Abstract

Conventional interferometric methods of surface profiling are limited in the magnitude of surface height that can be accurately measured because of phase ambiguity errors on steep local slopes. Other optical methods that have been developed for surface profiling frequency suffer from poor height resolution and slow measurement speed for three-dimensional profiles. Contact profilometers such as stylus-based instruments suffer from slow measurement speed, especially when three-dimensional profiles of the surface are required. Stylus tips can also scratch delicate surfaces during the course of the measurement. A new method of optical, noncontact profiling of rough surfaces is described that utilizes interferometric techniques as well as digital signal-processing algorithms to produce fast, accurate, and repeatable three-dimensional surface profile measurements.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Stedman, “Limits of surface measurements by optical probes,” in Surface Measurement and Characterization, J. M. Bennett, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1009, 62–66 (1988).
  2. K. Creath, “Phase-shifting interferometry techniques,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1988), Vol. 26, pp. 357–373.
    [Crossref]
  3. Y-Y. Cheng, J. C. Wyant, “Multiple-wavelength phase shifting interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 24, 804–806 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. C. Wyant, K. Creath, “Two-wavelength phase-shifting interferometer and method,” U.S. patent4, 832,489 (23May1989).
  5. M. Davidson, K. Kaufman, I. Mazor, F. Cohen, “An application of interference microscopy to integrated circuit inspection and metrology,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control, K. M. Monahan, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.775, 233–247 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. S. Kino, S. China, “Mirau correlation microscope,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3775–3783 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. B. S. Lee, T. C. Strand, “Profilometry with a coherence scanning microscope,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3784–3788 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. F. de Coulon, Signal Theory and Processing (Artech, Dedham, Mass., 1986), Chap. 11, pp. 381–391.
  9. D. K. Cohen, P. J. Caber, C. P. Brophy, “Rough surface profiler and method,” U.S. patent5,133,601 (28July1992).
  10. A. Oppenheim, R. Schafer, Discrete-Time Signal Processing (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1989).

1990 (2)

1985 (1)

Brophy, C. P.

D. K. Cohen, P. J. Caber, C. P. Brophy, “Rough surface profiler and method,” U.S. patent5,133,601 (28July1992).

Caber, P. J.

D. K. Cohen, P. J. Caber, C. P. Brophy, “Rough surface profiler and method,” U.S. patent5,133,601 (28July1992).

Cheng, Y-Y.

China, S.

Cohen, D. K.

D. K. Cohen, P. J. Caber, C. P. Brophy, “Rough surface profiler and method,” U.S. patent5,133,601 (28July1992).

Cohen, F.

M. Davidson, K. Kaufman, I. Mazor, F. Cohen, “An application of interference microscopy to integrated circuit inspection and metrology,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control, K. M. Monahan, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.775, 233–247 (1987).
[Crossref]

Creath, K.

K. Creath, “Phase-shifting interferometry techniques,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1988), Vol. 26, pp. 357–373.
[Crossref]

J. C. Wyant, K. Creath, “Two-wavelength phase-shifting interferometer and method,” U.S. patent4, 832,489 (23May1989).

Davidson, M.

M. Davidson, K. Kaufman, I. Mazor, F. Cohen, “An application of interference microscopy to integrated circuit inspection and metrology,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control, K. M. Monahan, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.775, 233–247 (1987).
[Crossref]

de Coulon, F.

F. de Coulon, Signal Theory and Processing (Artech, Dedham, Mass., 1986), Chap. 11, pp. 381–391.

Kaufman, K.

M. Davidson, K. Kaufman, I. Mazor, F. Cohen, “An application of interference microscopy to integrated circuit inspection and metrology,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control, K. M. Monahan, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.775, 233–247 (1987).
[Crossref]

Kino, G. S.

Lee, B. S.

Mazor, I.

M. Davidson, K. Kaufman, I. Mazor, F. Cohen, “An application of interference microscopy to integrated circuit inspection and metrology,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control, K. M. Monahan, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.775, 233–247 (1987).
[Crossref]

Oppenheim, A.

A. Oppenheim, R. Schafer, Discrete-Time Signal Processing (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1989).

Schafer, R.

A. Oppenheim, R. Schafer, Discrete-Time Signal Processing (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1989).

Stedman, M.

M. Stedman, “Limits of surface measurements by optical probes,” in Surface Measurement and Characterization, J. M. Bennett, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1009, 62–66 (1988).

Strand, T. C.

Wyant, J. C.

Y-Y. Cheng, J. C. Wyant, “Multiple-wavelength phase shifting interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 24, 804–806 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Wyant, K. Creath, “Two-wavelength phase-shifting interferometer and method,” U.S. patent4, 832,489 (23May1989).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Other (7)

F. de Coulon, Signal Theory and Processing (Artech, Dedham, Mass., 1986), Chap. 11, pp. 381–391.

D. K. Cohen, P. J. Caber, C. P. Brophy, “Rough surface profiler and method,” U.S. patent5,133,601 (28July1992).

A. Oppenheim, R. Schafer, Discrete-Time Signal Processing (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1989).

J. C. Wyant, K. Creath, “Two-wavelength phase-shifting interferometer and method,” U.S. patent4, 832,489 (23May1989).

M. Davidson, K. Kaufman, I. Mazor, F. Cohen, “An application of interference microscopy to integrated circuit inspection and metrology,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control, K. M. Monahan, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.775, 233–247 (1987).
[Crossref]

M. Stedman, “Limits of surface measurements by optical probes,” in Surface Measurement and Characterization, J. M. Bennett, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1009, 62–66 (1988).

K. Creath, “Phase-shifting interferometry techniques,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1988), Vol. 26, pp. 357–373.
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fringe signal produced when a broad-bandwidth source is used.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Algorithm block diagram.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measurement of an Anilox printing roll.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measurement of machined steel.

Equations (4)

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h ( x , y ) = λ 4 π ϕ ( x , y ) ,
s ( t ) = m ( t ) cos ( 2 π f c t + θ ) ,
s 2 ( t ) = ½ m 2 ( t ) + ½ m 2 ( t ) cos ( 4 π f c t + 2 θ ) .
f s 4 f c + 4 B m ,

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