Abstract

We describe the design and demonstration of an extended generalized shuffle interconnection network, centrally controlled by a personal computer. A banyan interconnection pattern is implemented by use of computer-generated Fourier holograms and custom metallization at each 32 × 32 switching node array. Each array of electrically controlled tristate symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices has 10,240 optical pinouts and 32 electrical pinouts, and the six-stage system occupies a 9 in. × 12.5 in. (22.9 cm × 31.7 cm) area. Details of the architecture, optical and mechanical design, and system alignment and tolerancing are presented.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  28. F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, R. J. Crisci, R. L. Morrison, F. A. P. Tooley, E. Kerbis, “Fabrication and testing issues in free-space digital optical switching and computing,” in International Symposium on Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1720, 553–572 (1992).
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  34. L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs-AlGaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1993

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs-AlGaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

1991

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “Photonic ring counter using batch fabricated symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Opt. Lett. 16, 36–38 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Scheps, “Cr:LiCaAIF laser pumped by visible laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1968–1970 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “Parallel operation of a 32 × 16 symmetric self electro-optic effect device array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 232–234 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

E. Kerbis, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, “An all-optical realization of a 2 × 1 free-space switching node,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 600–602 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all-optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, M. E. Prise, “Optical circuitry for free space interconnections,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2013–2018 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

T. J. Cloonan, “Topological equivalence of optical crossover networks and modified data manipulator networks,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2494–2498 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Chipman, “Polarization analysis of optical systems,” Opt. Eng. 28, 90–99 (1989).

D. A. B. Miller, M. D. Feuer, T. Y. Chang, S. C. Shunk, J. E. Henry, D. J. Burrows, D. S. Chemla, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator, and transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 62–63 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, M. J. Herron, “Optical implementation and performance of one-dimensional and two-dimensional trimmed inverse augmented data manipulator networks for multiprocessor computer systems,” Opt. Eng. 28, 305–314 (1989).

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self electro-optic effect device: optical set–reset latch, differential logic gate and differential modulator/detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1928 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

M. E. Prise, N. Streibl, M. M. Downs, “Optical considerations in the design of a digital computer,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 20, 49–77 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Jahns, M. J. Murdocca, “Crossover networks and their optical implementation,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3155–3160 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977

H. S. Stone, “Parallel processing with the perfect shuffle,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-20, 153–161 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1971

C.-L. Wu, T.-Y. Feng, “On a class of multistage interconnection networks,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-29, 694–701 (1971).

H. Dammann, K. Gortler, “High efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 312–315 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ailawadi, N. K.

K. W. Goossen, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, A. L. Lentine, A. M. Fox, N. K. Ailawadi, “Low field electro-absorption and self-biased self electro-optic effect device using slightly asymmetric coupled quantum wells,” in Quantum Optoelectronics, Vol. 7 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 26–29.

Baily, R. J.

J. P. Donnelly, R. J. Baily, W. D. Goodhue, C. A. Wang, G. A. Lincoln, G. D. Johnson, “Monolithic two dimensional surface arrays of AlGaAs horizontal-cavity diode lasers with etched facets and external parabolic reflecting mirrors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro–Optics, Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 344.

Brubaker, J. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all-optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. A. P. Tooley, F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, R. J. Crisci, R. L. Morrison, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, “Optical evaluation of components for free-space digital optics,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 105.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratov̄ich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).

Burrows, D. J.

D. A. B. Miller, M. D. Feuer, T. Y. Chang, S. C. Shunk, J. E. Henry, D. J. Burrows, D. S. Chemla, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator, and transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 62–63 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T. Y.

D. A. B. Miller, M. D. Feuer, T. Y. Chang, S. C. Shunk, J. E. Henry, D. J. Burrows, D. S. Chemla, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator, and transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 62–63 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

D. A. B. Miller, M. D. Feuer, T. Y. Chang, S. C. Shunk, J. E. Henry, D. J. Burrows, D. S. Chemla, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator, and transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 62–63 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chipman, R. A.

R. A. Chipman, “Polarization analysis of optical systems,” Opt. Eng. 28, 90–99 (1989).

J. L. Pezzaniti, R. A. Chipman, “A polarization metrology for optical interconnects which use polarization beam combining,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 156–159; J. L. Pezzaniti, R. A. Chipman, “Angular dependence of polarizing beam splitter cubes,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs-AlGaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “Photonic ring counter using batch fabricated symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Opt. Lett. 16, 36–38 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “Parallel operation of a 32 × 16 symmetric self electro-optic effect device array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 232–234 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self electro-optic effect device: optical set–reset latch, differential logic gate and differential modulator/detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1928 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “An all-optical shift register using symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices,” in Photonic Switching, J. E. Midwinter, H. S. Hinton, eds., Vol. 3 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 192–195.

Cloonan, T. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. Kerbis, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, “An all-optical realization of a 2 × 1 free-space switching node,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 600–602 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all-optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, “Topological equivalence of optical crossover networks and modified data manipulator networks,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2494–2498 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Cloonan, M. J. Herron, “Optical implementation and performance of one-dimensional and two-dimensional trimmed inverse augmented data manipulator networks for multiprocessor computer systems,” Opt. Eng. 28, 305–314 (1989).

T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, “Analysis of control subsystems for free-space photonic switching architectures,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2587–2606.
[PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratov̄ich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, “Control injection in free-space photonic switching architectures,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 180–185.

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, “Extended generalized shuffle network architectures for free-space photonic switching,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 43–47.

Crisci, R. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. A. P. Tooley, F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, R. J. Crisci, R. L. Morrison, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, “Optical evaluation of components for free-space digital optics,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 105.

F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, R. J. Crisci, R. L. Morrison, F. A. P. Tooley, E. Kerbis, “Fabrication and testing issues in free-space digital optical switching and computing,” in International Symposium on Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1720, 553–572 (1992).

Cunningham, J. E.

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self electro-optic effect device: optical set–reset latch, differential logic gate and differential modulator/detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1928 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, A. L. Lentine, A. M. Fox, N. K. Ailawadi, “Low field electro-absorption and self-biased self electro-optic effect device using slightly asymmetric coupled quantum wells,” in Quantum Optoelectronics, Vol. 7 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 26–29.

D’Asaro, L. A.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs-AlGaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “Photonic ring counter using batch fabricated symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Opt. Lett. 16, 36–38 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “Parallel operation of a 32 × 16 symmetric self electro-optic effect device array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 232–234 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “An all-optical shift register using symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices,” in Photonic Switching, J. E. Midwinter, H. S. Hinton, eds., Vol. 3 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 192–195.

Dammann, H.

H. Dammann, K. Gortler, “High efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 312–315 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, J. P.

J. P. Donnelly, R. J. Baily, W. D. Goodhue, C. A. Wang, G. A. Lincoln, G. D. Johnson, “Monolithic two dimensional surface arrays of AlGaAs horizontal-cavity diode lasers with etched facets and external parabolic reflecting mirrors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro–Optics, Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 344.

Downs, M. M.

M. E. Prise, N. Streibl, M. M. Downs, “Optical considerations in the design of a digital computer,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 20, 49–77 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Feng, T.-Y.

C.-L. Wu, T.-Y. Feng, “On a class of multistage interconnection networks,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-29, 694–701 (1971).

Feuer, M. D.

D. A. B. Miller, M. D. Feuer, T. Y. Chang, S. C. Shunk, J. E. Henry, D. J. Burrows, D. S. Chemla, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator, and transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 62–63 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Focht, M. W.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs-AlGaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fox, A. M.

K. W. Goossen, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, A. L. Lentine, A. M. Fox, N. K. Ailawadi, “Low field electro-absorption and self-biased self electro-optic effect device using slightly asymmetric coupled quantum wells,” in Quantum Optoelectronics, Vol. 7 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 26–29.

Freund, J. M.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs-AlGaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Goodhue, W. D.

J. P. Donnelly, R. J. Baily, W. D. Goodhue, C. A. Wang, G. A. Lincoln, G. D. Johnson, “Monolithic two dimensional surface arrays of AlGaAs horizontal-cavity diode lasers with etched facets and external parabolic reflecting mirrors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro–Optics, Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 344.

Goossen, K. W.

K. W. Goossen, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, A. L. Lentine, A. M. Fox, N. K. Ailawadi, “Low field electro-absorption and self-biased self electro-optic effect device using slightly asymmetric coupled quantum wells,” in Quantum Optoelectronics, Vol. 7 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 26–29.

Gortler, K.

H. Dammann, K. Gortler, “High efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 312–315 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Guth, G.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs-AlGaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Henry, J. E.

D. A. B. Miller, M. D. Feuer, T. Y. Chang, S. C. Shunk, J. E. Henry, D. J. Burrows, D. S. Chemla, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator, and transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 62–63 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self electro-optic effect device: optical set–reset latch, differential logic gate and differential modulator/detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1928 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Herron, M. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Cloonan, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all-optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, M. J. Herron, “Optical implementation and performance of one-dimensional and two-dimensional trimmed inverse augmented data manipulator networks for multiprocessor computer systems,” Opt. Eng. 28, 305–314 (1989).

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratov̄ich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).

Hinterlong, S. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratov̄ich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).

Hinton, H. S.

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self electro-optic effect device: optical set–reset latch, differential logic gate and differential modulator/detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1928 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jahns, J.

Jan, W. Y.

K. W. Goossen, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, A. L. Lentine, A. M. Fox, N. K. Ailawadi, “Low field electro-absorption and self-biased self electro-optic effect device using slightly asymmetric coupled quantum wells,” in Quantum Optoelectronics, Vol. 7 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 26–29.

Johnson, G. D.

J. P. Donnelly, R. J. Baily, W. D. Goodhue, C. A. Wang, G. A. Lincoln, G. D. Johnson, “Monolithic two dimensional surface arrays of AlGaAs horizontal-cavity diode lasers with etched facets and external parabolic reflecting mirrors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro–Optics, Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 344.

Kerbis, E.

E. Kerbis, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, “An all-optical realization of a 2 × 1 free-space switching node,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 600–602 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all-optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, R. J. Crisci, R. L. Morrison, F. A. P. Tooley, E. Kerbis, “Fabrication and testing issues in free-space digital optical switching and computing,” in International Symposium on Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1720, 553–572 (1992).

F. A. P. Tooley, F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, R. J. Crisci, R. L. Morrison, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, “Optical evaluation of components for free-space digital optics,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 105.

Laskowski, E. J.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs-AlGaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Leibenguth, R. E.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs-AlGaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs-AlGaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “Photonic ring counter using batch fabricated symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Opt. Lett. 16, 36–38 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “Parallel operation of a 32 × 16 symmetric self electro-optic effect device array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 232–234 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all-optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self electro-optic effect device: optical set–reset latch, differential logic gate and differential modulator/detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1928 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “An all-optical shift register using symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices,” in Photonic Switching, J. E. Midwinter, H. S. Hinton, eds., Vol. 3 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 192–195.

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, “Extended generalized shuffle network architectures for free-space photonic switching,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 43–47.

T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, “Analysis of control subsystems for free-space photonic switching architectures,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2587–2606.
[PubMed]

K. W. Goossen, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, A. L. Lentine, A. M. Fox, N. K. Ailawadi, “Low field electro-absorption and self-biased self electro-optic effect device using slightly asymmetric coupled quantum wells,” in Quantum Optoelectronics, Vol. 7 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 26–29.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratov̄ich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, “Control injection in free-space photonic switching architectures,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 180–185.

Lincoln, G. A.

J. P. Donnelly, R. J. Baily, W. D. Goodhue, C. A. Wang, G. A. Lincoln, G. D. Johnson, “Monolithic two dimensional surface arrays of AlGaAs horizontal-cavity diode lasers with etched facets and external parabolic reflecting mirrors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro–Optics, Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 344.

Malacara, D.

D. Malacara, “Radial, rotational, and reversal shear interferometers,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 149–178.

McCormick, F. B.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “Parallel operation of a 32 × 16 symmetric self electro-optic effect device array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 232–234 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all-optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Kerbis, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, “An all-optical realization of a 2 × 1 free-space switching node,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 600–602 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, M. E. Prise, “Optical circuitry for free space interconnections,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2013–2018 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, “Analysis of control subsystems for free-space photonic switching architectures,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2587–2606.
[PubMed]

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, “Extended generalized shuffle network architectures for free-space photonic switching,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 43–47.

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, “Control injection in free-space photonic switching architectures,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 180–185.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratov̄ich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “An all-optical shift register using symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices,” in Photonic Switching, J. E. Midwinter, H. S. Hinton, eds., Vol. 3 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 192–195.

F. A. P. Tooley, F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, R. J. Crisci, R. L. Morrison, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, “Optical evaluation of components for free-space digital optics,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 105.

F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, R. J. Crisci, R. L. Morrison, F. A. P. Tooley, E. Kerbis, “Fabrication and testing issues in free-space digital optical switching and computing,” in International Symposium on Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1720, 553–572 (1992).

Mehuys, D.

D. F. Welch, R. Parke, D. Mehuys, D. Scifres, “High power diffraction limited operation of monolithically integrated active grating master oscillator power amplifiers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 342.

Miller, D. A. B.

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self electro-optic effect device: optical set–reset latch, differential logic gate and differential modulator/detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1928 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, M. D. Feuer, T. Y. Chang, S. C. Shunk, J. E. Henry, D. J. Burrows, D. S. Chemla, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator, and transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 62–63 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, A. L. Lentine, A. M. Fox, N. K. Ailawadi, “Low field electro-absorption and self-biased self electro-optic effect device using slightly asymmetric coupled quantum wells,” in Quantum Optoelectronics, Vol. 7 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 26–29.

Morrison, R. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “Parallel operation of a 32 × 16 symmetric self electro-optic effect device array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 232–234 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. A. P. Tooley, F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, R. J. Crisci, R. L. Morrison, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, “Optical evaluation of components for free-space digital optics,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 105.

F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, R. J. Crisci, R. L. Morrison, F. A. P. Tooley, E. Kerbis, “Fabrication and testing issues in free-space digital optical switching and computing,” in International Symposium on Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1720, 553–572 (1992).

R. L. Morrison, “Image analysis for diagnostics in photonic switching,” in Applications of Optical Engineering: Proceedings of OE/Midwest ’90, M. K. Dubiel, H. E. Eppinger, R. E. Gillespie, R. P. Guzik, J. E. Pearson, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1396, 568–574 (1990).

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, “Progress in diffractive phase gratings used for spot array generation,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991) pp. 144–147.

Murdocca, M. J.

Parke, R.

D. F. Welch, R. Parke, D. Mehuys, D. Scifres, “High power diffraction limited operation of monolithically integrated active grating master oscillator power amplifiers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 342.

Pei, S. S.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs-AlGaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pezzaniti, J. L.

J. L. Pezzaniti, R. A. Chipman, “A polarization metrology for optical interconnects which use polarization beam combining,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 156–159; J. L. Pezzaniti, R. A. Chipman, “Angular dependence of polarizing beam splitter cubes,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Prise, M. E.

F. B. McCormick, M. E. Prise, “Optical circuitry for free space interconnections,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2013–2018 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Prise, N. Streibl, M. M. Downs, “Optical considerations in the design of a digital computer,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 20, 49–77 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Richards, G. W.

T. J. Cloonan, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all-optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, “Control injection in free-space photonic switching architectures,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 180–185.

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, “Extended generalized shuffle network architectures for free-space photonic switching,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 43–47.

Sasian, J. M.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. A. P. Tooley, F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, R. J. Crisci, R. L. Morrison, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, “Optical evaluation of components for free-space digital optics,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 105.

F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, R. J. Crisci, R. L. Morrison, F. A. P. Tooley, E. Kerbis, “Fabrication and testing issues in free-space digital optical switching and computing,” in International Symposium on Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1720, 553–572 (1992).

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratov̄ich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).

Scheps, R.

R. Scheps, “Cr:LiCaAIF laser pumped by visible laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1968–1970 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Scifres, D.

D. F. Welch, R. Parke, D. Mehuys, D. Scifres, “High power diffraction limited operation of monolithically integrated active grating master oscillator power amplifiers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 342.

Shunk, S. C.

D. A. B. Miller, M. D. Feuer, T. Y. Chang, S. C. Shunk, J. E. Henry, D. J. Burrows, D. S. Chemla, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator, and transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 62–63 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Smith, L. E.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs-AlGaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stone, H. S.

H. S. Stone, “Parallel processing with the perfect shuffle,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-20, 153–161 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Streibl, N.

M. E. Prise, N. Streibl, M. M. Downs, “Optical considerations in the design of a digital computer,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 20, 49–77 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tooley, F. A. P.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all-optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, R. J. Crisci, R. L. Morrison, F. A. P. Tooley, E. Kerbis, “Fabrication and testing issues in free-space digital optical switching and computing,” in International Symposium on Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1720, 553–572 (1992).

F. A. P. Tooley, F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, R. J. Crisci, R. L. Morrison, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, “Optical evaluation of components for free-space digital optics,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 105.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratov̄ich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).

Walker, S. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “Parallel operation of a 32 × 16 symmetric self electro-optic effect device array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 232–234 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, “Progress in diffractive phase gratings used for spot array generation,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991) pp. 144–147.

Wang, C. A.

J. P. Donnelly, R. J. Baily, W. D. Goodhue, C. A. Wang, G. A. Lincoln, G. D. Johnson, “Monolithic two dimensional surface arrays of AlGaAs horizontal-cavity diode lasers with etched facets and external parabolic reflecting mirrors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro–Optics, Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 344.

Welch, D. F.

D. F. Welch, R. Parke, D. Mehuys, D. Scifres, “High power diffraction limited operation of monolithically integrated active grating master oscillator power amplifiers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 342.

Woodward, T. K.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs-AlGaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-L.

C.-L. Wu, T.-Y. Feng, “On a class of multistage interconnection networks,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-29, 694–701 (1971).

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self electro-optic effect device: optical set–reset latch, differential logic gate and differential modulator/detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1928 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. Scheps, “Cr:LiCaAIF laser pumped by visible laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1968–1970 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs-AlGaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

E. Kerbis, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, “An all-optical realization of a 2 × 1 free-space switching node,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 600–602 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, M. D. Feuer, T. Y. Chang, S. C. Shunk, J. E. Henry, D. J. Burrows, D. S. Chemla, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator, and transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 62–63 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “Parallel operation of a 32 × 16 symmetric self electro-optic effect device array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 232–234 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Comput.

H. S. Stone, “Parallel processing with the perfect shuffle,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-20, 153–161 (1977).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Wu, T.-Y. Feng, “On a class of multistage interconnection networks,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-29, 694–701 (1971).

Opt. Commun.

H. Dammann, K. Gortler, “High efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 312–315 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

T. J. Cloonan, M. J. Herron, “Optical implementation and performance of one-dimensional and two-dimensional trimmed inverse augmented data manipulator networks for multiprocessor computer systems,” Opt. Eng. 28, 305–314 (1989).

R. A. Chipman, “Polarization analysis of optical systems,” Opt. Eng. 28, 90–99 (1989).

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

M. E. Prise, N. Streibl, M. M. Downs, “Optical considerations in the design of a digital computer,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 20, 49–77 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. J. Cloonan, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all-optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratov̄ich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, “Control injection in free-space photonic switching architectures,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 180–185.

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, “Extended generalized shuffle network architectures for free-space photonic switching,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 43–47.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “An all-optical shift register using symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices,” in Photonic Switching, J. E. Midwinter, H. S. Hinton, eds., Vol. 3 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 192–195.

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, “Progress in diffractive phase gratings used for spot array generation,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991) pp. 144–147.

J. L. Pezzaniti, R. A. Chipman, “A polarization metrology for optical interconnects which use polarization beam combining,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 156–159; J. L. Pezzaniti, R. A. Chipman, “Angular dependence of polarizing beam splitter cubes,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Computer code codev (Optical Research Associates, Pasadena, Calif.).

D. Malacara, “Radial, rotational, and reversal shear interferometers,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 149–178.

K. W. Goossen, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, A. L. Lentine, A. M. Fox, N. K. Ailawadi, “Low field electro-absorption and self-biased self electro-optic effect device using slightly asymmetric coupled quantum wells,” in Quantum Optoelectronics, Vol. 7 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 26–29.

F. A. P. Tooley, F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, R. J. Crisci, R. L. Morrison, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, “Optical evaluation of components for free-space digital optics,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 105.

F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, R. J. Crisci, R. L. Morrison, F. A. P. Tooley, E. Kerbis, “Fabrication and testing issues in free-space digital optical switching and computing,” in International Symposium on Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1720, 553–572 (1992).

R. L. Morrison, “Image analysis for diagnostics in photonic switching,” in Applications of Optical Engineering: Proceedings of OE/Midwest ’90, M. K. Dubiel, H. E. Eppinger, R. E. Gillespie, R. P. Guzik, J. E. Pearson, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1396, 568–574 (1990).

J. P. Donnelly, R. J. Baily, W. D. Goodhue, C. A. Wang, G. A. Lincoln, G. D. Johnson, “Monolithic two dimensional surface arrays of AlGaAs horizontal-cavity diode lasers with etched facets and external parabolic reflecting mirrors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro–Optics, Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 344.

D. F. Welch, R. Parke, D. Mehuys, D. Scifres, “High power diffraction limited operation of monolithically integrated active grating master oscillator power amplifiers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 342.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

S-SEED operation: (a) inputs and inverted outputs, (b) signal timing for time-sequential gain showing reflection-mode device operation, (c) bistability power transfer characteristic. In (c) the reflected output power of one window versus the ratio of powers incident upon both windows is shown. The curve was calculated with measured reflectivity and responsivity data on a single quantum-well modulator from the first device array.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Centrally controlled free-space photonic switching fabric.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Interconnection pattern: (a) multistage interconnection network that uses a banyan interconnection pattern (extra links, shown by striped lines, are blocked in the network implementation), (b) banyan interconnection implemented with a computer-generated Fourier hologram.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two-module switching nodes (2-modules): (a) physical layout, in which A, B, and C are the locations of the incident signal spots; (b) photograph of S-SEED 2 modules showing the space-variant metallization masks; (c) 2-module logical schematic; (d) enabled 2-module operation; (e) disabled 2-module operation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Six-stage 16-input-port 32-output-port 32-bits-port EGS demonstration network.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical hardware module (OHM): (a) optical layout and imaging path (BS’s, beam splitters), (b) photograph of complete system consisting of six stages of application-specific S-SEED’s (with flat control-injection cables attached).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical path difference plots for the optical path from laser i to S-SEED i +1, showing wave-front aberration various across the image field.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Optical spatial noise power budget for signals reflected from metallized masks on the 2-modules.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optical spatial noise from higher orders of interconnection CGH: (a) distribution of signal spots and noise orders, (b) locations of signal spots and noise orders.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Critical power leakage paths caused by polarization errors: path 1 (upper), path 2 (lower). Gray arrows denote leakage power.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Alignment sensitivity contours for the system’s outermost spots (e.g., the corners of the device array) aligned onto a 6 μm × 7 μm device window area. The contours indicate the normalized energy coupled into the device for a given misalignment (off center). With no misalignments (100% contour), 96% of the beam’s energy is coupled into the detector.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Optical power transmission budget for the path from laser i to S-SEED i +1: total transmission is ~1%; an 80-mW laser is used to form ~ 400-nW signal spots; ESW ≈ 4 pV at a 100-kHz clock rate.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

System operation: (a) photograph of control computer display for a fully loaded configuration, (b) photograph of outputs of stage 6 of the system.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

System high-speed performance (32 nodes/stage operational): electrical signal driving the first-stage spatial light modulator (upper curve), detected optical output signal from stage 5 (lower curve).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

3-D system architecture: (a) 2-D banyan network of size N = 16, (b) 3-D banyan network of size N = 16 after a cut-and-stack technique.

Equations (2)

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p ( sin θ d - sin θ i ) = m λ .
τ sw = ( E sw N ) / ( P laser η sys ) ,

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