Abstract

The efficiency and resolving power of a concave, 2400-groove/mm, blazed diffraction grating that had a Mo/Si multilayer coating were determined. The multilayer coating had a peak reflectance of 55% at 140-Å near normal incidence. The efficiency of the multilayer grating for wavelengths in the 136–139-Å range was 2% near normal incidence. This efficiency was a factor of 150 greater than the efficiency of a sister replica Au-coated grating in the same wavelength region. The resolving power of the multilayer-coated grating in the third order of a V viii transition with a first-order wavelength of 140.451 Å was 9100. Comparisons with the Au-coated grating indicated that the application of the multilayer coating did not affect the resolving power or the blaze angle.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. U. Feldman, P. Mandelbaum, J. F. Seely, G. A. Doschek, H. Gursky, “The potential for plasma diagnostics from stellar extreme-ultraviolet observations,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 81, 387–408 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, R. J. Thomas, J. M. Davila, “Rocket flight of a multilayer coated high-density EUV toroidal grating,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1546, 614–623 (1991).
  3. J. V. Bixler, T. W. Barbee, D. D. Dietrich, “Performance of multilayer coated concave gratings in the extreme ultraviolet,” in X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy and Microscopy, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1160, 648–654 (1989).
  4. R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, R. J. Thomas, J. S. Gum, C. E. Condor, “Performance of multilayer coated diffraction gratings in the EUV,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4529–4531 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. W. Barbee, J. V. Bixler, D. D. Dietrich, “Performance of multilayer coated gratings at near normal incidence in the extreme ultraviolet,” Phys. Scr. 41, 740–744 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. J. Thomas, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, W. M. Neupert, C. E. Condor, J. S. Gum, “Extreme ultraviolet performance of a multilayer coated high density toroidal grating,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2245–2251 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “Higher-order suppression in an on-blaze plane-grating monochromator,” Appl. Opt. 23, 293–299 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, “Multilayer-coated blazed grating performance in the soft x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2984–2986 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 141–153 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 465–468 (1986).
  12. T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, “Long-term stability of a molybdenum/silicon multilayer structure,” submitted to Appl. Opt.
  13. B. L. Henke, J. C. Davis, E. M. Gullikson, R. C. C. Perera, “A preliminary report on x-ray photoabsorption coefficients and atomic scattering factors for 92 elements in the 10–10,000 eV region,” Lawrence Berkeley Lab. Rep. LBL-26259 (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1988).
  14. U. Feldman, M. Swartz, L. Cohen, “Vacuum ultraviolet source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 38, 1372–1373 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. L. Kelly, “Atomic and ionic spectrum lines below 2000 angstroms: hydrogen through krypton,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 16, Suppl. 1, 572–573 (1987).

1993

1992

U. Feldman, P. Mandelbaum, J. F. Seely, G. A. Doschek, H. Gursky, “The potential for plasma diagnostics from stellar extreme-ultraviolet observations,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 81, 387–408 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

1990

R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, R. J. Thomas, J. S. Gum, C. E. Condor, “Performance of multilayer coated diffraction gratings in the EUV,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4529–4531 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Barbee, J. V. Bixler, D. D. Dietrich, “Performance of multilayer coated gratings at near normal incidence in the extreme ultraviolet,” Phys. Scr. 41, 740–744 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1987

R. L. Kelly, “Atomic and ionic spectrum lines below 2000 angstroms: hydrogen through krypton,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 16, Suppl. 1, 572–573 (1987).

1986

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 465–468 (1986).

1984

1982

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 141–153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1967

U. Feldman, M. Swartz, L. Cohen, “Vacuum ultraviolet source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 38, 1372–1373 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W.

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Barbee, J. V. Bixler, D. D. Dietrich, “Performance of multilayer coated gratings at near normal incidence in the extreme ultraviolet,” Phys. Scr. 41, 740–744 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, “Multilayer-coated blazed grating performance in the soft x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2984–2986 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, “Long-term stability of a molybdenum/silicon multilayer structure,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

J. V. Bixler, T. W. Barbee, D. D. Dietrich, “Performance of multilayer coated concave gratings in the extreme ultraviolet,” in X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy and Microscopy, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1160, 648–654 (1989).

Bixler, J. V.

T. W. Barbee, J. V. Bixler, D. D. Dietrich, “Performance of multilayer coated gratings at near normal incidence in the extreme ultraviolet,” Phys. Scr. 41, 740–744 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Bixler, T. W. Barbee, D. D. Dietrich, “Performance of multilayer coated concave gratings in the extreme ultraviolet,” in X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy and Microscopy, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1160, 648–654 (1989).

Boyer, C. N.

Brown, C. M.

Cohen, L.

U. Feldman, M. Swartz, L. Cohen, “Vacuum ultraviolet source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 38, 1372–1373 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Condor, C. E.

Cruddace, R. G.

Davila, J. M.

R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, R. J. Thomas, J. M. Davila, “Rocket flight of a multilayer coated high-density EUV toroidal grating,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1546, 614–623 (1991).

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, J. C. Davis, E. M. Gullikson, R. C. C. Perera, “A preliminary report on x-ray photoabsorption coefficients and atomic scattering factors for 92 elements in the 10–10,000 eV region,” Lawrence Berkeley Lab. Rep. LBL-26259 (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1988).

Dietrich, D. D.

T. W. Barbee, J. V. Bixler, D. D. Dietrich, “Performance of multilayer coated gratings at near normal incidence in the extreme ultraviolet,” Phys. Scr. 41, 740–744 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Bixler, T. W. Barbee, D. D. Dietrich, “Performance of multilayer coated concave gratings in the extreme ultraviolet,” in X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy and Microscopy, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1160, 648–654 (1989).

Doschek, G. A.

U. Feldman, P. Mandelbaum, J. F. Seely, G. A. Doschek, H. Gursky, “The potential for plasma diagnostics from stellar extreme-ultraviolet observations,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 81, 387–408 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, U.

U. Feldman, P. Mandelbaum, J. F. Seely, G. A. Doschek, H. Gursky, “The potential for plasma diagnostics from stellar extreme-ultraviolet observations,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 81, 387–408 (1992).
[CrossRef]

U. Feldman, M. Swartz, L. Cohen, “Vacuum ultraviolet source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 38, 1372–1373 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, J. C. Davis, E. M. Gullikson, R. C. C. Perera, “A preliminary report on x-ray photoabsorption coefficients and atomic scattering factors for 92 elements in the 10–10,000 eV region,” Lawrence Berkeley Lab. Rep. LBL-26259 (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1988).

Gum, J. S.

Gursky, H.

U. Feldman, P. Mandelbaum, J. F. Seely, G. A. Doschek, H. Gursky, “The potential for plasma diagnostics from stellar extreme-ultraviolet observations,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 81, 387–408 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, J. C. Davis, E. M. Gullikson, R. C. C. Perera, “A preliminary report on x-ray photoabsorption coefficients and atomic scattering factors for 92 elements in the 10–10,000 eV region,” Lawrence Berkeley Lab. Rep. LBL-26259 (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1988).

Holland, G. E.

Hunter, W. R.

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, “Multilayer-coated blazed grating performance in the soft x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2984–2986 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 465–468 (1986).

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “Higher-order suppression in an on-blaze plane-grating monochromator,” Appl. Opt. 23, 293–299 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 141–153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, “Long-term stability of a molybdenum/silicon multilayer structure,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

Kabler, M. N.

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 141–153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, R. L.

R. L. Kelly, “Atomic and ionic spectrum lines below 2000 angstroms: hydrogen through krypton,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 16, Suppl. 1, 572–573 (1987).

Keski-Kuha, R. A. M.

Kirkland, J. P.

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 141–153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, M. P.

Mandelbaum, P.

U. Feldman, P. Mandelbaum, J. F. Seely, G. A. Doschek, H. Gursky, “The potential for plasma diagnostics from stellar extreme-ultraviolet observations,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 81, 387–408 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Neupert, W. M.

Perera, R. C. C.

B. L. Henke, J. C. Davis, E. M. Gullikson, R. C. C. Perera, “A preliminary report on x-ray photoabsorption coefficients and atomic scattering factors for 92 elements in the 10–10,000 eV region,” Lawrence Berkeley Lab. Rep. LBL-26259 (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1988).

Rife, J. C.

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, “Multilayer-coated blazed grating performance in the soft x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2984–2986 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 465–468 (1986).

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “Higher-order suppression in an on-blaze plane-grating monochromator,” Appl. Opt. 23, 293–299 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 141–153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, “Long-term stability of a molybdenum/silicon multilayer structure,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

Seely, J. F.

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Feldman, P. Mandelbaum, J. F. Seely, G. A. Doschek, H. Gursky, “The potential for plasma diagnostics from stellar extreme-ultraviolet observations,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 81, 387–408 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, “Long-term stability of a molybdenum/silicon multilayer structure,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

Swartz, M.

U. Feldman, M. Swartz, L. Cohen, “Vacuum ultraviolet source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 38, 1372–1373 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, R. J.

Williams, R. T.

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 141–153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astrophys. J. Suppl.

U. Feldman, P. Mandelbaum, J. F. Seely, G. A. Doschek, H. Gursky, “The potential for plasma diagnostics from stellar extreme-ultraviolet observations,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 81, 387–408 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data

R. L. Kelly, “Atomic and ionic spectrum lines below 2000 angstroms: hydrogen through krypton,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 16, Suppl. 1, 572–573 (1987).

Nucl. Instrum. Methods

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 141–153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 465–468 (1986).

Phys. Scr.

T. W. Barbee, J. V. Bixler, D. D. Dietrich, “Performance of multilayer coated gratings at near normal incidence in the extreme ultraviolet,” Phys. Scr. 41, 740–744 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

U. Feldman, M. Swartz, L. Cohen, “Vacuum ultraviolet source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 38, 1372–1373 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, R. J. Thomas, J. M. Davila, “Rocket flight of a multilayer coated high-density EUV toroidal grating,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1546, 614–623 (1991).

J. V. Bixler, T. W. Barbee, D. D. Dietrich, “Performance of multilayer coated concave gratings in the extreme ultraviolet,” in X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy and Microscopy, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1160, 648–654 (1989).

T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, “Long-term stability of a molybdenum/silicon multilayer structure,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

B. L. Henke, J. C. Davis, E. M. Gullikson, R. C. C. Perera, “A preliminary report on x-ray photoabsorption coefficients and atomic scattering factors for 92 elements in the 10–10,000 eV region,” Lawrence Berkeley Lab. Rep. LBL-26259 (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1988).

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