Abstract

To understand better the fabrication of optical surfaces and to be able to produce smoother, lower-scatter surfaces, we need to extend characterization techniques to shorter and longer surface spatial wavelengths beyond the conventional 1-μm to 1-mm region. Scanning probe microscopes are now available for profiling optical surfaces with height and lateral resolutions of a few atomic spacings. In this paper we report on measurements made with a Nanoscope II atomic force microscope on a variety of supersmooth optical surfaces and compare these results with measurements made with a conventional stylus profiling instrument. Consistent results have been obtained. To cover the long-spatial-wavelength region, long-scan profilers can be used to measure surface waviness in the range from a few millimeters to a few centimeters with height sensitivities ∼ 10 times better than conventional interferometers. The characterization of a Nanostep long-scan mechanical profiler is described, and examples of surface profiles taken on selected flat samples are given.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989).
  2. D. Malacara, ed., Optical Shop Testing (Wiley, Somerset, N.J., 1991).
  3. R. Young, J. Ward, F. Scire, “The topografiner: an instrument for measuring surface micro topography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 999–1011 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  4. G. Binnig, H. Rohrer, “Scanning tunneling microscopy,” Helv. Phys. Acta 55, 726–735 (1982).
  5. G. Binnig, H. Rohrer, Ch. Gerber, E. Weibel, “Surface studies by scanning tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 49,57–61 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Scanned-probe microscopes,” Sci. Am. 261 (4), 98–105 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. Pool, “The children of the STM,” Science 247, 634–636 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. J. Jahanmir, B. G. Haggar, J. B. Hayes, “The scanning probe microscope,” Scanning Microsc. 6 (3), 625–660 (1992).
    [PubMed]
  9. R. A. Dragoset, R. D. Young, H. P. Layer, S. R. Mielczarek, E. C. Teague, R. J. Celotta, “Scanning tunneling microscopy applied to optical surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 11, 560–562 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. G. Binnig, C. F. Quate, Ch. Gerber, “Atomic force microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 930–933 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Digital Instruments, Inc.,520 East Montecito Street, Santa Barbara, Calif. 93103.
  12. Park Scientific Instruments, 1171 Borregas Avenue, Sunnyvale, Calif. 94089.
  13. WYKO Corporation, 2650 East Elvira Road, Tucson, Ariz. 85706.
  14. Y. Namba, R. Wada, K. Unno, A. Tsuboi, “Ultra-precision surface grinder having a glass-ceramic spindle of zero-thermal expansion,” Ann. CIRP 38 (1), 331–334 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  15. N. J. Brown, “Preparation of ultrasmooth surfaces,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 16, 371–388 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. M. Bennett, V. Elings, K. Kjoller, “Precision metrology for studying optical surfaces,” Opt. Photon. News 2 (5), 14–18 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  17. O. Weis, “Direct contact superpolishing of sapphire,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4355–4362 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. MP2000 noncontact surface profiler, Chapman Instruments, 50 Saginaw Drive, Rochester, N.Y. 14623.
  19. Bauer Model 100 scanning profilometer, Bauer Associates, Inc., 177 Worcester Road, Suite 101, Wellesley, Mass.02181.
  20. Continental Optical Corporation, 15 Power Drive, Hauppauge, N.Y. 11788-4229.
  21. P. Z. Takacs, S. N. Qian, J. Colbert, “Design of a long trace surface profiler,” in Metrology: Figure and Finish, B. Truax, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.749, 59–64 (1987).
  22. P. Z. Takacs, S. K. Feng, E. L. Church, S. N. Qian, W. M. Liu, “Long trace profile measurements on cylindrical aspheres,” in Advances in Fabrication and Metrology for Optics and Large Optics, J. B. Arnold, R. E. Parks, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.966, 354–364 (1989).
  23. Dektak 3030 surface profile measuring system, Veeco Instruments, Inc., Sloan Technology Division, 602 East Montecito Street, P.O. Box 4608, Santa Barbara, Calif. 93103.
  24. Model P-1 long scan profiler, Tencor Instruments, 2400 Charleston Road, Mountain View, Calif. 94043.
  25. Nanostep surface profiler, Rank Taylor Hobson, Inc., 411 East Jarvis Avenue, Des Plaines, Illinois 60018.
  26. K. Lindsey, S. T. Smith, C. J. Robbie, “Subnanometre surface texture and profile measurement with NANOSURF 2,” CIRP Ann. 37, 519–522 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  27. J. D. Garratt, S. C. Bottomley, “Technology transfer in the development of a nanotopographic instrument,” Nanotechnology 1, 38–43 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  28. J. M. Bennett, J. H. Dancy, “Stylus profiling instrument for measuring statistical properties of smooth optical surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1785–1802 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. J. M. Bennett, “Measurement of the rms roughness, autocovariance function, and other statistical properties of optical surfaces using a FECO scanning interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2705–2721 (1976).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. A. F. Slomba, C. G. Hull-Allen, P. Z. Takacs, C. J. Evans, J. M. Bennett, “Flatness intercomparison measurements made on an optical flat,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing Workshop, Vol. 24 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992).
  31. E. W. Anthon, “Scatter measurements made with ultraviolet light,” in Measurement and Effects of Surface Defects and Quality of Polish, L. R. Baker, H. E. Bennett, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.525, 181–188 (1985).
  32. General Optics Corporation, 554 Flinn Avenue, Moorpark, Calif. 93021.

1992 (2)

J. Jahanmir, B. G. Haggar, J. B. Hayes, “The scanning probe microscope,” Scanning Microsc. 6 (3), 625–660 (1992).
[PubMed]

O. Weis, “Direct contact superpolishing of sapphire,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4355–4362 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

J. M. Bennett, V. Elings, K. Kjoller, “Precision metrology for studying optical surfaces,” Opt. Photon. News 2 (5), 14–18 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

R. Pool, “The children of the STM,” Science 247, 634–636 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Garratt, S. C. Bottomley, “Technology transfer in the development of a nanotopographic instrument,” Nanotechnology 1, 38–43 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (2)

Y. Namba, R. Wada, K. Unno, A. Tsuboi, “Ultra-precision surface grinder having a glass-ceramic spindle of zero-thermal expansion,” Ann. CIRP 38 (1), 331–334 (1989).
[Crossref]

H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Scanned-probe microscopes,” Sci. Am. 261 (4), 98–105 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

K. Lindsey, S. T. Smith, C. J. Robbie, “Subnanometre surface texture and profile measurement with NANOSURF 2,” CIRP Ann. 37, 519–522 (1988).
[Crossref]

1986 (3)

N. J. Brown, “Preparation of ultrasmooth surfaces,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 16, 371–388 (1986).
[Crossref]

R. A. Dragoset, R. D. Young, H. P. Layer, S. R. Mielczarek, E. C. Teague, R. J. Celotta, “Scanning tunneling microscopy applied to optical surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 11, 560–562 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Binnig, C. F. Quate, Ch. Gerber, “Atomic force microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 930–933 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (2)

G. Binnig, H. Rohrer, “Scanning tunneling microscopy,” Helv. Phys. Acta 55, 726–735 (1982).

G. Binnig, H. Rohrer, Ch. Gerber, E. Weibel, “Surface studies by scanning tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 49,57–61 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

1976 (1)

1972 (1)

R. Young, J. Ward, F. Scire, “The topografiner: an instrument for measuring surface micro topography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 999–1011 (1972).
[Crossref]

Anthon, E. W.

E. W. Anthon, “Scatter measurements made with ultraviolet light,” in Measurement and Effects of Surface Defects and Quality of Polish, L. R. Baker, H. E. Bennett, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.525, 181–188 (1985).

Bennett, J. M.

J. M. Bennett, V. Elings, K. Kjoller, “Precision metrology for studying optical surfaces,” Opt. Photon. News 2 (5), 14–18 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. M. Bennett, J. H. Dancy, “Stylus profiling instrument for measuring statistical properties of smooth optical surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1785–1802 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Bennett, “Measurement of the rms roughness, autocovariance function, and other statistical properties of optical surfaces using a FECO scanning interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2705–2721 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. Slomba, C. G. Hull-Allen, P. Z. Takacs, C. J. Evans, J. M. Bennett, “Flatness intercomparison measurements made on an optical flat,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing Workshop, Vol. 24 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992).

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989).

Binnig, G.

G. Binnig, C. F. Quate, Ch. Gerber, “Atomic force microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 930–933 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Binnig, H. Rohrer, “Scanning tunneling microscopy,” Helv. Phys. Acta 55, 726–735 (1982).

G. Binnig, H. Rohrer, Ch. Gerber, E. Weibel, “Surface studies by scanning tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 49,57–61 (1982).
[Crossref]

Bottomley, S. C.

J. D. Garratt, S. C. Bottomley, “Technology transfer in the development of a nanotopographic instrument,” Nanotechnology 1, 38–43 (1990).
[Crossref]

Brown, N. J.

N. J. Brown, “Preparation of ultrasmooth surfaces,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 16, 371–388 (1986).
[Crossref]

Celotta, R. J.

Church, E. L.

P. Z. Takacs, S. K. Feng, E. L. Church, S. N. Qian, W. M. Liu, “Long trace profile measurements on cylindrical aspheres,” in Advances in Fabrication and Metrology for Optics and Large Optics, J. B. Arnold, R. E. Parks, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.966, 354–364 (1989).

Colbert, J.

P. Z. Takacs, S. N. Qian, J. Colbert, “Design of a long trace surface profiler,” in Metrology: Figure and Finish, B. Truax, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.749, 59–64 (1987).

Dancy, J. H.

Dragoset, R. A.

Elings, V.

J. M. Bennett, V. Elings, K. Kjoller, “Precision metrology for studying optical surfaces,” Opt. Photon. News 2 (5), 14–18 (1991).
[Crossref]

Evans, C. J.

A. F. Slomba, C. G. Hull-Allen, P. Z. Takacs, C. J. Evans, J. M. Bennett, “Flatness intercomparison measurements made on an optical flat,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing Workshop, Vol. 24 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992).

Feng, S. K.

P. Z. Takacs, S. K. Feng, E. L. Church, S. N. Qian, W. M. Liu, “Long trace profile measurements on cylindrical aspheres,” in Advances in Fabrication and Metrology for Optics and Large Optics, J. B. Arnold, R. E. Parks, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.966, 354–364 (1989).

Garratt, J. D.

J. D. Garratt, S. C. Bottomley, “Technology transfer in the development of a nanotopographic instrument,” Nanotechnology 1, 38–43 (1990).
[Crossref]

Gerber, Ch.

G. Binnig, C. F. Quate, Ch. Gerber, “Atomic force microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 930–933 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Binnig, H. Rohrer, Ch. Gerber, E. Weibel, “Surface studies by scanning tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 49,57–61 (1982).
[Crossref]

Haggar, B. G.

J. Jahanmir, B. G. Haggar, J. B. Hayes, “The scanning probe microscope,” Scanning Microsc. 6 (3), 625–660 (1992).
[PubMed]

Hayes, J. B.

J. Jahanmir, B. G. Haggar, J. B. Hayes, “The scanning probe microscope,” Scanning Microsc. 6 (3), 625–660 (1992).
[PubMed]

Hull-Allen, C. G.

A. F. Slomba, C. G. Hull-Allen, P. Z. Takacs, C. J. Evans, J. M. Bennett, “Flatness intercomparison measurements made on an optical flat,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing Workshop, Vol. 24 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992).

Jahanmir, J.

J. Jahanmir, B. G. Haggar, J. B. Hayes, “The scanning probe microscope,” Scanning Microsc. 6 (3), 625–660 (1992).
[PubMed]

Kjoller, K.

J. M. Bennett, V. Elings, K. Kjoller, “Precision metrology for studying optical surfaces,” Opt. Photon. News 2 (5), 14–18 (1991).
[Crossref]

Layer, H. P.

Lindsey, K.

K. Lindsey, S. T. Smith, C. J. Robbie, “Subnanometre surface texture and profile measurement with NANOSURF 2,” CIRP Ann. 37, 519–522 (1988).
[Crossref]

Liu, W. M.

P. Z. Takacs, S. K. Feng, E. L. Church, S. N. Qian, W. M. Liu, “Long trace profile measurements on cylindrical aspheres,” in Advances in Fabrication and Metrology for Optics and Large Optics, J. B. Arnold, R. E. Parks, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.966, 354–364 (1989).

Mattsson, L.

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989).

Mielczarek, S. R.

Namba, Y.

Y. Namba, R. Wada, K. Unno, A. Tsuboi, “Ultra-precision surface grinder having a glass-ceramic spindle of zero-thermal expansion,” Ann. CIRP 38 (1), 331–334 (1989).
[Crossref]

Pool, R.

R. Pool, “The children of the STM,” Science 247, 634–636 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qian, S. N.

P. Z. Takacs, S. K. Feng, E. L. Church, S. N. Qian, W. M. Liu, “Long trace profile measurements on cylindrical aspheres,” in Advances in Fabrication and Metrology for Optics and Large Optics, J. B. Arnold, R. E. Parks, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.966, 354–364 (1989).

P. Z. Takacs, S. N. Qian, J. Colbert, “Design of a long trace surface profiler,” in Metrology: Figure and Finish, B. Truax, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.749, 59–64 (1987).

Quate, C. F.

G. Binnig, C. F. Quate, Ch. Gerber, “Atomic force microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 930–933 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robbie, C. J.

K. Lindsey, S. T. Smith, C. J. Robbie, “Subnanometre surface texture and profile measurement with NANOSURF 2,” CIRP Ann. 37, 519–522 (1988).
[Crossref]

Rohrer, H.

G. Binnig, H. Rohrer, Ch. Gerber, E. Weibel, “Surface studies by scanning tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 49,57–61 (1982).
[Crossref]

G. Binnig, H. Rohrer, “Scanning tunneling microscopy,” Helv. Phys. Acta 55, 726–735 (1982).

Scire, F.

R. Young, J. Ward, F. Scire, “The topografiner: an instrument for measuring surface micro topography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 999–1011 (1972).
[Crossref]

Slomba, A. F.

A. F. Slomba, C. G. Hull-Allen, P. Z. Takacs, C. J. Evans, J. M. Bennett, “Flatness intercomparison measurements made on an optical flat,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing Workshop, Vol. 24 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992).

Smith, S. T.

K. Lindsey, S. T. Smith, C. J. Robbie, “Subnanometre surface texture and profile measurement with NANOSURF 2,” CIRP Ann. 37, 519–522 (1988).
[Crossref]

Takacs, P. Z.

A. F. Slomba, C. G. Hull-Allen, P. Z. Takacs, C. J. Evans, J. M. Bennett, “Flatness intercomparison measurements made on an optical flat,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing Workshop, Vol. 24 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992).

P. Z. Takacs, S. K. Feng, E. L. Church, S. N. Qian, W. M. Liu, “Long trace profile measurements on cylindrical aspheres,” in Advances in Fabrication and Metrology for Optics and Large Optics, J. B. Arnold, R. E. Parks, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.966, 354–364 (1989).

P. Z. Takacs, S. N. Qian, J. Colbert, “Design of a long trace surface profiler,” in Metrology: Figure and Finish, B. Truax, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.749, 59–64 (1987).

Teague, E. C.

Tsuboi, A.

Y. Namba, R. Wada, K. Unno, A. Tsuboi, “Ultra-precision surface grinder having a glass-ceramic spindle of zero-thermal expansion,” Ann. CIRP 38 (1), 331–334 (1989).
[Crossref]

Unno, K.

Y. Namba, R. Wada, K. Unno, A. Tsuboi, “Ultra-precision surface grinder having a glass-ceramic spindle of zero-thermal expansion,” Ann. CIRP 38 (1), 331–334 (1989).
[Crossref]

Wada, R.

Y. Namba, R. Wada, K. Unno, A. Tsuboi, “Ultra-precision surface grinder having a glass-ceramic spindle of zero-thermal expansion,” Ann. CIRP 38 (1), 331–334 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ward, J.

R. Young, J. Ward, F. Scire, “The topografiner: an instrument for measuring surface micro topography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 999–1011 (1972).
[Crossref]

Weibel, E.

G. Binnig, H. Rohrer, Ch. Gerber, E. Weibel, “Surface studies by scanning tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 49,57–61 (1982).
[Crossref]

Weis, O.

Wickramasinghe, H. K.

H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Scanned-probe microscopes,” Sci. Am. 261 (4), 98–105 (1989).
[Crossref]

Young, R.

R. Young, J. Ward, F. Scire, “The topografiner: an instrument for measuring surface micro topography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 999–1011 (1972).
[Crossref]

Young, R. D.

Ann. CIRP (1)

Y. Namba, R. Wada, K. Unno, A. Tsuboi, “Ultra-precision surface grinder having a glass-ceramic spindle of zero-thermal expansion,” Ann. CIRP 38 (1), 331–334 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

N. J. Brown, “Preparation of ultrasmooth surfaces,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 16, 371–388 (1986).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

CIRP Ann. (1)

K. Lindsey, S. T. Smith, C. J. Robbie, “Subnanometre surface texture and profile measurement with NANOSURF 2,” CIRP Ann. 37, 519–522 (1988).
[Crossref]

Helv. Phys. Acta (1)

G. Binnig, H. Rohrer, “Scanning tunneling microscopy,” Helv. Phys. Acta 55, 726–735 (1982).

Nanotechnology (1)

J. D. Garratt, S. C. Bottomley, “Technology transfer in the development of a nanotopographic instrument,” Nanotechnology 1, 38–43 (1990).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

J. M. Bennett, V. Elings, K. Kjoller, “Precision metrology for studying optical surfaces,” Opt. Photon. News 2 (5), 14–18 (1991).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

G. Binnig, C. F. Quate, Ch. Gerber, “Atomic force microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 930–933 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Binnig, H. Rohrer, Ch. Gerber, E. Weibel, “Surface studies by scanning tunneling microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 49,57–61 (1982).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Young, J. Ward, F. Scire, “The topografiner: an instrument for measuring surface micro topography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 999–1011 (1972).
[Crossref]

Scanning Microsc. (1)

J. Jahanmir, B. G. Haggar, J. B. Hayes, “The scanning probe microscope,” Scanning Microsc. 6 (3), 625–660 (1992).
[PubMed]

Sci. Am. (1)

H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Scanned-probe microscopes,” Sci. Am. 261 (4), 98–105 (1989).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

R. Pool, “The children of the STM,” Science 247, 634–636 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (16)

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989).

D. Malacara, ed., Optical Shop Testing (Wiley, Somerset, N.J., 1991).

MP2000 noncontact surface profiler, Chapman Instruments, 50 Saginaw Drive, Rochester, N.Y. 14623.

Bauer Model 100 scanning profilometer, Bauer Associates, Inc., 177 Worcester Road, Suite 101, Wellesley, Mass.02181.

Continental Optical Corporation, 15 Power Drive, Hauppauge, N.Y. 11788-4229.

P. Z. Takacs, S. N. Qian, J. Colbert, “Design of a long trace surface profiler,” in Metrology: Figure and Finish, B. Truax, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.749, 59–64 (1987).

P. Z. Takacs, S. K. Feng, E. L. Church, S. N. Qian, W. M. Liu, “Long trace profile measurements on cylindrical aspheres,” in Advances in Fabrication and Metrology for Optics and Large Optics, J. B. Arnold, R. E. Parks, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.966, 354–364 (1989).

Dektak 3030 surface profile measuring system, Veeco Instruments, Inc., Sloan Technology Division, 602 East Montecito Street, P.O. Box 4608, Santa Barbara, Calif. 93103.

Model P-1 long scan profiler, Tencor Instruments, 2400 Charleston Road, Mountain View, Calif. 94043.

Nanostep surface profiler, Rank Taylor Hobson, Inc., 411 East Jarvis Avenue, Des Plaines, Illinois 60018.

Digital Instruments, Inc.,520 East Montecito Street, Santa Barbara, Calif. 93103.

Park Scientific Instruments, 1171 Borregas Avenue, Sunnyvale, Calif. 94089.

WYKO Corporation, 2650 East Elvira Road, Tucson, Ariz. 85706.

A. F. Slomba, C. G. Hull-Allen, P. Z. Takacs, C. J. Evans, J. M. Bennett, “Flatness intercomparison measurements made on an optical flat,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing Workshop, Vol. 24 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992).

E. W. Anthon, “Scatter measurements made with ultraviolet light,” in Measurement and Effects of Surface Defects and Quality of Polish, L. R. Baker, H. E. Bennett, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.525, 181–188 (1985).

General Optics Corporation, 554 Flinn Avenue, Moorpark, Calif. 93021.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Master calibration curve for the China Lake Nanostep profiler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

UV Scatterometer measurements made across the center of a 75-mm-square sample of float glass; ppm is parts per million.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Nanostep surface profile measured at the same place on the float-glass sample of Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Nanostep roughness profile measured on the float-glass sample of Fig. 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Nanostep surface profile measured across a diameter of a 75-mm-diameter polished fused-silica flat and corrected for the instrumental slideways error.

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