Shewchun, M. El-Sherbiny, E. A. Ballik, “High sensitivity point monitoring of atmospheric gases employing tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1806–1810 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Reid, J. Shewchun, B. K. Garside, E. A. Ballik, “High sensitivity pollution detection employing tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 17, 300–307 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975

1942

Ballik, E. A.

Berg, W. W.

Blavier, J.-F.

G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, L. L. Lowes, P. W. Schaper, J.-F. Blavier, R. H. Norton, “Infrared aircraft measurements of stratospheric composition over Antarctica during September 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,571–16,596 (1989), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Butler, J. F.

R. S. Eng, J. F. Butler, K. J. Linden, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy: an invited review,” Opt. Eng. 19, 945–960 (1980).

Cassidy, D. T.

D. T. Cassidy, J. Reid, “Harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—two-tone modulation,” Appl. Phys. B 29, 279–285 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Cassidy, J. Reid, “Atmospheric pressure monitoring of trace gases using tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1185–1190 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, K. R.

M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Ozone loss in the Arctic polar vortex inferred from high-altitude aircraft measurements,” Nature (London) 347, 31–36 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Fahey, S. Solomon, S. R. Kawa, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, S. E. Strahan, K. R. Chan, “A diagnostic for denitrification in the winter polar stratospheres,” Nature (London) 345, 698–702 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Podolske, M. Loewenstein, S. E. Strahan, K. R. Chan, “Stratospheric nitrous oxide distribution in the southern hemisphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,767–16,772 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, S. E. Strahan, “Nitrous oxide as a dynamical tracer in the 1987 Airborne Artarctic Ozone Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,589–11,598 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Strahan, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, M. H. Proffitt, K. K. Kelly, “Correlation of N2O and ozone in the southern polar vortex during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,749–16,756 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Coffey, M. T.

W. G. Mankin, M. T. Coffey, A. Goldman, M. R. Schoeberl, L. R. Lait, P. A. Newman, “Airborne measurements of stratospheric constituents over the Arctic in the winter of 1989,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 473–476 (1990), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Condon, E.

R. Turco, A. Plumb, E. Condon, “The Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition: prologue,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 317–320 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Condon, E. P.

A. F. Tuck, R. T. Watson, E. P. Condon, J. J. Margitan, O. B. Toon, “The planning and execution of ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft flights over Antarctica, August and September 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,181–11,222 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, E. P. Condon, “DACOM—A rapid, high sensitivity airborne carbon monoxide monitor,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, H. G. Stewart, ed. (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1977), pp. 590–593.

El-Sherbiny, M.

Eng, R. S.

R. S. Eng, J. F. Butler, K. J. Linden, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy: an invited review,” Opt. Eng. 19, 945–960 (1980).

Fahey, D. W.

D. W. Fahey, S. Solomon, S. R. Kawa, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, S. E. Strahan, K. R. Chan, “A diagnostic for denitrification in the winter polar stratospheres,” Nature (London) 345, 698–702 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Farmer, C. B.

G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, L. L. Lowes, P. W. Schaper, J.-F. Blavier, R. H. Norton, “Infrared aircraft measurements of stratospheric composition over Antarctica during September 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,571–16,596 (1989), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Fried, A.

Garside, B. K.

Goldman, A.

W. G. Mankin, M. T. Coffey, A. Goldman, M. R. Schoeberl, L. R. Lait, P. A. Newman, “Airborne measurements of stratospheric constituents over the Arctic in the winter of 1989,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 473–476 (1990), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Harris, G. W.

H. I. Schiff, D. R. Karecki, G. W. Harris, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, “A tunable diode laser system for aircraft measurements of trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10,147–10,153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hastie, D. R.

H. I. Schiff, D. R. Karecki, G. W. Harris, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, “A tunable diode laser system for aircraft measurements of trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10,147–10,153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Hastie, M. D. Miller, “Balloon-borne tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for multispecies trace gas measurements in the stratosphere,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3694–3701 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, “Tunable diode laser systems for measuring trace gases in tropospheric air,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 17, 352A–364A (1983); D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, erratum Environ. Sci. Technol. 17, 510A (1983).
[PubMed]

Hill, G. F.

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast-response, high-precision carbon monoxide sensor using a tunable diode laser absorption technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 2071–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, E. P. Condon, “DACOM—A rapid, high sensitivity airborne carbon monoxide monitor,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, H. G. Stewart, ed. (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1977), pp. 590–593.

Hinkley, E. D.

Iguchi, T.

D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, “Tunable diode laser systems for measuring trace gases in tropospheric air,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 17, 352A–364A (1983); D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, erratum Environ. Sci. Technol. 17, 510A (1983).
[PubMed]

Karecki, D. R.

H. I. Schiff, D. R. Karecki, G. W. Harris, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, “A tunable diode laser system for aircraft measurements of trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10,147–10,153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kawa, S. R.

D. W. Fahey, S. Solomon, S. R. Kawa, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, S. E. Strahan, K. R. Chan, “A diagnostic for denitrification in the winter polar stratospheres,” Nature (London) 345, 698–702 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kelley, P. L.

E. D. Hinkley, R. T. Ku, P. L. Kelley, “Techniques for detection of molecular pollutants by absorption of laser radiation,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, ed. (Springer, New York1976), Chap. 6.
[CrossRef]

Kelly, K. K.

M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Ozone loss in the Arctic polar vortex inferred from high-altitude aircraft measurements,” Nature (London) 347, 31–36 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Strahan, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, M. H. Proffitt, K. K. Kelly, “Correlation of N2O and ozone in the southern polar vortex during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,749–16,756 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ku, R. T.

R. T. Ku, E. D. Hinkley, J. O. Sample, “Long-path monitoring of atmospheric carbon monoxide with a tunable diode laser system,” Appl. Opt. 14, 854–861 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Hinkley, R. T. Ku, P. L. Kelley, “Techniques for detection of molecular pollutants by absorption of laser radiation,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, ed. (Springer, New York1976), Chap. 6.
[CrossRef]

Labrie, D.

J. Reid, D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lait, L. R.

W. G. Mankin, M. T. Coffey, A. Goldman, M. R. Schoeberl, L. R. Lait, P. A. Newman, “Airborne measurements of stratospheric constituents over the Arctic in the winter of 1989,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 473–476 (1990), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Linden, K. J.

R. S. Eng, J. F. Butler, K. J. Linden, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy: an invited review,” Opt. Eng. 19, 945–960 (1980).

Loewenstein, M.

M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, S. E. Strahan, “ATLAS instrument characterization: accuracy of the AASE and AAOE nitrous oxide data sets,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 481–484(1990).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Ozone loss in the Arctic polar vortex inferred from high-altitude aircraft measurements,” Nature (London) 347, 31–36 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Fahey, S. Solomon, S. R. Kawa, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, S. E. Strahan, K. R. Chan, “A diagnostic for denitrification in the winter polar stratospheres,” Nature (London) 345, 698–702 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Strahan, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, M. H. Proffitt, K. K. Kelly, “Correlation of N2O and ozone in the southern polar vortex during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,749–16,756 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Podolske, M. Loewenstein, S. E. Strahan, K. R. Chan, “Stratospheric nitrous oxide distribution in the southern hemisphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,767–16,772 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, S. E. Strahan, “Nitrous oxide as a dynamical tracer in the 1987 Airborne Artarctic Ozone Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,589–11,598 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lowes, L. L.

G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, L. L. Lowes, P. W. Schaper, J.-F. Blavier, R. H. Norton, “Infrared aircraft measurements of stratospheric composition over Antarctica during September 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,571–16,596 (1989), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Mackay, G. I.

H. I. Schiff, D. R. Karecki, G. W. Harris, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, “A tunable diode laser system for aircraft measurements of trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10,147–10,153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, “Tunable diode laser systems for measuring trace gases in tropospheric air,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 17, 352A–364A (1983); D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, erratum Environ. Sci. Technol. 17, 510A (1983).
[PubMed]

Mankin, W. G.

W. G. Mankin, M. T. Coffey, A. Goldman, M. R. Schoeberl, L. R. Lait, P. A. Newman, “Airborne measurements of stratospheric constituents over the Arctic in the winter of 1989,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 473–476 (1990), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Margitan, J. J.

M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Ozone loss in the Arctic polar vortex inferred from high-altitude aircraft measurements,” Nature (London) 347, 31–36 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Tuck, R. T. Watson, E. P. Condon, J. J. Margitan, O. B. Toon, “The planning and execution of ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft flights over Antarctica, August and September 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,181–11,222 (1989).
[CrossRef]

May, R. D.

R. D. May, C. R. Webster, “In-situ stratospheric measurements of HNO3 and HCl near 30 km using the balloon-borne laser in-situ sensor tunable diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,343–16,350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, “Simultaneous in-situ measurements and diurnal variations of NO, NO2, O3, NO2, CH4, H2O, and CO2 in the 40- to 26-km region using an open path tunable diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 11,931–11,950 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Menzies, R. T.

Miller, M. D.

Mucha, J. A.

Newman, P. A.

W. G. Mankin, M. T. Coffey, A. Goldman, M. R. Schoeberl, L. R. Lait, P. A. Newman, “Airborne measurements of stratospheric constituents over the Arctic in the winter of 1989,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 473–476 (1990), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Norton, R. H.

G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, L. L. Lowes, P. W. Schaper, J.-F. Blavier, R. H. Norton, “Infrared aircraft measurements of stratospheric composition over Antarctica during September 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,571–16,596 (1989), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. G.

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast-response, high-precision carbon monoxide sensor using a tunable diode laser absorption technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 2071–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pfister, L.

P. B. Russell, L. Pfister, H. B. Selkirk, “The tropical experiment of the Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP): science objectives, operations, and summary of results” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Plumb, A.

R. Turco, A. Plumb, E. Condon, “The Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition: prologue,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 317–320 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Podolske, J. R.

M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, S. E. Strahan, “ATLAS instrument characterization: accuracy of the AASE and AAOE nitrous oxide data sets,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 481–484(1990).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Fahey, S. Solomon, S. R. Kawa, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, S. E. Strahan, K. R. Chan, “A diagnostic for denitrification in the winter polar stratospheres,” Nature (London) 345, 698–702 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Ozone loss in the Arctic polar vortex inferred from high-altitude aircraft measurements,” Nature (London) 347, 31–36 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, S. E. Strahan, “Nitrous oxide as a dynamical tracer in the 1987 Airborne Artarctic Ozone Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,589–11,598 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Strahan, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, M. H. Proffitt, K. K. Kelly, “Correlation of N2O and ozone in the southern polar vortex during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,749–16,756 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Podolske, M. Loewenstein, S. E. Strahan, K. R. Chan, “Stratospheric nitrous oxide distribution in the southern hemisphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,767–16,772 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Proffitt, M. H.

M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Ozone loss in the Arctic polar vortex inferred from high-altitude aircraft measurements,” Nature (London) 347, 31–36 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Strahan, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, M. H. Proffitt, K. K. Kelly, “Correlation of N2O and ozone in the southern polar vortex during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,749–16,756 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Reid, J.

D. T. Cassidy, J. Reid, “Harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—two-tone modulation,” Appl. Phys. B 29, 279–285 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Cassidy, J. Reid, “Atmospheric pressure monitoring of trace gases using tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1185–1190 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Reid, D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Reid, M. El-Sherbiny, B. K. Garside, E. A. Ballik, “Sensitivity limits of a tunable diode laser spectrometer, with application to the detection of NO2 at the 100-ppt level,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3349–3354 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Reid, B. K. Garside, J. Shewchun, M. El-Sherbiny, E. A. Ballik, “High sensitivity point monitoring of atmospheric gases employing tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1806–1810 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Reid, J. Shewchun, B. K. Garside, E. A. Ballik, “High sensitivity pollution detection employing tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 17, 300–307 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ridley, B. A.

D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, “Tunable diode laser systems for measuring trace gases in tropospheric air,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 17, 352A–364A (1983); D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, erratum Environ. Sci. Technol. 17, 510A (1983).
[PubMed]

Russell, P. B.

P. B. Russell, L. Pfister, H. B. Selkirk, “The tropical experiment of the Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP): science objectives, operations, and summary of results” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Sachse, G. W.

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast-response, high-precision carbon monoxide sensor using a tunable diode laser absorption technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 2071–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, E. P. Condon, “DACOM—A rapid, high sensitivity airborne carbon monoxide monitor,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, H. G. Stewart, ed. (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1977), pp. 590–593.

Sample, J. O.

Sams, R.

Schaper, P. W.

G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, L. L. Lowes, P. W. Schaper, J.-F. Blavier, R. H. Norton, “Infrared aircraft measurements of stratospheric composition over Antarctica during September 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,571–16,596 (1989), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Schiff, H. I.

H. I. Schiff, D. R. Karecki, G. W. Harris, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, “A tunable diode laser system for aircraft measurements of trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10,147–10,153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, “Tunable diode laser systems for measuring trace gases in tropospheric air,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 17, 352A–364A (1983); D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, erratum Environ. Sci. Technol. 17, 510A (1983).
[PubMed]

Schoeberl, M. R.

W. G. Mankin, M. T. Coffey, A. Goldman, M. R. Schoeberl, L. R. Lait, P. A. Newman, “Airborne measurements of stratospheric constituents over the Arctic in the winter of 1989,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 473–476 (1990), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Selkirk, H. B.

P. B. Russell, L. Pfister, H. B. Selkirk, “The tropical experiment of the Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP): science objectives, operations, and summary of results” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Shewchun, J.

J. Reid, J. Shewchun, B. K. Garside, E. A. Ballik, “High sensitivity pollution detection employing tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 17, 300–307 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Reid, B. K. Garside, J. Shewchun, M. El-Sherbiny, E. A. Ballik, “High sensitivity point monitoring of atmospheric gases employing tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1806–1810 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silver, J. A

J. A Silver, A. C. Stanton, “Optical interference fringe reduction in laser absorption experiments,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1914–1916 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solomon, S.

D. W. Fahey, S. Solomon, S. R. Kawa, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, S. E. Strahan, K. R. Chan, “A diagnostic for denitrification in the winter polar stratospheres,” Nature (London) 345, 698–702 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stanton, A. C.

J. A Silver, A. C. Stanton, “Optical interference fringe reduction in laser absorption experiments,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1914–1916 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starr, W. L.

S. E. Strahan, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, M. H. Proffitt, K. K. Kelly, “Correlation of N2O and ozone in the southern polar vortex during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,749–16,756 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Strahan, S. E.

D. W. Fahey, S. Solomon, S. R. Kawa, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, S. E. Strahan, K. R. Chan, “A diagnostic for denitrification in the winter polar stratospheres,” Nature (London) 345, 698–702 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, S. E. Strahan, “ATLAS instrument characterization: accuracy of the AASE and AAOE nitrous oxide data sets,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 481–484(1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, S. E. Strahan, “Nitrous oxide as a dynamical tracer in the 1987 Airborne Artarctic Ozone Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,589–11,598 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Strahan, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, M. H. Proffitt, K. K. Kelly, “Correlation of N2O and ozone in the southern polar vortex during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,749–16,756 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Podolske, M. Loewenstein, S. E. Strahan, K. R. Chan, “Stratospheric nitrous oxide distribution in the southern hemisphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,767–16,772 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Toon, G. C.

G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, L. L. Lowes, P. W. Schaper, J.-F. Blavier, R. H. Norton, “Infrared aircraft measurements of stratospheric composition over Antarctica during September 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,571–16,596 (1989), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Toon, O. B.

A. F. Tuck, R. T. Watson, E. P. Condon, J. J. Margitan, O. B. Toon, “The planning and execution of ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft flights over Antarctica, August and September 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,181–11,222 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tuck, A. F.

A. F. Tuck, R. T. Watson, E. P. Condon, J. J. Margitan, O. B. Toon, “The planning and execution of ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft flights over Antarctica, August and September 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,181–11,222 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Turco, R.

R. Turco, A. Plumb, E. Condon, “The Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition: prologue,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 317–320 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wade, L. O.

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast-response, high-precision carbon monoxide sensor using a tunable diode laser absorption technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 2071–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, E. P. Condon, “DACOM—A rapid, high sensitivity airborne carbon monoxide monitor,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, H. G. Stewart, ed. (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1977), pp. 590–593.

Watson, R. T.

A. F. Tuck, R. T. Watson, E. P. Condon, J. J. Margitan, O. B. Toon, “The planning and execution of ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft flights over Antarctica, August and September 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,181–11,222 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Webster, C. R.

R. D. May, C. R. Webster, “In-situ stratospheric measurements of HNO3 and HCl near 30 km using the balloon-borne laser in-situ sensor tunable diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,343–16,350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, “Simultaneous in-situ measurements and diurnal variations of NO, NO2, O3, NO2, CH4, H2O, and CO2 in the 40- to 26-km region using an open path tunable diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 11,931–11,950 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, “Brewster-plate spoiler: a novel method for reducing the amplitude of interference fringes that limit tunable-laser absorption sensitivities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1464–1470 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, R. T. Menzies, “In-situ measurement of stratospheric nitric oxide using a balloon-borne tunable diode laser spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1140–1142 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Menzies, C. R. Webster, E. D. Hinkley, “Balloon-borne diode-laser absorption spectrometer for measurements of stratospheric trace species,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2655–2664 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, R. F.

R. F. Weiss, “The temporal and spatial distribution of tropospheric nitrous oxide,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7185–7195 (1981); R. F. Weiss, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif. 92093 (personal communication).
[CrossRef]

White, J. U.

Appl. Opt.

J. Reid, J. Shewchun, B. K. Garside, E. A. Ballik, “High sensitivity pollution detection employing tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 17, 300–307 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A Silver, A. C. Stanton, “Optical interference fringe reduction in laser absorption experiments,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1914–1916 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

D. T. Cassidy, J. Reid, “Harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—two-tone modulation,” Appl. Phys. B 29, 279–285 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

R. T. Ku, E. D. Hinkley, J. O. Sample, “Long-path monitoring of atmospheric carbon monoxide with a tunable diode laser system,” Appl. Opt. 14, 854–861 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Reid, B. K. Garside, J. Shewchun, M. El-Sherbiny, E. A. Ballik, “High sensitivity point monitoring of atmospheric gases employing tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1806–1810 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Reid, M. El-Sherbiny, B. K. Garside, E. A. Ballik, “Sensitivity limits of a tunable diode laser spectrometer, with application to the detection of NO2 at the 100-ppt level,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3349–3354 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Cassidy, J. Reid, “Atmospheric pressure monitoring of trace gases using tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1185–1190 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Menzies, C. R. Webster, E. D. Hinkley, “Balloon-borne diode-laser absorption spectrometer for measurements of stratospheric trace species,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2655–2664 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fried, R. Sams, W. W. Berg, “Application of tunable diode laser absorption for trace stratospheric measurements of HCl: laboratory results,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1867–1880 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Hastie, M. D. Miller, “Balloon-borne tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for multispecies trace gas measurements in the stratosphere,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3694–3701 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Webster, R. T. Menzies, “In-situ measurement of stratospheric nitric oxide using a balloon-borne tunable diode laser spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1140–1142 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

J. Reid, D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc.

Environ. Sci. Technol.

D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, “Tunable diode laser systems for measuring trace gases in tropospheric air,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 17, 352A–364A (1983); D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, erratum Environ. Sci. Technol. 17, 510A (1983).
[PubMed]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

R. Turco, A. Plumb, E. Condon, “The Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition: prologue,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 317–320 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

W. G. Mankin, M. T. Coffey, A. Goldman, M. R. Schoeberl, L. R. Lait, P. A. Newman, “Airborne measurements of stratospheric constituents over the Arctic in the winter of 1989,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 473–476 (1990), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, S. E. Strahan, “ATLAS instrument characterization: accuracy of the AASE and AAOE nitrous oxide data sets,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 481–484(1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

H. I. Schiff, D. R. Karecki, G. W. Harris, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, “A tunable diode laser system for aircraft measurements of trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10,147–10,153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Podolske, M. Loewenstein, S. E. Strahan, K. R. Chan, “Stratospheric nitrous oxide distribution in the southern hemisphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,767–16,772 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

R. F. Weiss, “The temporal and spatial distribution of tropospheric nitrous oxide,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7185–7195 (1981); R. F. Weiss, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif. 92093 (personal communication).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, S. E. Strahan, “Nitrous oxide as a dynamical tracer in the 1987 Airborne Artarctic Ozone Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,589–11,598 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Strahan, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, M. H. Proffitt, K. K. Kelly, “Correlation of N2O and ozone in the southern polar vortex during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,749–16,756 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Tuck, R. T. Watson, E. P. Condon, J. J. Margitan, O. B. Toon, “The planning and execution of ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft flights over Antarctica, August and September 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,181–11,222 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, L. L. Lowes, P. W. Schaper, J.-F. Blavier, R. H. Norton, “Infrared aircraft measurements of stratospheric composition over Antarctica during September 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,571–16,596 (1989), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, “Simultaneous in-situ measurements and diurnal variations of NO, NO2, O3, NO2, CH4, H2O, and CO2 in the 40- to 26-km region using an open path tunable diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 11,931–11,950 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. D. May, C. R. Webster, “In-situ stratospheric measurements of HNO3 and HCl near 30 km using the balloon-borne laser in-situ sensor tunable diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,343–16,350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast-response, high-precision carbon monoxide sensor using a tunable diode laser absorption technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 2071–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

C. R. Webster, “Brewster-plate spoiler: a novel method for reducing the amplitude of interference fringes that limit tunable-laser absorption sensitivities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1464–1470 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Nature (London)

D. W. Fahey, S. Solomon, S. R. Kawa, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, S. E. Strahan, K. R. Chan, “A diagnostic for denitrification in the winter polar stratospheres,” Nature (London) 345, 698–702 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

M. H. Proffitt, J. J. Margitan, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Ozone loss in the Arctic polar vortex inferred from high-altitude aircraft measurements,” Nature (London) 347, 31–36 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

R. S. Eng, J. F. Butler, K. J. Linden, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy: an invited review,” Opt. Eng. 19, 945–960 (1980).

Other

P. B. Russell, L. Pfister, H. B. Selkirk, “The tropical experiment of the Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP): science objectives, operations, and summary of results” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).
[PubMed]

E. D. Hinkley, R. T. Ku, P. L. Kelley, “Techniques for detection of molecular pollutants by absorption of laser radiation,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, ed. (Springer, New York1976), Chap. 6.
[CrossRef]

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, E. P. Condon, “DACOM—A rapid, high sensitivity airborne carbon monoxide monitor,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, H. G. Stewart, ed. (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1977), pp. 590–593.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Lorentzian absorption line shape and the associated first-and second-harmonic line shapes. The harmonic line shapes correspond to a modulation parameter m = 2.2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical system layout of the ATLAS. The laser beam is collimated by mirror M1, focused into the sample cell by mirror M2, and focused onto the detectors by mirrors M3, M4, and M5. The sample, reference, and zero beams are detected by detector (Det) S, R, and Z, respectively. The bidirectional alignment beam is formed by the He–Ne laser and beam splitter (BS) 3. The beam is optionally passed through the mode-selecting monochromator by placing the mode-selecting transfer optics (MSTO) in the beam path.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electronic system layout of ATLAS: ADC/MUX, ADC–multiplexer module; I/O, input–output.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Analog signal processing system layout of ATLAS. Pulse sample and hold amplifiers (S/H) accentuate the 125-Hz gating of the laser by reshaping the three detector signals, which then go to the 125-Hz PSD’s. The modulation S/H amplifiers eliminate the large gating spikes from the three laser-beam signals, which then go the 2-kHz and 4-kHz PSD’s. The PSD outputs go to the ADC–multiplexer (ADC/MUX) module and then to the microprocessor.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Gas-flow system layout of ATLAS.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Intercomparison results between the ATLAS and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography for four master gas samples of N2O in air.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

ATLAS N2O and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration O3 data for a segment of an AASE flight taken on 25 January 1989. Note the strong anticorrelation between these two constituents during this portion of the flight. GMT, Greenwich Mean Time.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

ATLAS N2O and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOy data for a segment of an AASE flight taken on 12 January 1989: (a) the times series shows the variation of N2O and NOy observed as the aircraft entered the polar vortex. (b) The scatter plot of the same data shows the strong anticorrelation between N2O and NOy in this region of the atmosphere. GMT, Greenwich Mean Time.

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