Abstract

Optical wave-front propagation in a layered model for the atmosphere is analyzed by the use of diffraction theory, leading to a novel approach for utilizing artificial guide stars. Considering recent observations of layering in the atmospheric turbulence, the results of this paper indicate that, even for very large telescopes, a substantial enlargement of the compensated angular field of view is possible when two adaptive mirrors and four or five artificial guide stars are employed. The required number of guide stars increases as the thickness of the turbulent layers increases, converging to the conventional results at the limit of continuously turbulent atmosphere.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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1991

1990

C. S. Gardner, B. M. Welsh, L. A. Thompson, “Design and performance analysis of adaptive optical telescopes using laser guide stars,” Proc. IEEE 78, 1721–1743 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

1985

R. Foy, A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe,,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29–L31 (1985).

1982

1981

1980

1979

1978

A. M. Schneiderman, D. P. Karo, “Measurement of r0 with speckle interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 348–351 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Hardy, “Active optics: a new technology for the control of light,” Proc. IEEE 66, 651–697 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975

R. H. Dicke, “Phase contrast detection of telescope seeing errors and their correction,,” Astrophys. J. 198, 605–15 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ameer, G. A.

D. M. Winker, G. A. Ameer, S. L. Brown, G. C. Cochran, R. Dueck, D. L. Fried, D. M. Lussier, W. Moretti, P. H. Roberts, K. E. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, “Characteristics of turbulence measured on a large aperture,” in Optical, Infrared, Millimeter Wave Propagation Engineering, N. S. Kopeika, W. B. Miller, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.926, 360–366 (1988).

Azoit, M.

F. Roddier, L. Cowie, J. E. Graves, A. Songaila, D. McKenna, J. Vernin, M. Azoit, J. L. Caccia, E. Limburg, C. Roddier, D. Salmon, S. Beland, D. Cowley, S. Hill, “Seeing at Mauna Kea, a joint UH-UN-NOAO-CFHT study,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes TV, L.D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 42 (1990).

Azouit, M.

Barclay, H. T.

Beckers, J. M.

J. M. Beckers, “Detailed compensation of atmospheric seeing using multiconjugate adaptive optics,” Active Telescope Systems, F. J. Roddier, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1114, 215–217 (1989).

Beland, S.

F. Roddier, L. Cowie, J. E. Graves, A. Songaila, D. McKenna, J. Vernin, M. Azoit, J. L. Caccia, E. Limburg, C. Roddier, D. Salmon, S. Beland, D. Cowley, S. Hill, “Seeing at Mauna Kea, a joint UH-UN-NOAO-CFHT study,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes TV, L.D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 42 (1990).

Boyer, C.

E. Gendron, J. G. Cuby, F. Rigaut, P. Lena, J. C. Fontanella, G. Gousset, J. P. Gaffard, C. Boyer, J. C. Richard, M. Vittot, F. Merkle, N. Hubin, “The COME-ON-Plus: an upgrade of the COME-ON adaptive optics phototype,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 298–307 (1991).

Bradley, L. C.

Brown, S. L.

D. M. Winker, G. A. Ameer, S. L. Brown, G. C. Cochran, R. Dueck, D. L. Fried, D. M. Lussier, W. Moretti, P. H. Roberts, K. E. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, “Characteristics of turbulence measured on a large aperture,” in Optical, Infrared, Millimeter Wave Propagation Engineering, N. S. Kopeika, W. B. Miller, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.926, 360–366 (1988).

Buffington, A.

Caccia, J. L.

F. Roddier, L. Cowie, J. E. Graves, A. Songaila, D. McKenna, J. Vernin, M. Azoit, J. L. Caccia, E. Limburg, C. Roddier, D. Salmon, S. Beland, D. Cowley, S. Hill, “Seeing at Mauna Kea, a joint UH-UN-NOAO-CFHT study,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes TV, L.D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 42 (1990).

Caccia, J.-L.

Carroll, D.

L. Thompson, R. Castle, D. Carroll, “Laser guide stars for adaptive optics systems: Rayleigh scattering experiments,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 110–119 (1991).

Castle, R.

L. Thompson, R. Castle, D. Carroll, “Laser guide stars for adaptive optics systems: Rayleigh scattering experiments,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 110–119 (1991).

Cochran, G. C.

D. M. Winker, G. A. Ameer, S. L. Brown, G. C. Cochran, R. Dueck, D. L. Fried, D. M. Lussier, W. Moretti, P. H. Roberts, K. E. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, “Characteristics of turbulence measured on a large aperture,” in Optical, Infrared, Millimeter Wave Propagation Engineering, N. S. Kopeika, W. B. Miller, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.926, 360–366 (1988).

Cowie, L.

F. Roddier, L. Cowie, J. E. Graves, A. Songaila, D. McKenna, J. Vernin, M. Azoit, J. L. Caccia, E. Limburg, C. Roddier, D. Salmon, S. Beland, D. Cowley, S. Hill, “Seeing at Mauna Kea, a joint UH-UN-NOAO-CFHT study,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes TV, L.D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 42 (1990).

Cowley, D.

F. Roddier, L. Cowie, J. E. Graves, A. Songaila, D. McKenna, J. Vernin, M. Azoit, J. L. Caccia, E. Limburg, C. Roddier, D. Salmon, S. Beland, D. Cowley, S. Hill, “Seeing at Mauna Kea, a joint UH-UN-NOAO-CFHT study,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes TV, L.D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 42 (1990).

Crawford, F. S.

Crowe, D. G.

J. Shamir, D. G. Crowe, “Increasing the compensated field of view using multiple adaptive mirror telescope systems,” in Proceedings of the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Workshop, R. Q. Fugate, ed. (Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N.M., 1992), pp. 591–605.

Cuby, J. G.

E. Gendron, J. G. Cuby, F. Rigaut, P. Lena, J. C. Fontanella, G. Gousset, J. P. Gaffard, C. Boyer, J. C. Richard, M. Vittot, F. Merkle, N. Hubin, “The COME-ON-Plus: an upgrade of the COME-ON adaptive optics phototype,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 298–307 (1991).

Dicke, R. H.

R. H. Dicke, “Phase contrast detection of telescope seeing errors and their correction,,” Astrophys. J. 198, 605–15 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Doel, A. P.

R. M. Sharples, A. P. Doel, C. N. Dunlop, J. V. Major, R. M. Myers, “MARTINI: current status and future developments,” in Proceedings of the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Workshop, R. Q. Fugate, ed. (Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N.M., 1992), pp. 575–581.

Dueck, R.

D. M. Winker, G. A. Ameer, S. L. Brown, G. C. Cochran, R. Dueck, D. L. Fried, D. M. Lussier, W. Moretti, P. H. Roberts, K. E. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, “Characteristics of turbulence measured on a large aperture,” in Optical, Infrared, Millimeter Wave Propagation Engineering, N. S. Kopeika, W. B. Miller, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.926, 360–366 (1988).

Dunlop, C. N.

R. M. Sharples, A. P. Doel, C. N. Dunlop, J. V. Major, R. M. Myers, “MARTINI: current status and future developments,” in Proceedings of the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Workshop, R. Q. Fugate, ed. (Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N.M., 1992), pp. 575–581.

Fontanella, J. C.

E. Gendron, J. G. Cuby, F. Rigaut, P. Lena, J. C. Fontanella, G. Gousset, J. P. Gaffard, C. Boyer, J. C. Richard, M. Vittot, F. Merkle, N. Hubin, “The COME-ON-Plus: an upgrade of the COME-ON adaptive optics phototype,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 298–307 (1991).

Foy, R.

R. Foy, A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe,,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29–L31 (1985).

M. Tallon, R. Foy, J. Vernin, “Wide field adaptive optics using an array of laser guide stars,” in Proceedings of the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Workshop, R. Q. Fugate, ed. (Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N.M., 1992), pp. 555–566.

R. Foy, “Works in France in the field of the laser artificial guide star,” in Proceedings of the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Workshop, R. Q. Fugate, ed. (Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N.M., 1992), pp. 487–490.

Fried, D. L.

D. L. Fried, “Anisoplanatism in adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 52–61 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Fried, “Post-detection wavefront distortion compensation,” in Digital Image Recovery and Synthesis, P. S. Idell, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.828, 127–133 (1987).

D. M. Winker, G. A. Ameer, S. L. Brown, G. C. Cochran, R. Dueck, D. L. Fried, D. M. Lussier, W. Moretti, P. H. Roberts, K. E. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, “Characteristics of turbulence measured on a large aperture,” in Optical, Infrared, Millimeter Wave Propagation Engineering, N. S. Kopeika, W. B. Miller, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.926, 360–366 (1988).

Fugate, R. Q.

R. Q. Fugate, “Two generations of high bandwidth laser guide star adaptive optics at the Starfire optical range,” in Proceedings of the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Workshop, R. Q. Fugate, ed. (Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N. M., 1992), pp. 132–163.

Gaffard, J. P.

E. Gendron, J. G. Cuby, F. Rigaut, P. Lena, J. C. Fontanella, G. Gousset, J. P. Gaffard, C. Boyer, J. C. Richard, M. Vittot, F. Merkle, N. Hubin, “The COME-ON-Plus: an upgrade of the COME-ON adaptive optics phototype,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 298–307 (1991).

Gaffard, J.-P.

J.-P. Gaffard, G. Ledanois, “Adaptive optical transfer function modeling,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 34–45 (1991).

Gardner, C. S.

B. M. Welsh, C. S. Gardner, “Effects of turbulence-induced anisoplanatism on the imaging performance of adaptive-astronomical telescopes using laser guide stars,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 69–80 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Gardner, B. M. Welsh, L. A. Thompson, “Design and performance analysis of adaptive optical telescopes using laser guide stars,” Proc. IEEE 78, 1721–1743 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gendron, E.

E. Gendron, J. G. Cuby, F. Rigaut, P. Lena, J. C. Fontanella, G. Gousset, J. P. Gaffard, C. Boyer, J. C. Richard, M. Vittot, F. Merkle, N. Hubin, “The COME-ON-Plus: an upgrade of the COME-ON adaptive optics phototype,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 298–307 (1991).

Goad, L. E.

L. E. Goad, “Anisoplanatism and the use of laser guide stars,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 100–109 (1991).

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, San Francisco, 1968).

Gousset, G.

E. Gendron, J. G. Cuby, F. Rigaut, P. Lena, J. C. Fontanella, G. Gousset, J. P. Gaffard, C. Boyer, J. C. Richard, M. Vittot, F. Merkle, N. Hubin, “The COME-ON-Plus: an upgrade of the COME-ON adaptive optics phototype,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 298–307 (1991).

Graves, J. E.

F. Roddier, L. Cowie, J. E. Graves, A. Songaila, D. McKenna, J. Vernin, M. Azoit, J. L. Caccia, E. Limburg, C. Roddier, D. Salmon, S. Beland, D. Cowley, S. Hill, “Seeing at Mauna Kea, a joint UH-UN-NOAO-CFHT study,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes TV, L.D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 42 (1990).

Hardy, J. W.

J. W. Hardy, “Active optics: a new technology for the control of light,” Proc. IEEE 66, 651–697 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Hardy, “Adaptive optics—a progress review,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 2–17 (1991).

J. W. Hardy, “Instrumental limitations in adaptive optics for astronomy,” in Active Telescope Systems, F. J. Roddier, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1114, 2–13 (1989).

Hermann, J.

Hill, S.

F. Roddier, L. Cowie, J. E. Graves, A. Songaila, D. McKenna, J. Vernin, M. Azoit, J. L. Caccia, E. Limburg, C. Roddier, D. Salmon, S. Beland, D. Cowley, S. Hill, “Seeing at Mauna Kea, a joint UH-UN-NOAO-CFHT study,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes TV, L.D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 42 (1990).

Hubin, N.

E. Gendron, J. G. Cuby, F. Rigaut, P. Lena, J. C. Fontanella, G. Gousset, J. P. Gaffard, C. Boyer, J. C. Richard, M. Vittot, F. Merkle, N. Hubin, “The COME-ON-Plus: an upgrade of the COME-ON adaptive optics phototype,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 298–307 (1991).

F. Merkle, N. Hubin, “Adaptive optics for the European very large telescope,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 283–292 (1991).

Humphreys, R. A.

Jankevics, A.

A. Jankevics, A. Wirth, “Wide field of view adaptive optics,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Components, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1543, 438–448 (1992).

Johnston, D. C.

D. C. Johnston, B. M. Welsh, “Atmospheric turbulence sensing for a multiconjugate adaptive optics systems,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 76–87 (1991).

Karo, D. P.

Kibblewhite, E.

E. Kibblewhite, “Laser beacons for astronomy,” in Proceedings of the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Workshop, R. Q. Fugate, ed. (Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N.M., 1992), pp. 24–36.

Labeyrie, A.

R. Foy, A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe,,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29–L31 (1985).

Ledanois, G.

J.-P. Gaffard, G. Ledanois, “Adaptive optical transfer function modeling,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 34–45 (1991).

Lena, P.

E. Gendron, J. G. Cuby, F. Rigaut, P. Lena, J. C. Fontanella, G. Gousset, J. P. Gaffard, C. Boyer, J. C. Richard, M. Vittot, F. Merkle, N. Hubin, “The COME-ON-Plus: an upgrade of the COME-ON adaptive optics phototype,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 298–307 (1991).

Limburg, E.

F. Roddier, L. Cowie, J. E. Graves, A. Songaila, D. McKenna, J. Vernin, M. Azoit, J. L. Caccia, E. Limburg, C. Roddier, D. Salmon, S. Beland, D. Cowley, S. Hill, “Seeing at Mauna Kea, a joint UH-UN-NOAO-CFHT study,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes TV, L.D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 42 (1990).

Lussier, D. M.

D. M. Winker, G. A. Ameer, S. L. Brown, G. C. Cochran, R. Dueck, D. L. Fried, D. M. Lussier, W. Moretti, P. H. Roberts, K. E. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, “Characteristics of turbulence measured on a large aperture,” in Optical, Infrared, Millimeter Wave Propagation Engineering, N. S. Kopeika, W. B. Miller, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.926, 360–366 (1988).

Major, J. V.

R. M. Sharples, A. P. Doel, C. N. Dunlop, J. V. Major, R. M. Myers, “MARTINI: current status and future developments,” in Proceedings of the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Workshop, R. Q. Fugate, ed. (Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N.M., 1992), pp. 575–581.

McKenna, D.

F. Roddier, L. Cowie, J. E. Graves, A. Songaila, D. McKenna, J. Vernin, M. Azoit, J. L. Caccia, E. Limburg, C. Roddier, D. Salmon, S. Beland, D. Cowley, S. Hill, “Seeing at Mauna Kea, a joint UH-UN-NOAO-CFHT study,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes TV, L.D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 42 (1990).

Merkle, F.

E. Gendron, J. G. Cuby, F. Rigaut, P. Lena, J. C. Fontanella, G. Gousset, J. P. Gaffard, C. Boyer, J. C. Richard, M. Vittot, F. Merkle, N. Hubin, “The COME-ON-Plus: an upgrade of the COME-ON adaptive optics phototype,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 298–307 (1991).

F. Merkle, N. Hubin, “Adaptive optics for the European very large telescope,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 283–292 (1991).

Moretti, W.

D. M. Winker, G. A. Ameer, S. L. Brown, G. C. Cochran, R. Dueck, D. L. Fried, D. M. Lussier, W. Moretti, P. H. Roberts, K. E. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, “Characteristics of turbulence measured on a large aperture,” in Optical, Infrared, Millimeter Wave Propagation Engineering, N. S. Kopeika, W. B. Miller, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.926, 360–366 (1988).

Murphy, D. V.

Myers, R. M.

R. M. Sharples, A. P. Doel, C. N. Dunlop, J. V. Major, R. M. Myers, “MARTINI: current status and future developments,” in Proceedings of the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Workshop, R. Q. Fugate, ed. (Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N.M., 1992), pp. 575–581.

Nazarathy, M.

Pollaine, S.

Primmerman, C. A.

Richard, J. C.

E. Gendron, J. G. Cuby, F. Rigaut, P. Lena, J. C. Fontanella, G. Gousset, J. P. Gaffard, C. Boyer, J. C. Richard, M. Vittot, F. Merkle, N. Hubin, “The COME-ON-Plus: an upgrade of the COME-ON adaptive optics phototype,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 298–307 (1991).

Richardson, E. H.

E. H. Richardson, “Optical design of an adaptive optical Caude imaging selectable atmospheric layers,” in Proceedings of the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Workshop, R. Q. Fugate, ed. (Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N.M., 1992), pp. 378–384.

Rigaut, F.

E. Gendron, J. G. Cuby, F. Rigaut, P. Lena, J. C. Fontanella, G. Gousset, J. P. Gaffard, C. Boyer, J. C. Richard, M. Vittot, F. Merkle, N. Hubin, “The COME-ON-Plus: an upgrade of the COME-ON adaptive optics phototype,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 298–307 (1991).

Roberts, P. H.

D. M. Winker, G. A. Ameer, S. L. Brown, G. C. Cochran, R. Dueck, D. L. Fried, D. M. Lussier, W. Moretti, P. H. Roberts, K. E. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, “Characteristics of turbulence measured on a large aperture,” in Optical, Infrared, Millimeter Wave Propagation Engineering, N. S. Kopeika, W. B. Miller, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.926, 360–366 (1988).

Roddier, C.

F. Roddier, L. Cowie, J. E. Graves, A. Songaila, D. McKenna, J. Vernin, M. Azoit, J. L. Caccia, E. Limburg, C. Roddier, D. Salmon, S. Beland, D. Cowley, S. Hill, “Seeing at Mauna Kea, a joint UH-UN-NOAO-CFHT study,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes TV, L.D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 42 (1990).

C. Roddier, F. Roddier, “Interferometric seeing measurements at La Silla,” in Proceedings of the Second Workshop on the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, S. D'Odorico, J. P. Swings, eds. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1986), pp. 279–288.

Roddier, F.

F. Roddier, “Interferometric imaging in optical astronomy,” Phys. Rep. 170, 97–166 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. Roddier, F. Roddier, “Interferometric seeing measurements at La Silla,” in Proceedings of the Second Workshop on the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, S. D'Odorico, J. P. Swings, eds. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1986), pp. 279–288.

F. Roddier, L. Cowie, J. E. Graves, A. Songaila, D. McKenna, J. Vernin, M. Azoit, J. L. Caccia, E. Limburg, C. Roddier, D. Salmon, S. Beland, D. Cowley, S. Hill, “Seeing at Mauna Kea, a joint UH-UN-NOAO-CFHT study,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes TV, L.D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 42 (1990).

F. Roddier, “The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1981), Vol. 19, pp. 281–377.
[CrossRef]

Salmon, D.

F. Roddier, L. Cowie, J. E. Graves, A. Songaila, D. McKenna, J. Vernin, M. Azoit, J. L. Caccia, E. Limburg, C. Roddier, D. Salmon, S. Beland, D. Cowley, S. Hill, “Seeing at Mauna Kea, a joint UH-UN-NOAO-CFHT study,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes TV, L.D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 42 (1990).

Sandler, D.

D. Sandler, “A multiple spot laser beacon for high-order wavefront control: theory and experiment,” in Proceedings of the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Workshop, R. Q. Fugate, ed. (Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N. M., 1992), pp. 164–195.

Schneiderman, A. M.

Shamir, J.

M. Nazarathy, J. Shamir, “Holography described by operator algebra,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 529–541 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. Nazarathy, J. Shamir, “Fourier optics described by operator algebra,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 150–158 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Shamir, D. G. Crowe, “Increasing the compensated field of view using multiple adaptive mirror telescope systems,” in Proceedings of the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Workshop, R. Q. Fugate, ed. (Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N.M., 1992), pp. 591–605.

Sharples, R. M.

R. M. Sharples, A. P. Doel, C. N. Dunlop, J. V. Major, R. M. Myers, “MARTINI: current status and future developments,” in Proceedings of the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Workshop, R. Q. Fugate, ed. (Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N.M., 1992), pp. 575–581.

Songaila, A.

F. Roddier, L. Cowie, J. E. Graves, A. Songaila, D. McKenna, J. Vernin, M. Azoit, J. L. Caccia, E. Limburg, C. Roddier, D. Salmon, S. Beland, D. Cowley, S. Hill, “Seeing at Mauna Kea, a joint UH-UN-NOAO-CFHT study,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes TV, L.D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 42 (1990).

Steinhoff, K. E.

D. M. Winker, G. A. Ameer, S. L. Brown, G. C. Cochran, R. Dueck, D. L. Fried, D. M. Lussier, W. Moretti, P. H. Roberts, K. E. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, “Characteristics of turbulence measured on a large aperture,” in Optical, Infrared, Millimeter Wave Propagation Engineering, N. S. Kopeika, W. B. Miller, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.926, 360–366 (1988).

Tallon, M.

M. Tallon, R. Foy, J. Vernin, “Wide field adaptive optics using an array of laser guide stars,” in Proceedings of the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Workshop, R. Q. Fugate, ed. (Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N.M., 1992), pp. 555–566.

Thompson, L.

L. Thompson, R. Castle, D. Carroll, “Laser guide stars for adaptive optics systems: Rayleigh scattering experiments,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 110–119 (1991).

Thompson, L. A.

C. S. Gardner, B. M. Welsh, L. A. Thompson, “Design and performance analysis of adaptive optical telescopes using laser guide stars,” Proc. IEEE 78, 1721–1743 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tyler, G. A.

D. M. Winker, G. A. Ameer, S. L. Brown, G. C. Cochran, R. Dueck, D. L. Fried, D. M. Lussier, W. Moretti, P. H. Roberts, K. E. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, “Characteristics of turbulence measured on a large aperture,” in Optical, Infrared, Millimeter Wave Propagation Engineering, N. S. Kopeika, W. B. Miller, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.926, 360–366 (1988).

G. A. Tyler, “Summary of theoretical performance and limitations of laser guide star adaptive optics for astronomical applications,” in Proceedings of the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Workshop, R. Q. Fugate, ed. (Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N. M., 1992), pp. 405–440.

Tyson, R. K.

R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1991).

Vernin, H.

H. Vernin, “Scidar measurements and model forecasting of free atmosphere turbulence,” in Proceedings of the Second Workshop on the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, S. D'Odorico, J. P. Swings, eds. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1986), pp. 279– 288.

Vernin, J.

J.-L. Caccia, J. Vernin, M. Azouit, “Structure function Cn2 profiling by two-color stellar scintillation with atmospheric dispersion,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2229–2235 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Roddier, L. Cowie, J. E. Graves, A. Songaila, D. McKenna, J. Vernin, M. Azoit, J. L. Caccia, E. Limburg, C. Roddier, D. Salmon, S. Beland, D. Cowley, S. Hill, “Seeing at Mauna Kea, a joint UH-UN-NOAO-CFHT study,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes TV, L.D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 42 (1990).

M. Tallon, R. Foy, J. Vernin, “Wide field adaptive optics using an array of laser guide stars,” in Proceedings of the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Workshop, R. Q. Fugate, ed. (Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N.M., 1992), pp. 555–566.

Vittot, M.

E. Gendron, J. G. Cuby, F. Rigaut, P. Lena, J. C. Fontanella, G. Gousset, J. P. Gaffard, C. Boyer, J. C. Richard, M. Vittot, F. Merkle, N. Hubin, “The COME-ON-Plus: an upgrade of the COME-ON adaptive optics phototype,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 298–307 (1991).

Welsh, B. M.

B. M. Welsh, “Imaging performance analysis of adaptive optical telescopes using laser guide stars,” Appl. Opt. 30, 5021–5030 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Welsh, C. S. Gardner, “Effects of turbulence-induced anisoplanatism on the imaging performance of adaptive-astronomical telescopes using laser guide stars,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 69–80 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Gardner, B. M. Welsh, L. A. Thompson, “Design and performance analysis of adaptive optical telescopes using laser guide stars,” Proc. IEEE 78, 1721–1743 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Welsh, “Imaging performance analysis of adaptive optical telescopes using laser guide stars,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 88–99 (1991).

D. C. Johnston, B. M. Welsh, “Atmospheric turbulence sensing for a multiconjugate adaptive optics systems,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 76–87 (1991).

Winker, D. M.

D. M. Winker, G. A. Ameer, S. L. Brown, G. C. Cochran, R. Dueck, D. L. Fried, D. M. Lussier, W. Moretti, P. H. Roberts, K. E. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, “Characteristics of turbulence measured on a large aperture,” in Optical, Infrared, Millimeter Wave Propagation Engineering, N. S. Kopeika, W. B. Miller, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.926, 360–366 (1988).

Wirth, A.

A. Jankevics, A. Wirth, “Wide field of view adaptive optics,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Components, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1543, 438–448 (1992).

Zollars, B. G.

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[CrossRef]

C. S. Gardner, B. M. Welsh, L. A. Thompson, “Design and performance analysis of adaptive optical telescopes using laser guide stars,” Proc. IEEE 78, 1721–1743 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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D. M. Winker, G. A. Ameer, S. L. Brown, G. C. Cochran, R. Dueck, D. L. Fried, D. M. Lussier, W. Moretti, P. H. Roberts, K. E. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, “Characteristics of turbulence measured on a large aperture,” in Optical, Infrared, Millimeter Wave Propagation Engineering, N. S. Kopeika, W. B. Miller, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.926, 360–366 (1988).

F. Roddier, “The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1981), Vol. 19, pp. 281–377.
[CrossRef]

J. M. Beckers, “Detailed compensation of atmospheric seeing using multiconjugate adaptive optics,” Active Telescope Systems, F. J. Roddier, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1114, 215–217 (1989).

D. C. Johnston, B. M. Welsh, “Atmospheric turbulence sensing for a multiconjugate adaptive optics systems,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 76–87 (1991).

C. Roddier, F. Roddier, “Interferometric seeing measurements at La Silla,” in Proceedings of the Second Workshop on the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, S. D'Odorico, J. P. Swings, eds. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1986), pp. 279–288.

H. Vernin, “Scidar measurements and model forecasting of free atmosphere turbulence,” in Proceedings of the Second Workshop on the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, S. D'Odorico, J. P. Swings, eds. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1986), pp. 279– 288.

F. Roddier, L. Cowie, J. E. Graves, A. Songaila, D. McKenna, J. Vernin, M. Azoit, J. L. Caccia, E. Limburg, C. Roddier, D. Salmon, S. Beland, D. Cowley, S. Hill, “Seeing at Mauna Kea, a joint UH-UN-NOAO-CFHT study,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes TV, L.D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 42 (1990).

E. H. Richardson, “Optical design of an adaptive optical Caude imaging selectable atmospheric layers,” in Proceedings of the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Workshop, R. Q. Fugate, ed. (Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N.M., 1992), pp. 378–384.

R. Foy, “Works in France in the field of the laser artificial guide star,” in Proceedings of the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Workshop, R. Q. Fugate, ed. (Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N.M., 1992), pp. 487–490.

M. Tallon, R. Foy, J. Vernin, “Wide field adaptive optics using an array of laser guide stars,” in Proceedings of the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Workshop, R. Q. Fugate, ed. (Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N.M., 1992), pp. 555–566.

R. M. Sharples, A. P. Doel, C. N. Dunlop, J. V. Major, R. M. Myers, “MARTINI: current status and future developments,” in Proceedings of the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Workshop, R. Q. Fugate, ed. (Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N.M., 1992), pp. 575–581.

A. Jankevics, A. Wirth, “Wide field of view adaptive optics,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Components, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1543, 438–448 (1992).

J. Shamir, D. G. Crowe, “Increasing the compensated field of view using multiple adaptive mirror telescope systems,” in Proceedings of the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Workshop, R. Q. Fugate, ed. (Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N.M., 1992), pp. 591–605.

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F. Merkle, N. Hubin, “Adaptive optics for the European very large telescope,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 283–292 (1991).

E. Gendron, J. G. Cuby, F. Rigaut, P. Lena, J. C. Fontanella, G. Gousset, J. P. Gaffard, C. Boyer, J. C. Richard, M. Vittot, F. Merkle, N. Hubin, “The COME-ON-Plus: an upgrade of the COME-ON adaptive optics phototype,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 298–307 (1991).

J.-P. Gaffard, G. Ledanois, “Adaptive optical transfer function modeling,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 34–45 (1991).

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L. E. Goad, “Anisoplanatism and the use of laser guide stars,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 100–109 (1991).

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R. Q. Fugate, “Two generations of high bandwidth laser guide star adaptive optics at the Starfire optical range,” in Proceedings of the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Workshop, R. Q. Fugate, ed. (Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N. M., 1992), pp. 132–163.

G. A. Tyler, “Summary of theoretical performance and limitations of laser guide star adaptive optics for astronomical applications,” in Proceedings of the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Workshop, R. Q. Fugate, ed. (Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N. M., 1992), pp. 405–440.

D. Sandler, “A multiple spot laser beacon for high-order wavefront control: theory and experiment,” in Proceedings of the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Workshop, R. Q. Fugate, ed. (Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N. M., 1992), pp. 164–195.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical path for an astronomical observatory with two distorting layers (h1 and h2) and two adaptive mirrors (AM's). L represents the original telescope optics, and VO is the final imaging device or viewing optics. The observed object is represented by its complex amplitude distribution, g, and the function of the other lenses (Li) is considered in the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Large field coverage by four GS's. In the shaded area the light from two reference stars overlap.

Equations (78)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

U out = T U in .
U in = S [ a ] Q [ 1 / d 1 ] ,
U in = Q [ 1 / d 1 ] G [ a / d 1 ] ,
U 2 = h 2 [ d 2 ] h 1 Q [ 1 / d 1 ] G [ a / d 1 ] .
ϕ = ( a / d 1 )
U 2 = h 2 [ d 2 ] h 1 G [ ϕ ] .
U 2 = G [ ϕ ] h 2 S [ ϕ d 2 ] [ d 2 ] h 1 .
k x 1 2 2 d 2 = π x 1 2 λ d 2 > 2 π d 2 < x 1 2 2 λ d diff .
x 2 > ϕ d 2 ,
x 1 > ϕ d 2 .
d 2 < ( x 1 x 2 ) 1 / 2 ϕ d max .
d 4 = f + f 1 ,
d 5 = f 1 [ 1 + f 1 f ( 1 d 3 f ) ] .
T 1 = t 2 V [ f f 1 ] P h 2 .
t 2 = V [ f f 1 ] h 2 *
d 7 = f 2 + f 3 ,
d 6 = f 2 ,
d 8 = f 3 ( f 1 f 3 f f 2 ) 2 d 2 .
t 1 = V [ f f 2 f 1 f 3 ] h 1 * ,
u out = P [ d 2 ( 1 + d 2 / d 1 ) ] S [ a d 2 d 1 ] V [ 1 1 + d 2 / d 1 ] h 1 .
U out P [ d 2 ] S [ ϕ d 2 ] h 1 .
Δ ϕ d 2 .
ϕ ( x 1 / d 2 ) ϕ 1 .
ϕ c = p ( 2 1 ) d 2 .
Δ l = l ( ϕ ) l ( 0 ) = l ( 0 ) ( 1 cos ϕ 1 ) l ( 0 ) ϕ 2 2 .
p = p d 1 d 1 + d 2 .
ϕ c p 2 p d 2 = p d 2 ( d 1 2 d 1 + d 2 1 ) .
p 1 = p d 1 d 1 + d 2 + d 3 , p 2 = p d 1 + d 2 d 1 + d 2 + d 3 .
p 2 p 1 = p d 2 d 1 + d 2 + d 3 < 2 x 1 , 2 x 2 .
d 2 < 2 ( x 1 x 2 ) 1 / 2 ( d 1 + d 3 ) P 2 ( x 1 x 2 ) 1 / 2 2 ( x 1 x 2 ) 1 / 2 P ( d 1 + d 3 ) ,
d 1 > d 2 P 2 ( x 1 x 2 ) 1 / 2 5 km ,
T = t 1 [ d 8 ] Q [ 1 f 3 ] [ d 7 ] Q [ 1 f 2 ] [ d 6 ] t 2 [ d 5 ] × Q [ 1 f 1 ] [ d 4 ] PQ [ 1 f ] [ d 3 ] h 2 [ d 2 ] h 1 ,
T 1 = t 2 [ d 5 ] Q [ 1 f 1 ] [ d 4 ] Q [ 1 f ] P [ d 3 ] h 2 ,
T 1 = t 2 [ d 5 ] Q [ 1 f 1 ] [ f 1 ] [ f ] Q [ 1 f ] P [ d 3 ] h 2 .
T 1 = t 2 [ d 5 f 1 2 ( 1 f 1 + 1 f ) ] V [ f f 1 ] P [ d 3 ] h 2 .
T 1 t 2 [ d 5 f 1 2 ( 1 f 1 + 1 f ) + ( f 1 f ) 2 d 3 ] V [ f f 1 ] h 2 .
d 5 f 1 2 ( 1 f 1 + 1 f ) + ( f 1 f ) 2 d 3 = 0 .
T 1 = t 2 V [ f f 1 ] [ d 3 ] P [ d 3 ] h 2 .
T = t 1 [ d 8 ] Q [ 1 f 3 ] [ d 7 ] Q [ 1 f 2 ] [ d 6 ] T 1 [ d 2 ] h 1 .
T = t 1 [ d 8 f 3 2 ( 1 f 3 + 1 f 2 ) + ( f 3 f 2 ) 2 d 6 ] × V [ f 2 f 3 ] T 1 [ d 2 ] h 1 .
T 1 = V [ f f 1 ] .
T = t 1 [ d 8 f 3 2 ( 1 f 3 + 1 f 2 ) + ( f 3 f 2 ) 2 d 6 + ( f 1 f 3 f f 2 ) 2 d 2 ] × V [ f f 2 f 1 f 3 ] h 1 .
d 8 f 3 2 ( 1 f 3 + 1 f 2 ) + ( f 3 f 2 ) 2 d 6 + ( f 1 f 3 f f 2 ) 2 d 2 = 0 .
T 1 = V [ f f 1 ] P .
T = t 1 V [ f f 2 f 1 f 3 ] [ d 2 ] P [ d 2 ] h 1 .
U out = t 1 V [ f f 2 f 1 f 3 ] [ d 2 ] P [ d 2 ] h 1 S [ a ] Q [ 1 / d 1 ] .
U out = t 1 V [ f f 2 f 1 f 3 ] [ d 2 ] PS [ a ] [ d 2 ] × ( S [ a ] h 1 ) Q [ 1 / d 1 ] .
U out = t 1 V [ f f 2 f 1 f 3 ] [ d 2 ] P ( S [ a ] Q [ 1 d 1 + d 2 ] ) × S [ a ] [ d 2 ( 1 + d 2 / d 1 ) ] × V [ 1 1 + d 2 / d 1 ] ( S [ a ] h 1 ) .
U out = t V [ f f 1 ] [ d 2 ] ( S [ a ] Q [ 1 d 1 + d 2 ] ) × P [ d 2 ( 1 + d 2 / d 1 ) ] S [ a d 2 d 1 ] × V [ 1 1 + d 2 / d 1 ] h .
Q [ a ] = exp ( j k 2 a ρ 2 ) ,
ρ = x x ̂ + y ŷ , ρ = | ρ | .
G [ s ] = exp ( j k s ρ ) .
V [ a ] f ( x , y ) = f ( a x , a y ) V [ a ] ,
[ f ( x , y ) ] = f ( x , y ) exp [ 2 π j ( x x + y y ) ] d x d y .
S [ m ] f ( x , y ) = f ( x m x , y m y ) S [ m ] .
[ f ] = Q [ 1 / f ] .
Q [ a ] Q [ b ] = Q [ a + b ] ,
V [ a ] V [ b ] = V [ a b ] ,
S [ m 1 ] S [ m 2 ] = S [ m 1 + m 2 ] ,
V [ a ] Q [ b ] = Q [ a 2 b ] V [ a ] ,
V [ b ] S [ m ] = S [ m / b ] V [ b ] ,
V [ b ] G [ m ] = G [ m b ] V [ b ] ,
Q [ a ] S [ m ] = S [ m ] G [ a m ] Q [ a ] ,
S [ m ] Q [ a ] = Q [ a ] G [ a m ] S [ m ] .
V [ b ] = V [ 1 / b ] ,
G [ s ] = S [ s / λ ] ,
S [ m ] = G [ λ m ] .
[ d ] = 1 Q [ λ 2 d ] = Q [ λ 2 d ] 1 = V [ 1 / λ d ] 1 Q [ 1 / d ] V [ 1 / λ d ] ,
[ d ] = Q [ 1 / d ] V [ 1 / λ d ] Q [ 1 / d ] ,
[ d ] = Q [ 1 / d ] * ,
[ a ] [ b ] = [ a + b ] .
[ f ] Q [ 1 / f ] [ d ] = Q [ 1 f ( 1 d f ) ] V [ 1 λ f ] ,
1 / a + 1 / b = 1 / f ,
[ a ] Q [ 1 / f ] [ b ] = Q [ 1 b ( 1 + a b ) ] V [ a / b ] .
[ d ] Q [ 1 / q ] = Q [ 1 / ( d + q ) ] V [ 1 / ( 1 + d / q ) ] × [ ( 1 / d + 1 / q ) 1 ] = Q [ 1 / ( d + q ) ] [ d ( 1 + d / q ) ] × V [ 1 / ( 1 + d / q ) ]
[ d ] G [ m ] = G [ m ] S [ m d ] [ d ] ,
[ d ] S [ m ] = S [ m ] [ d ] ,
V [ b ] [ d ] = [ d / b 2 ] V [ b ] .

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