Abstract

A new process for the deposition of thick (≈10-μm) films of silica and titania-doped silica on silicon substrates is described. Films are built up by repetitive operation of a simple process cycle in which a layer of sol-gel material is deposited by spin coating, then densified by rapid thermal annealing. Stress-free layers are obtained through careful choice of the anneal temperature. Bilayer structures suitable for waveguide fabrication may also be constructed by performing two successive deposition runs using sol-gel precursors with different titania concentrations. These bilayers may be patterned topographically into ridges by using reactive ion etching, and the ridges may be planarized by applying additional layers of sol-gel material to form buried channel waveguides.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. E. Zelmon, H. E. Jackson, J. T. Boyd, A. Naumaan, D. B. Anderson, “A low scattering graded-index SiO2 planar optical waveguide thermally grown on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 565–566 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. E. Zelmon, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Low-loss optical waveguides fabricated by thermal nitridation of oxidised silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 353–355 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Gidon, S. Valette, P. Mottier, “Integrated lenses on silicon nitride waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 24, 235–240 (1985).
  4. G. Grand, S. Valette, “Optical polarizers of high extinction ratio integrated on oxidised silicon substrate,” Electron. Lett. 20, 730–731 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Imoto, N. Shimizu, H. Mori, M. Ikeda, “Sputtered silica waveguides with an embedded three-dimensional structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 289–293 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. T. Boyd, R. W. Wu, D. E. Zelmon, A. Naumaan, H. A. Timlin, H. E. Jackson, “Guided wave optical structures utilizing silicon,” Opt. Eng. 24, 230–234 (1985).
  7. W. Stutius, W. Streifer, “Silicon nitride films on silicon for optical waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 16, 3218–3222 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. H. Henry, R. F. Kazarinov, H. J. Lee, K. J. Orlowsky, L. E. Katz, “Low loss Si3N4–SiO2 optical waveguides on Si,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2621–2624 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. E. Bossi, J. M. Hammer, J. M. Shaw, “Optical properties of silicon oxynitride dielectric waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 26, 609–611 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Grand, J. P. Jadot, H. Denis, S. Valette, A. Fournier, A. M. Grouillet, “Low-loss PECVD silica channel waveguides for optical communications,” Electron. Lett. 26, 2135–2137 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, T. Edahiro, “Fabrication of SiO2–TiO2 glass planar optical waveguides by flame hydrolysis deposition,” Electron. Lett. 19, 583–584 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. Takao, M. Yasu, M. Kawachi, “Low-loss high-silica single-mode channel waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 22, 321–322 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Kawachi, “Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391–416 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. L. Hench, J. K. West, “The sol-gel process,” Chem. Rev. 90, 33–72 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. R. Ulrich, “Prospects for sol-gel processes,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 121, 465–479 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. E. Yoldas, T. W. O’Keeffe, “Antireflective coatings applied from metal–organic derived liquid precursors,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3133–3138 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. P. Partlow, T. W. O’Keeffe, “Thirty-seven layer optical filter from polymerized sol-gel solutions,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1526–1529 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. P. Herrmann, D. Wildmann, “Fabrication of planar dielectric waveguides with high optical damage threshold,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1735–1738 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, L. Mancinelli, Degli Espositi, G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, “Planar and strip optical waveguides by sol-gel method and laser densification,” in Glasses for Optoelectronics II, G. C. Righini, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1513, 44–49 (1991).
  20. D. J. Shaw, T. A. King, “Densification of sol-gel silica glass by laser irradiation,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1328, 474–481 (1990).
  21. J-L. R. Noguès, M. V. Moreshead, “Porous gel-silica, a matrix for optically-active components,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 121, 136–142 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. Whitehurst, D. J. Shaw, T. A. King, “Sol-gel glass solid state lasers doped with organic molecules,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1328, 183–193 (1990).
  23. A. Martin, M. Green, “Sol-gel nano-porous silica–titania thin films with liquid fill for optical interferometric sensors,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1328, 352–363 (1990).
  24. A. Martin, “Fibre-optic chemical sensors,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of London, London, 1992).
  25. M. Nogami, K. Nagasaka, “Microcrystalline PbS doped silica glasses prepared by the sol-gel process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 126, 87–92 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. LeMeur, M. Green, “Optical slab waveguide fabrication by electron beam irradiation on multilayer silica glass made by the sol-gel process,” M.Sc. report to Telecom Paris Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Telecommunications, Paris, (1991).
  27. S. K. Gupta, “Spin-on glass for dielectric planarization,” Microelectron. Testing (April1989), pp. 1 and 10–12.

1990 (7)

G. Grand, J. P. Jadot, H. Denis, S. Valette, A. Fournier, A. M. Grouillet, “Low-loss PECVD silica channel waveguides for optical communications,” Electron. Lett. 26, 2135–2137 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawachi, “Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391–416 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Hench, J. K. West, “The sol-gel process,” Chem. Rev. 90, 33–72 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Ulrich, “Prospects for sol-gel processes,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 121, 465–479 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J-L. R. Noguès, M. V. Moreshead, “Porous gel-silica, a matrix for optically-active components,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 121, 136–142 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Nogami, K. Nagasaka, “Microcrystalline PbS doped silica glasses prepared by the sol-gel process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 126, 87–92 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Partlow, T. W. O’Keeffe, “Thirty-seven layer optical filter from polymerized sol-gel solutions,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1526–1529 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

1986 (1)

N. Takao, M. Yasu, M. Kawachi, “Low-loss high-silica single-mode channel waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 22, 321–322 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (3)

J. T. Boyd, R. W. Wu, D. E. Zelmon, A. Naumaan, H. A. Timlin, H. E. Jackson, “Guided wave optical structures utilizing silicon,” Opt. Eng. 24, 230–234 (1985).

D. E. Zelmon, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Low-loss optical waveguides fabricated by thermal nitridation of oxidised silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 353–355 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. Gidon, S. Valette, P. Mottier, “Integrated lenses on silicon nitride waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 24, 235–240 (1985).

1984 (1)

G. Grand, S. Valette, “Optical polarizers of high extinction ratio integrated on oxidised silicon substrate,” Electron. Lett. 20, 730–731 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (4)

N. Imoto, N. Shimizu, H. Mori, M. Ikeda, “Sputtered silica waveguides with an embedded three-dimensional structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 289–293 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Zelmon, H. E. Jackson, J. T. Boyd, A. Naumaan, D. B. Anderson, “A low scattering graded-index SiO2 planar optical waveguide thermally grown on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 565–566 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, T. Edahiro, “Fabrication of SiO2–TiO2 glass planar optical waveguides by flame hydrolysis deposition,” Electron. Lett. 19, 583–584 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Herrmann, D. Wildmann, “Fabrication of planar dielectric waveguides with high optical damage threshold,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1735–1738 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1977 (1)

Anderson, D. B.

D. E. Zelmon, H. E. Jackson, J. T. Boyd, A. Naumaan, D. B. Anderson, “A low scattering graded-index SiO2 planar optical waveguide thermally grown on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 565–566 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bossi, D. E.

Boyd, J. T.

D. E. Zelmon, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Low-loss optical waveguides fabricated by thermal nitridation of oxidised silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 353–355 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Boyd, R. W. Wu, D. E. Zelmon, A. Naumaan, H. A. Timlin, H. E. Jackson, “Guided wave optical structures utilizing silicon,” Opt. Eng. 24, 230–234 (1985).

D. E. Zelmon, H. E. Jackson, J. T. Boyd, A. Naumaan, D. B. Anderson, “A low scattering graded-index SiO2 planar optical waveguide thermally grown on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 565–566 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Colombo, P.

M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, L. Mancinelli, Degli Espositi, G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, “Planar and strip optical waveguides by sol-gel method and laser densification,” in Glasses for Optoelectronics II, G. C. Righini, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1513, 44–49 (1991).

Denis, H.

G. Grand, J. P. Jadot, H. Denis, S. Valette, A. Fournier, A. M. Grouillet, “Low-loss PECVD silica channel waveguides for optical communications,” Electron. Lett. 26, 2135–2137 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Edahiro, T.

M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, T. Edahiro, “Fabrication of SiO2–TiO2 glass planar optical waveguides by flame hydrolysis deposition,” Electron. Lett. 19, 583–584 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Espositi, Degli

M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, L. Mancinelli, Degli Espositi, G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, “Planar and strip optical waveguides by sol-gel method and laser densification,” in Glasses for Optoelectronics II, G. C. Righini, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1513, 44–49 (1991).

Fournier, A.

G. Grand, J. P. Jadot, H. Denis, S. Valette, A. Fournier, A. M. Grouillet, “Low-loss PECVD silica channel waveguides for optical communications,” Electron. Lett. 26, 2135–2137 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gidon, P.

P. Gidon, S. Valette, P. Mottier, “Integrated lenses on silicon nitride waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 24, 235–240 (1985).

Grand, G.

G. Grand, J. P. Jadot, H. Denis, S. Valette, A. Fournier, A. M. Grouillet, “Low-loss PECVD silica channel waveguides for optical communications,” Electron. Lett. 26, 2135–2137 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. Grand, S. Valette, “Optical polarizers of high extinction ratio integrated on oxidised silicon substrate,” Electron. Lett. 20, 730–731 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Green, M.

A. Martin, M. Green, “Sol-gel nano-porous silica–titania thin films with liquid fill for optical interferometric sensors,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1328, 352–363 (1990).

P. LeMeur, M. Green, “Optical slab waveguide fabrication by electron beam irradiation on multilayer silica glass made by the sol-gel process,” M.Sc. report to Telecom Paris Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Telecommunications, Paris, (1991).

Grouillet, A. M.

G. Grand, J. P. Jadot, H. Denis, S. Valette, A. Fournier, A. M. Grouillet, “Low-loss PECVD silica channel waveguides for optical communications,” Electron. Lett. 26, 2135–2137 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Guglielmi, M.

M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, L. Mancinelli, Degli Espositi, G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, “Planar and strip optical waveguides by sol-gel method and laser densification,” in Glasses for Optoelectronics II, G. C. Righini, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1513, 44–49 (1991).

Gupta, S. K.

S. K. Gupta, “Spin-on glass for dielectric planarization,” Microelectron. Testing (April1989), pp. 1 and 10–12.

Hammer, J. M.

Hench, L. L.

L. L. Hench, J. K. West, “The sol-gel process,” Chem. Rev. 90, 33–72 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Henry, C. H.

Herrmann, P. P.

P. P. Herrmann, D. Wildmann, “Fabrication of planar dielectric waveguides with high optical damage threshold,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1735–1738 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, M.

N. Imoto, N. Shimizu, H. Mori, M. Ikeda, “Sputtered silica waveguides with an embedded three-dimensional structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 289–293 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Imoto, N.

N. Imoto, N. Shimizu, H. Mori, M. Ikeda, “Sputtered silica waveguides with an embedded three-dimensional structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 289–293 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, H. E.

D. E. Zelmon, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Low-loss optical waveguides fabricated by thermal nitridation of oxidised silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 353–355 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Boyd, R. W. Wu, D. E. Zelmon, A. Naumaan, H. A. Timlin, H. E. Jackson, “Guided wave optical structures utilizing silicon,” Opt. Eng. 24, 230–234 (1985).

D. E. Zelmon, H. E. Jackson, J. T. Boyd, A. Naumaan, D. B. Anderson, “A low scattering graded-index SiO2 planar optical waveguide thermally grown on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 565–566 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jadot, J. P.

G. Grand, J. P. Jadot, H. Denis, S. Valette, A. Fournier, A. M. Grouillet, “Low-loss PECVD silica channel waveguides for optical communications,” Electron. Lett. 26, 2135–2137 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Katz, L. E.

Kawachi, M.

M. Kawachi, “Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391–416 (1990).
[CrossRef]

N. Takao, M. Yasu, M. Kawachi, “Low-loss high-silica single-mode channel waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 22, 321–322 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, T. Edahiro, “Fabrication of SiO2–TiO2 glass planar optical waveguides by flame hydrolysis deposition,” Electron. Lett. 19, 583–584 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kazarinov, R. F.

King, T. A.

C. Whitehurst, D. J. Shaw, T. A. King, “Sol-gel glass solid state lasers doped with organic molecules,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1328, 183–193 (1990).

D. J. Shaw, T. A. King, “Densification of sol-gel silica glass by laser irradiation,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1328, 474–481 (1990).

Lee, H. J.

LeMeur, P.

P. LeMeur, M. Green, “Optical slab waveguide fabrication by electron beam irradiation on multilayer silica glass made by the sol-gel process,” M.Sc. report to Telecom Paris Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Telecommunications, Paris, (1991).

Mancinelli, L.

M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, L. Mancinelli, Degli Espositi, G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, “Planar and strip optical waveguides by sol-gel method and laser densification,” in Glasses for Optoelectronics II, G. C. Righini, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1513, 44–49 (1991).

Martin, A.

A. Martin, M. Green, “Sol-gel nano-porous silica–titania thin films with liquid fill for optical interferometric sensors,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1328, 352–363 (1990).

A. Martin, “Fibre-optic chemical sensors,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of London, London, 1992).

Moreshead, M. V.

J-L. R. Noguès, M. V. Moreshead, “Porous gel-silica, a matrix for optically-active components,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 121, 136–142 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mori, H.

N. Imoto, N. Shimizu, H. Mori, M. Ikeda, “Sputtered silica waveguides with an embedded three-dimensional structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 289–293 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mottier, P.

P. Gidon, S. Valette, P. Mottier, “Integrated lenses on silicon nitride waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 24, 235–240 (1985).

Nagasaka, K.

M. Nogami, K. Nagasaka, “Microcrystalline PbS doped silica glasses prepared by the sol-gel process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 126, 87–92 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Naumaan, A.

J. T. Boyd, R. W. Wu, D. E. Zelmon, A. Naumaan, H. A. Timlin, H. E. Jackson, “Guided wave optical structures utilizing silicon,” Opt. Eng. 24, 230–234 (1985).

D. E. Zelmon, H. E. Jackson, J. T. Boyd, A. Naumaan, D. B. Anderson, “A low scattering graded-index SiO2 planar optical waveguide thermally grown on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 565–566 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nogami, M.

M. Nogami, K. Nagasaka, “Microcrystalline PbS doped silica glasses prepared by the sol-gel process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 126, 87–92 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Noguès, J-L. R.

J-L. R. Noguès, M. V. Moreshead, “Porous gel-silica, a matrix for optically-active components,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 121, 136–142 (1990).
[CrossRef]

O’Keeffe, T. W.

Orlowsky, K. J.

Partlow, D. P.

Pelli, S.

M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, L. Mancinelli, Degli Espositi, G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, “Planar and strip optical waveguides by sol-gel method and laser densification,” in Glasses for Optoelectronics II, G. C. Righini, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1513, 44–49 (1991).

Righini, G. C.

M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, L. Mancinelli, Degli Espositi, G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, “Planar and strip optical waveguides by sol-gel method and laser densification,” in Glasses for Optoelectronics II, G. C. Righini, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1513, 44–49 (1991).

Shaw, D. J.

D. J. Shaw, T. A. King, “Densification of sol-gel silica glass by laser irradiation,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1328, 474–481 (1990).

C. Whitehurst, D. J. Shaw, T. A. King, “Sol-gel glass solid state lasers doped with organic molecules,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1328, 183–193 (1990).

Shaw, J. M.

Shimizu, N.

N. Imoto, N. Shimizu, H. Mori, M. Ikeda, “Sputtered silica waveguides with an embedded three-dimensional structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 289–293 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Streifer, W.

Stutius, W.

Takao, N.

N. Takao, M. Yasu, M. Kawachi, “Low-loss high-silica single-mode channel waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 22, 321–322 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Timlin, H. A.

J. T. Boyd, R. W. Wu, D. E. Zelmon, A. Naumaan, H. A. Timlin, H. E. Jackson, “Guided wave optical structures utilizing silicon,” Opt. Eng. 24, 230–234 (1985).

Ulrich, D. R.

D. R. Ulrich, “Prospects for sol-gel processes,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 121, 465–479 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Valette, S.

G. Grand, J. P. Jadot, H. Denis, S. Valette, A. Fournier, A. M. Grouillet, “Low-loss PECVD silica channel waveguides for optical communications,” Electron. Lett. 26, 2135–2137 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Gidon, S. Valette, P. Mottier, “Integrated lenses on silicon nitride waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 24, 235–240 (1985).

G. Grand, S. Valette, “Optical polarizers of high extinction ratio integrated on oxidised silicon substrate,” Electron. Lett. 20, 730–731 (1984).
[CrossRef]

West, J. K.

L. L. Hench, J. K. West, “The sol-gel process,” Chem. Rev. 90, 33–72 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Whitehurst, C.

C. Whitehurst, D. J. Shaw, T. A. King, “Sol-gel glass solid state lasers doped with organic molecules,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1328, 183–193 (1990).

Wildmann, D.

P. P. Herrmann, D. Wildmann, “Fabrication of planar dielectric waveguides with high optical damage threshold,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1735–1738 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wu, R. W.

J. T. Boyd, R. W. Wu, D. E. Zelmon, A. Naumaan, H. A. Timlin, H. E. Jackson, “Guided wave optical structures utilizing silicon,” Opt. Eng. 24, 230–234 (1985).

Yasu, M.

N. Takao, M. Yasu, M. Kawachi, “Low-loss high-silica single-mode channel waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 22, 321–322 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, T. Edahiro, “Fabrication of SiO2–TiO2 glass planar optical waveguides by flame hydrolysis deposition,” Electron. Lett. 19, 583–584 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Yoldas, B. E.

Zelmon, D. E.

J. T. Boyd, R. W. Wu, D. E. Zelmon, A. Naumaan, H. A. Timlin, H. E. Jackson, “Guided wave optical structures utilizing silicon,” Opt. Eng. 24, 230–234 (1985).

D. E. Zelmon, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Low-loss optical waveguides fabricated by thermal nitridation of oxidised silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 353–355 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Zelmon, H. E. Jackson, J. T. Boyd, A. Naumaan, D. B. Anderson, “A low scattering graded-index SiO2 planar optical waveguide thermally grown on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 565–566 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. E. Zelmon, H. E. Jackson, J. T. Boyd, A. Naumaan, D. B. Anderson, “A low scattering graded-index SiO2 planar optical waveguide thermally grown on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 565–566 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Zelmon, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Low-loss optical waveguides fabricated by thermal nitridation of oxidised silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 353–355 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

L. L. Hench, J. K. West, “The sol-gel process,” Chem. Rev. 90, 33–72 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (4)

G. Grand, S. Valette, “Optical polarizers of high extinction ratio integrated on oxidised silicon substrate,” Electron. Lett. 20, 730–731 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. Grand, J. P. Jadot, H. Denis, S. Valette, A. Fournier, A. M. Grouillet, “Low-loss PECVD silica channel waveguides for optical communications,” Electron. Lett. 26, 2135–2137 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, T. Edahiro, “Fabrication of SiO2–TiO2 glass planar optical waveguides by flame hydrolysis deposition,” Electron. Lett. 19, 583–584 (1983).
[CrossRef]

N. Takao, M. Yasu, M. Kawachi, “Low-loss high-silica single-mode channel waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 22, 321–322 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. P. Herrmann, D. Wildmann, “Fabrication of planar dielectric waveguides with high optical damage threshold,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1735–1738 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

N. Imoto, N. Shimizu, H. Mori, M. Ikeda, “Sputtered silica waveguides with an embedded three-dimensional structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 289–293 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (3)

J-L. R. Noguès, M. V. Moreshead, “Porous gel-silica, a matrix for optically-active components,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 121, 136–142 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Ulrich, “Prospects for sol-gel processes,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 121, 465–479 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Nogami, K. Nagasaka, “Microcrystalline PbS doped silica glasses prepared by the sol-gel process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 126, 87–92 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

J. T. Boyd, R. W. Wu, D. E. Zelmon, A. Naumaan, H. A. Timlin, H. E. Jackson, “Guided wave optical structures utilizing silicon,” Opt. Eng. 24, 230–234 (1985).

P. Gidon, S. Valette, P. Mottier, “Integrated lenses on silicon nitride waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 24, 235–240 (1985).

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Kawachi, “Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391–416 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

C. Whitehurst, D. J. Shaw, T. A. King, “Sol-gel glass solid state lasers doped with organic molecules,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1328, 183–193 (1990).

A. Martin, M. Green, “Sol-gel nano-porous silica–titania thin films with liquid fill for optical interferometric sensors,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1328, 352–363 (1990).

A. Martin, “Fibre-optic chemical sensors,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of London, London, 1992).

M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, L. Mancinelli, Degli Espositi, G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, “Planar and strip optical waveguides by sol-gel method and laser densification,” in Glasses for Optoelectronics II, G. C. Righini, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1513, 44–49 (1991).

D. J. Shaw, T. A. King, “Densification of sol-gel silica glass by laser irradiation,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackenzie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1328, 474–481 (1990).

P. LeMeur, M. Green, “Optical slab waveguide fabrication by electron beam irradiation on multilayer silica glass made by the sol-gel process,” M.Sc. report to Telecom Paris Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Telecommunications, Paris, (1991).

S. K. Gupta, “Spin-on glass for dielectric planarization,” Microelectron. Testing (April1989), pp. 1 and 10–12.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Process for sol preparation from Refs. 23 and 24.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Process for thick film deposition.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of single layer thickness with spin speed for silica doped with 6.25-mol. % titania and diluted with different amounts of ethanol.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of normalized layer thickness t(r)/t(Q) over a 4-in. (10-cm) wafer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation of wafer curvature and film stress with annealing temperature.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Orientation of slip lines and shear cracks in highly distorted (100) wafers; (b) regions of asymmetric (A, A′) and symmetric (B, B′) coverage during planarization.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Guide fabrication: (a) initial bilayers, (b) profile after ridge formation by reactive ion etchings, (c) profile at start of burial stage, (d) profile at end of burial stage.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Scanning electron microscope photographs of typical ridge guides (a) before, (b) during, and (c) after planarization.

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