Abstract

The effects of mask alignment and etch-depth errors in the array uniformity error U and diffraction efficiency η of multilevel-grating array illuminators are evaluated numerically. Also demonstrated are 16-level fan-out elements with array size up to 32 × 16, with U = 5%–10% and η = 83%–92%. These are fabricated with electron-beam-written binary masks, optical alignment and contact copying, and reactive ion etching. Good agreement between the predictions of the error analysis and the performance of the fabricated components is observed.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. S. Buller, J. G. H. Mathew, S. D. Smith, “Parallel optical digital data transfer between bistable logic arrays,” Opt. Comput. Process. 1, 137–144 (1991).
  4. F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. L. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Demonstration of cascaded operation of 2 K array of S-SEEDs,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Ehbets, H. P. Herzig, D. Prongue, M. T. Gale, “High-efficiency continuous surface-relief gratings for two-dimensional array generation,” Opt. Lett. 17, 908–910 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. E. Tervonen, A. T. Friberg, J. Westerholm, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Programmable optical interconnections by multilevel synthetic acousto-optic holograms,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1274–1276 (1991).
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  21. J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, N. Ross, E. Noponen, A. Vasara, “Kinoform array illuminators in fused silica,” J. Mod. Opt. (to be published).
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    [CrossRef]
  26. F. Wyrowski, “Upper bound on the diffraction efficiency of diffractive phase elements,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1915–1917 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. A. Cox, B. Fritz, T. Werner, “Process error limitations on binary optics performance,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1555, 80–88 (1991).

1992 (6)

A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, S. L. Walker, F. B. McCormick, R. L. Morrison, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, D. A. B. Miller, “Logic self-electro-optic devices: quantum-well opto-electronic multiport logic gates, multiplexers, demultiplexers, and shift registers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1539–1553 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Westerholm, A. Vasara, “Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Commun. 88, 37–41 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Morrison, “Symmetries that simplify the design of spot array phase gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 464–471 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Long, D. Hsu, M. Wu, K. Chin, S. Gao, “Kinoform with 64 phase levels for use as an array generator,” Opt. Lett. 17, 685–687 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Vasara, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, J. Westerholm, E. Noponen, H. Ichikawa, J. M. Miller, T. Jaakkola, S. Kuisma, “Binary surface-relief gratings for array illumination in digital optics,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3320–3336 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ehbets, H. P. Herzig, D. Prongue, M. T. Gale, “High-efficiency continuous surface-relief gratings for two-dimensional array generation,” Opt. Lett. 17, 908–910 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (6)

B. Robertson, J. Turunen, H. Ichikawa, J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Vasara, “Hybrid kinoform fan-out elements in dichromated gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3711–3720 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Tervonen, A. T. Friberg, J. Westerholm, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Programmable optical interconnections by multilevel synthetic acousto-optic holograms,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1274–1276 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Prather, J. N. Mait, “Acousto-optic generation of two-dimensional spot arrays,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1720–1722 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wyrowski, “Upper bound on the diffraction efficiency of diffractive phase elements,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1915–1917 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. S. Buller, J. G. H. Mathew, S. D. Smith, “Parallel optical digital data transfer between bistable logic arrays,” Opt. Comput. Process. 1, 137–144 (1991).

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. L. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Demonstration of cascaded operation of 2 K array of S-SEEDs,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (5)

1989 (2)

J. Turunen, A. Vasara, J. Westerholm, “Kinoform phase relief synthesis: a stochastic method,” Opt. Eng. 89, 1162–1167 (1989).

N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

L. D’Auria, J. P. Huignard, A. M. Roy, E. Spitz, “Photolithographic fabrication of thin film lenses,” Opt. Commun. 5, 232–235 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

H. Dammann, K. Görtler, “High-efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 312–315 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, J. A. Jordan, “The kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction device,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150–155 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Brubaker, J. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. L. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Demonstration of cascaded operation of 2 K array of S-SEEDs,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all-optical implementation of a 3-D crossover network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Buller, G. S.

D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. S. Buller, J. G. H. Mathew, S. D. Smith, “Parallel optical digital data transfer between bistable logic arrays,” Opt. Comput. Process. 1, 137–144 (1991).

Chin, K.

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, S. L. Walker, F. B. McCormick, R. L. Morrison, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, D. A. B. Miller, “Logic self-electro-optic devices: quantum-well opto-electronic multiport logic gates, multiplexers, demultiplexers, and shift registers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1539–1553 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Prise, N. C. Craft, R. E. LaMarche, M. M. Downs, S. J. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Module for optical logic circuits using symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2164–2170 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cloonan, T. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. L. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Demonstration of cascaded operation of 2 K array of S-SEEDs,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all-optical implementation of a 3-D crossover network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cox, J. A.

J. A. Cox, B. Fritz, T. Werner, “Process error limitations on binary optics performance,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1555, 80–88 (1991).

Craft, N. C.

D’Asaro, L. A.

A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, S. L. Walker, F. B. McCormick, R. L. Morrison, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, D. A. B. Miller, “Logic self-electro-optic devices: quantum-well opto-electronic multiport logic gates, multiplexers, demultiplexers, and shift registers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1539–1553 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Prise, N. C. Craft, R. E. LaMarche, M. M. Downs, S. J. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Module for optical logic circuits using symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2164–2170 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Auria, L.

L. D’Auria, J. P. Huignard, A. M. Roy, E. Spitz, “Photolithographic fabrication of thin film lenses,” Opt. Commun. 5, 232–235 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Dammann, H.

H. Dammann, K. Görtler, “High-efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 312–315 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Downs, M. M.

Ehbets, P.

Ekberg, M.

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Westerholm, A. Vasara, “Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Commun. 88, 37–41 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fagerholm, J.

Focht, M. W.

A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, S. L. Walker, F. B. McCormick, R. L. Morrison, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, D. A. B. Miller, “Logic self-electro-optic devices: quantum-well opto-electronic multiport logic gates, multiplexers, demultiplexers, and shift registers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1539–1553 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Freund, J. M.

A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, S. L. Walker, F. B. McCormick, R. L. Morrison, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, D. A. B. Miller, “Logic self-electro-optic devices: quantum-well opto-electronic multiport logic gates, multiplexers, demultiplexers, and shift registers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1539–1553 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Friberg, A. T.

Fritz, B.

J. A. Cox, B. Fritz, T. Werner, “Process error limitations on binary optics performance,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1555, 80–88 (1991).

Gale, M. T.

Gao, S.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).

Görtler, K.

H. Dammann, K. Görtler, “High-efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 312–315 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Guth, G. D.

A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, S. L. Walker, F. B. McCormick, R. L. Morrison, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, D. A. B. Miller, “Logic self-electro-optic devices: quantum-well opto-electronic multiport logic gates, multiplexers, demultiplexers, and shift registers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1539–1553 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hård, S.

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Westerholm, A. Vasara, “Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Commun. 88, 37–41 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Herron, M. J.

T. J. Cloonan, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all-optical implementation of a 3-D crossover network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Herron, M. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. L. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Demonstration of cascaded operation of 2 K array of S-SEEDs,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H. P.

Hinterlong, S. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. L. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Demonstration of cascaded operation of 2 K array of S-SEEDs,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hirsch, P. M.

L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, J. A. Jordan, “The kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction device,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150–155 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, D.

Huignard, J. P.

L. D’Auria, J. P. Huignard, A. M. Roy, E. Spitz, “Photolithographic fabrication of thin film lenses,” Opt. Commun. 5, 232–235 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ichikawa, H.

Jaakkola, T.

Jahns, J.

Jordan, J. A.

L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, J. A. Jordan, “The kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction device,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150–155 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kerbis, E.

T. J. Cloonan, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all-optical implementation of a 3-D crossover network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kuisma, S.

LaMarche, R. E.

Larsson, M.

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Westerholm, A. Vasara, “Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Commun. 88, 37–41 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Leibenguth, R. E.

A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, S. L. Walker, F. B. McCormick, R. L. Morrison, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, D. A. B. Miller, “Logic self-electro-optic devices: quantum-well opto-electronic multiport logic gates, multiplexers, demultiplexers, and shift registers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1539–1553 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, S. L. Walker, F. B. McCormick, R. L. Morrison, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, D. A. B. Miller, “Logic self-electro-optic devices: quantum-well opto-electronic multiport logic gates, multiplexers, demultiplexers, and shift registers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1539–1553 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. L. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Demonstration of cascaded operation of 2 K array of S-SEEDs,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all-optical implementation of a 3-D crossover network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lesem, L. B.

L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, J. A. Jordan, “The kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction device,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150–155 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Long, P.

Mait, J. N.

Mathew, J. G. H.

D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. S. Buller, J. G. H. Mathew, S. D. Smith, “Parallel optical digital data transfer between bistable logic arrays,” Opt. Comput. Process. 1, 137–144 (1991).

McCormick, F. B.

A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, S. L. Walker, F. B. McCormick, R. L. Morrison, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, D. A. B. Miller, “Logic self-electro-optic devices: quantum-well opto-electronic multiport logic gates, multiplexers, demultiplexers, and shift registers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1539–1553 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. L. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Demonstration of cascaded operation of 2 K array of S-SEEDs,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all-optical implementation of a 3-D crossover network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[CrossRef]

McKnight, D. J.

D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. S. Buller, J. G. H. Mathew, S. D. Smith, “Parallel optical digital data transfer between bistable logic arrays,” Opt. Comput. Process. 1, 137–144 (1991).

Miller, D. A. B.

A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, S. L. Walker, F. B. McCormick, R. L. Morrison, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, D. A. B. Miller, “Logic self-electro-optic devices: quantum-well opto-electronic multiport logic gates, multiplexers, demultiplexers, and shift registers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1539–1553 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. M.

Morrison, R. L.

R. L. Morrison, “Symmetries that simplify the design of spot array phase gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 464–471 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, S. L. Walker, F. B. McCormick, R. L. Morrison, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, D. A. B. Miller, “Logic self-electro-optic devices: quantum-well opto-electronic multiport logic gates, multiplexers, demultiplexers, and shift registers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1539–1553 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. L. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Demonstration of cascaded operation of 2 K array of S-SEEDs,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Noponen, E.

Prather, D. W.

Prise, M. E.

Prongue, D.

Przybylek, G. J.

A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, S. L. Walker, F. B. McCormick, R. L. Morrison, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, D. A. B. Miller, “Logic self-electro-optic devices: quantum-well opto-electronic multiport logic gates, multiplexers, demultiplexers, and shift registers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1539–1553 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Redmond, I. R.

D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. S. Buller, J. G. H. Mathew, S. D. Smith, “Parallel optical digital data transfer between bistable logic arrays,” Opt. Comput. Process. 1, 137–144 (1991).

Richards, G. W.

T. J. Cloonan, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all-optical implementation of a 3-D crossover network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, B.

Ross, N.

J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, N. Ross, E. Noponen, A. Vasara, “Kinoform array illuminators in fused silica,” J. Mod. Opt. (to be published).

Roy, A. M.

L. D’Auria, J. P. Huignard, A. M. Roy, E. Spitz, “Photolithographic fabrication of thin film lenses,” Opt. Commun. 5, 232–235 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Sasian, J. M.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. L. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Demonstration of cascaded operation of 2 K array of S-SEEDs,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Smith, L. E.

A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, S. L. Walker, F. B. McCormick, R. L. Morrison, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, D. A. B. Miller, “Logic self-electro-optic devices: quantum-well opto-electronic multiport logic gates, multiplexers, demultiplexers, and shift registers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1539–1553 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. D.

D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. S. Buller, J. G. H. Mathew, S. D. Smith, “Parallel optical digital data transfer between bistable logic arrays,” Opt. Comput. Process. 1, 137–144 (1991).

Spitz, E.

L. D’Auria, J. P. Huignard, A. M. Roy, E. Spitz, “Photolithographic fabrication of thin film lenses,” Opt. Commun. 5, 232–235 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Streibl, N.

N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Taghizadeh, M.

Taghizadeh, M. R.

A. Vasara, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, J. Westerholm, E. Noponen, H. Ichikawa, J. M. Miller, T. Jaakkola, S. Kuisma, “Binary surface-relief gratings for array illumination in digital optics,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3320–3336 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Westerholm, A. Vasara, “Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Commun. 88, 37–41 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. S. Buller, J. G. H. Mathew, S. D. Smith, “Parallel optical digital data transfer between bistable logic arrays,” Opt. Comput. Process. 1, 137–144 (1991).

B. Robertson, J. Turunen, H. Ichikawa, J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Vasara, “Hybrid kinoform fan-out elements in dichromated gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3711–3720 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Tervonen, A. T. Friberg, J. Westerholm, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Programmable optical interconnections by multilevel synthetic acousto-optic holograms,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1274–1276 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vasara, J. Turunen, J. Westerholm, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Stepped-phase kinoforms,” in Optics in Complex Systems, F. Lanzl, H.-J. Preuss, G. Weigelt, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1319, 298–299 (1990).

J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, N. Ross, E. Noponen, A. Vasara, “Kinoform array illuminators in fused silica,” J. Mod. Opt. (to be published).

Tervonen, E.

Tooley, F. A. P.

A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, S. L. Walker, F. B. McCormick, R. L. Morrison, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, D. A. B. Miller, “Logic self-electro-optic devices: quantum-well opto-electronic multiport logic gates, multiplexers, demultiplexers, and shift registers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1539–1553 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. L. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Demonstration of cascaded operation of 2 K array of S-SEEDs,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all-optical implementation of a 3-D crossover network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Turunen, J.

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Westerholm, A. Vasara, “Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Commun. 88, 37–41 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Vasara, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, J. Westerholm, E. Noponen, H. Ichikawa, J. M. Miller, T. Jaakkola, S. Kuisma, “Binary surface-relief gratings for array illumination in digital optics,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3320–3336 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Robertson, J. Turunen, H. Ichikawa, J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Vasara, “Hybrid kinoform fan-out elements in dichromated gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3711–3720 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Tervonen, A. T. Friberg, J. Westerholm, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Programmable optical interconnections by multilevel synthetic acousto-optic holograms,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1274–1276 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Turunen, J. Fagerholm, A. Vasara, M. Taghizadeh, “Detour-phase kinoform interconnects: the concept and fabrication considerations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1202–1208 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Turunen, A. Vasara, J. Westerholm, “Kinoform phase relief synthesis: a stochastic method,” Opt. Eng. 89, 1162–1167 (1989).

A. Vasara, J. Turunen, J. Westerholm, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Stepped-phase kinoforms,” in Optics in Complex Systems, F. Lanzl, H.-J. Preuss, G. Weigelt, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1319, 298–299 (1990).

J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, N. Ross, E. Noponen, A. Vasara, “Kinoform array illuminators in fused silica,” J. Mod. Opt. (to be published).

Vasara, A.

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Westerholm, A. Vasara, “Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Commun. 88, 37–41 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Vasara, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, J. Westerholm, E. Noponen, H. Ichikawa, J. M. Miller, T. Jaakkola, S. Kuisma, “Binary surface-relief gratings for array illumination in digital optics,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3320–3336 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Robertson, J. Turunen, H. Ichikawa, J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Vasara, “Hybrid kinoform fan-out elements in dichromated gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3711–3720 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Turunen, J. Fagerholm, A. Vasara, M. Taghizadeh, “Detour-phase kinoform interconnects: the concept and fabrication considerations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1202–1208 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Turunen, A. Vasara, J. Westerholm, “Kinoform phase relief synthesis: a stochastic method,” Opt. Eng. 89, 1162–1167 (1989).

A. Vasara, J. Turunen, J. Westerholm, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Stepped-phase kinoforms,” in Optics in Complex Systems, F. Lanzl, H.-J. Preuss, G. Weigelt, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1319, 298–299 (1990).

J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, N. Ross, E. Noponen, A. Vasara, “Kinoform array illuminators in fused silica,” J. Mod. Opt. (to be published).

Walker, A. C.

D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. S. Buller, J. G. H. Mathew, S. D. Smith, “Parallel optical digital data transfer between bistable logic arrays,” Opt. Comput. Process. 1, 137–144 (1991).

Walker, S. J.

Walker, S. L.

A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, S. L. Walker, F. B. McCormick, R. L. Morrison, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, D. A. B. Miller, “Logic self-electro-optic devices: quantum-well opto-electronic multiport logic gates, multiplexers, demultiplexers, and shift registers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1539–1553 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. L. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Demonstration of cascaded operation of 2 K array of S-SEEDs,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Werner, T.

J. A. Cox, B. Fritz, T. Werner, “Process error limitations on binary optics performance,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1555, 80–88 (1991).

Westerholm, J.

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Westerholm, A. Vasara, “Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Commun. 88, 37–41 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Vasara, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, J. Westerholm, E. Noponen, H. Ichikawa, J. M. Miller, T. Jaakkola, S. Kuisma, “Binary surface-relief gratings for array illumination in digital optics,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3320–3336 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Tervonen, A. T. Friberg, J. Westerholm, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Programmable optical interconnections by multilevel synthetic acousto-optic holograms,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1274–1276 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Turunen, A. Vasara, J. Westerholm, “Kinoform phase relief synthesis: a stochastic method,” Opt. Eng. 89, 1162–1167 (1989).

A. Vasara, J. Turunen, J. Westerholm, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Stepped-phase kinoforms,” in Optics in Complex Systems, F. Lanzl, H.-J. Preuss, G. Weigelt, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1319, 298–299 (1990).

Wu, M.

Wyrowski, F.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Electron. Lett. (1)

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. L. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Demonstration of cascaded operation of 2 K array of S-SEEDs,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IBM J. Res. Dev. (1)

L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, J. A. Jordan, “The kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction device,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150–155 (1969).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, S. L. Walker, F. B. McCormick, R. L. Morrison, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, D. A. B. Miller, “Logic self-electro-optic devices: quantum-well opto-electronic multiport logic gates, multiplexers, demultiplexers, and shift registers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1539–1553 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. J. Cloonan, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all-optical implementation of a 3-D crossover network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Opt. Commun. (3)

L. D’Auria, J. P. Huignard, A. M. Roy, E. Spitz, “Photolithographic fabrication of thin film lenses,” Opt. Commun. 5, 232–235 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. Dammann, K. Görtler, “High-efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 312–315 (1971).
[CrossRef]

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Westerholm, A. Vasara, “Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Commun. 88, 37–41 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Comput. Process. (1)

D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. S. Buller, J. G. H. Mathew, S. D. Smith, “Parallel optical digital data transfer between bistable logic arrays,” Opt. Comput. Process. 1, 137–144 (1991).

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. Turunen, A. Vasara, J. Westerholm, “Kinoform phase relief synthesis: a stochastic method,” Opt. Eng. 89, 1162–1167 (1989).

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (5)

J. A. Cox, B. Fritz, T. Werner, “Process error limitations on binary optics performance,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1555, 80–88 (1991).

J. W. Goodman, Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).

R. Petit, ed., Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Vasara, J. Turunen, J. Westerholm, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Stepped-phase kinoforms,” in Optics in Complex Systems, F. Lanzl, H.-J. Preuss, G. Weigelt, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1319, 298–299 (1990).

J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, N. Ross, E. Noponen, A. Vasara, “Kinoform array illuminators in fused silica,” J. Mod. Opt. (to be published).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Effect of mask alignment in the surface-relief profile of the 8-beam 16-level array illuminator with period d: (a) the ideal profile and (b) the profile obtained if the mask corresponding to an etch depth of π/2 is misaligned by an amount d/100.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effect of random etch-depth errors in all layers in the uniformity error U of 16-level array illuminators: (a) 8, (b) 16, and (c) 32 beams.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effect of random alignment errors in all layers in the uniformity error U and efficiency η of 16-level array illuminators: (a) 8, (b) 16, and (c) 32 beams.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spot arrays generated by separable 16-level array illuminators: (a) 9 × 9 and (b) 32 × 16 arrays.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spot array generated by a 16-level nonseparable synthetic hologram.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Scanning electron microscope photographs of the relief profiles of 2-D 16-level array illuminators: (a) Low magnification showing rounding of corners, (b) an extra feature introduced by alignment errors, and (c) stepped boundaries.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Theoretical Diffraction Efficiencies (Percentages) of Various Two-Dimensional Grating Array Illuminatorsa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Period dx × dy, Uniformity Error U, and Experimental and Theoretical Diffraction Efficiencies η of Fabricated 16-Level Array Illuminatorsa

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η = n = N 1 N 2 η n
U = ( η max η min ) / ( η max + η min ) ,
η max = max n = N 1 , , N 2 { η n } ,
η min = min n = N 1 , , N 2 { η n } ,
Δ Φ n [ Δ Φ max , Δ Φ max ] ,
Δ a n [ Δ a max , Δ a max ] ,

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