Abstract

A new technique for generation of binary masks for the fabrication of diffractive optical elements is investigated. This technique, which uses commercially available desktop-publishing hardware and software in conjunction with a standard photoreduction camera, is much faster and less expensive than the conventional methods. The short turnaround time and low cost should give researchers a much greater degree of flexibility in the field of binary optics and enable wider application of diffractive-optics technology. Techniques for generating optical elements by using standard software packages that produce PostScript output are described. An evaluation of the dimensional fidelity of the mask reproduction from design to its realization in photoresist is presented.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Domash, P. Levin, “Computer holographic elements using PostScript laser printers,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 9 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper TUI32.
  2. S. M. Arnold, “Electron beam fabrication of computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Eng. 24, 803–807 (1985).
  3. PostScript is a trademark of Adobe Systems, Inc.
  4. C. W. Clark, Y. N. Demkov, “Making zone plates with a laser printer,” Am. J. Phys. 59, 158–162 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. H. Geiser, “Software generates PostScript files of holograms,” Laser Focus World 26(9), 51–54 (1990).
  6. Claris CAD is a trademark of the Claris Corporation.
  7. AutoCAD is a trademark of Autodesk, Inc.
  8. Freehand is a trademark of the Aldus Corporation.
  9. Canvas is a trademark of Deneba Systems.
  10. Adobe Illustrator is a trademark of Adobe Systems.
  11. Mathematica is a trademark of Wolfram Research.
  12. Code V is a trademark of Optical Research Associates.
  13. Y. Takeda, Y. Oshida, Y. Miyamura, “Random phase shifters for Fourier transformed holograms,” Appl. Opt. 11, 818–822 (1972); W. C. Stewart, A. H. Firester, E. C. Fox, “Random phase data masks: fabrication tolerances and advantages of four level masks,” Appl. Opt. 11, 604–608 (1972); C. B. Burckhardt, “Use of random phase mask for the recording of Fourier transform holograms of data masks,” Appl. Opt. 9, 695–700 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Math User, the Wolfram Research Newsletter for Mathematica Users (Wolfram Research, Champaign, Ill., 1992), Spring/Summer, p. 7.
  15. H. Dammann, K. Gorther, “High-efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 312–315 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. B. Veldkamp, J. R. Léger, G. J. Swanson, “Coherent summation of laser beams using binary phase gratings,” Opt. Lett. 11, 303–305 (1986); W. H. Lee, “High efficiency multiple beam gratings,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2152–2158 (1979); J. Jahns, M. M. Downs, M. E. Prise, N. Streibl, S. J. Walker, “Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1267–1275 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. L. Fabiny, R. Roy, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Ga. 30332-0430 (personal communication).
  18. E. Hecht, Optics, 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1990), pp. 445–446.

1991 (1)

C. W. Clark, Y. N. Demkov, “Making zone plates with a laser printer,” Am. J. Phys. 59, 158–162 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. H. Geiser, “Software generates PostScript files of holograms,” Laser Focus World 26(9), 51–54 (1990).

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

S. M. Arnold, “Electron beam fabrication of computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Eng. 24, 803–807 (1985).

1972 (1)

1971 (1)

H. Dammann, K. Gorther, “High-efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 312–315 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, S. M.

S. M. Arnold, “Electron beam fabrication of computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Eng. 24, 803–807 (1985).

Clark, C. W.

C. W. Clark, Y. N. Demkov, “Making zone plates with a laser printer,” Am. J. Phys. 59, 158–162 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dammann, H.

H. Dammann, K. Gorther, “High-efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 312–315 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Demkov, Y. N.

C. W. Clark, Y. N. Demkov, “Making zone plates with a laser printer,” Am. J. Phys. 59, 158–162 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Domash, L.

L. Domash, P. Levin, “Computer holographic elements using PostScript laser printers,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 9 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper TUI32.

Fabiny, L.

L. Fabiny, R. Roy, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Ga. 30332-0430 (personal communication).

Geiser, M. H.

M. H. Geiser, “Software generates PostScript files of holograms,” Laser Focus World 26(9), 51–54 (1990).

Gorther, K.

H. Dammann, K. Gorther, “High-efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 312–315 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics, 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1990), pp. 445–446.

Léger, J. R.

Levin, P.

L. Domash, P. Levin, “Computer holographic elements using PostScript laser printers,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 9 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper TUI32.

Miyamura, Y.

Oshida, Y.

Roy, R.

L. Fabiny, R. Roy, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Ga. 30332-0430 (personal communication).

Swanson, G. J.

Takeda, Y.

Veldkamp, W. B.

Am. J. Phys. (1)

C. W. Clark, Y. N. Demkov, “Making zone plates with a laser printer,” Am. J. Phys. 59, 158–162 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Laser Focus World (1)

M. H. Geiser, “Software generates PostScript files of holograms,” Laser Focus World 26(9), 51–54 (1990).

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Dammann, K. Gorther, “High-efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 312–315 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. M. Arnold, “Electron beam fabrication of computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Eng. 24, 803–807 (1985).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (12)

L. Fabiny, R. Roy, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Ga. 30332-0430 (personal communication).

E. Hecht, Optics, 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1990), pp. 445–446.

PostScript is a trademark of Adobe Systems, Inc.

Math User, the Wolfram Research Newsletter for Mathematica Users (Wolfram Research, Champaign, Ill., 1992), Spring/Summer, p. 7.

Claris CAD is a trademark of the Claris Corporation.

AutoCAD is a trademark of Autodesk, Inc.

Freehand is a trademark of the Aldus Corporation.

Canvas is a trademark of Deneba Systems.

Adobe Illustrator is a trademark of Adobe Systems.

Mathematica is a trademark of Wolfram Research.

Code V is a trademark of Optical Research Associates.

L. Domash, P. Levin, “Computer holographic elements using PostScript laser printers,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 9 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper TUI32.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Mathematica example of a random phase array. The commands in Mathematica for obtaining the array are shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dammann cell for a 3 × 3 array of equal-intensity beams at 488 nm: (a) symmetric single cell, (b) multiple cells.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scanning electron micrograph of the Dammann grating generated by desktop-publishing techniques.

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