Abstract

Free-space photonic switching systems that optically interconnect large arrays of simple processing elements have already been demonstrated [ IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438, 600 ( 1990); Appl. Opt. 31, 5431 ( 1992); Electron. Lett. 27, 1869 ( 1991)]. In these system experiments, diffractive optical elements served as critical components that provided functionality not easily assumed by conventional optics. In the latest optical switching network, binary phase gratings were used to generate arrays of uniform-intensity beams to illuminate modulators in the processor array. In addition, space-invariant binary phase grating designs were integral in forming the Banyan interconnection network used to link arrays in the system. Here we discuss the function, design, and performance of these diffractive elements.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. A. B. Miller, “Optics for low-energy communication inside digital processors: quantum detectors, sources, and modulators as efficient impedance convertors,” Opt. Lett. 14, 146–148 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. N. Streibl, K. Brenner, A. Huang, J. Jahns, J. Jewell, A. W. Lohmann, D. A. B. Miller, M. Murdocca, M. E. Prise, T. Sizer, “Digital optics,” Proc. IEEE 77, 1954–1969 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  3. E. Kerbis, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, “An all-optical realization of a (2, 1, 1) switching node,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 600–602 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  4. T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all-optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  5. F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. I. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self-electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  7. F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic devices,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
  8. A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self-electro-optic effect device: optical set–reset latch, differential logic gate, and differential modulator/detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1928 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. P. Herzig, D. Prongue, R. Dandliker, “Design and fabrication of highly efficient fan-out elements,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 1307–1309 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. Vasara, M. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, J. Westerholm, E. Noponen, H. Ichikawa, J. M. Miller, T. Jaakkola, S. Kuisma, “Binary surface-relief gratings for array illuminators in digital optics,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3320–3336 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, “Progress in diffractive phase gratings used for spot array generators,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 144–147.
  12. R. L. Morrison, “Symmetries that simplify the design of spot array phase gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 464–471 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. Mait, “Design of Dammann gratings for two-dimensional, nonseparable, noncentrosymmetric responses,” Opt. Lett. 14, 196–198 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. H. Heibmeier, U. Krackhardt, N. Streibl, “A Dammann grating with diffraction order of arbitrary intensity etched into Al2O3,” Opt. Commun. 76, 103–106 (1990).
    [Crossref]

1992 (3)

1991 (1)

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self-electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (4)

E. Kerbis, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, “An all-optical realization of a (2, 1, 1) switching node,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 600–602 (1990).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all-optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[Crossref]

H. P. Herzig, D. Prongue, R. Dandliker, “Design and fabrication of highly efficient fan-out elements,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 1307–1309 (1990).
[Crossref]

H. Heibmeier, U. Krackhardt, N. Streibl, “A Dammann grating with diffraction order of arbitrary intensity etched into Al2O3,” Opt. Commun. 76, 103–106 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (4)

D. A. B. Miller, “Optics for low-energy communication inside digital processors: quantum detectors, sources, and modulators as efficient impedance convertors,” Opt. Lett. 14, 146–148 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Streibl, K. Brenner, A. Huang, J. Jahns, J. Jewell, A. W. Lohmann, D. A. B. Miller, M. Murdocca, M. E. Prise, T. Sizer, “Digital optics,” Proc. IEEE 77, 1954–1969 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self-electro-optic effect device: optical set–reset latch, differential logic gate, and differential modulator/detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1928 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Mait, “Design of Dammann gratings for two-dimensional, nonseparable, noncentrosymmetric responses,” Opt. Lett. 14, 196–198 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brenner, K.

N. Streibl, K. Brenner, A. Huang, J. Jahns, J. Jewell, A. W. Lohmann, D. A. B. Miller, M. Murdocca, M. E. Prise, T. Sizer, “Digital optics,” Proc. IEEE 77, 1954–1969 (1989).
[Crossref]

Brubaker, J. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. I. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self-electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all-optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[Crossref]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic devices,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self-electro-optic effect device: optical set–reset latch, differential logic gate, and differential modulator/detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1928 (1989).
[Crossref]

Cloonan, T. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. I. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self-electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[Crossref]

E. Kerbis, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, “An all-optical realization of a (2, 1, 1) switching node,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 600–602 (1990).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all-optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[Crossref]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic devices,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Crisci, R. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self-electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[Crossref]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic devices,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Cunningham, J. E.

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self-electro-optic effect device: optical set–reset latch, differential logic gate, and differential modulator/detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1928 (1989).
[Crossref]

Dandliker, R.

H. P. Herzig, D. Prongue, R. Dandliker, “Design and fabrication of highly efficient fan-out elements,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 1307–1309 (1990).
[Crossref]

Heibmeier, H.

H. Heibmeier, U. Krackhardt, N. Streibl, “A Dammann grating with diffraction order of arbitrary intensity etched into Al2O3,” Opt. Commun. 76, 103–106 (1990).
[Crossref]

Henry, J. E.

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self-electro-optic effect device: optical set–reset latch, differential logic gate, and differential modulator/detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1928 (1989).
[Crossref]

Herron, M. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. I. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all-optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[Crossref]

Herzig, H. P.

H. P. Herzig, D. Prongue, R. Dandliker, “Design and fabrication of highly efficient fan-out elements,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 1307–1309 (1990).
[Crossref]

Hinterlong, S. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. I. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic devices,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Hinton, H. S.

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self-electro-optic effect device: optical set–reset latch, differential logic gate, and differential modulator/detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1928 (1989).
[Crossref]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic devices,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Huang, A.

N. Streibl, K. Brenner, A. Huang, J. Jahns, J. Jewell, A. W. Lohmann, D. A. B. Miller, M. Murdocca, M. E. Prise, T. Sizer, “Digital optics,” Proc. IEEE 77, 1954–1969 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ichikawa, H.

Jaakkola, T.

Jahns, J.

N. Streibl, K. Brenner, A. Huang, J. Jahns, J. Jewell, A. W. Lohmann, D. A. B. Miller, M. Murdocca, M. E. Prise, T. Sizer, “Digital optics,” Proc. IEEE 77, 1954–1969 (1989).
[Crossref]

Jewell, J.

N. Streibl, K. Brenner, A. Huang, J. Jahns, J. Jewell, A. W. Lohmann, D. A. B. Miller, M. Murdocca, M. E. Prise, T. Sizer, “Digital optics,” Proc. IEEE 77, 1954–1969 (1989).
[Crossref]

Kerbis, E.

T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all-optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[Crossref]

E. Kerbis, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, “An all-optical realization of a (2, 1, 1) switching node,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 600–602 (1990).
[Crossref]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic devices,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Krackhardt, U.

H. Heibmeier, U. Krackhardt, N. Streibl, “A Dammann grating with diffraction order of arbitrary intensity etched into Al2O3,” Opt. Commun. 76, 103–106 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kuisma, S.

Lentine, A. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. I. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self-electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all-optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[Crossref]

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self-electro-optic effect device: optical set–reset latch, differential logic gate, and differential modulator/detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1928 (1989).
[Crossref]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic devices,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Lohmann, A. W.

N. Streibl, K. Brenner, A. Huang, J. Jahns, J. Jewell, A. W. Lohmann, D. A. B. Miller, M. Murdocca, M. E. Prise, T. Sizer, “Digital optics,” Proc. IEEE 77, 1954–1969 (1989).
[Crossref]

Mait, J.

McCormick, F. B.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. I. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self-electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all-optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[Crossref]

E. Kerbis, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, “An all-optical realization of a (2, 1, 1) switching node,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 600–602 (1990).
[Crossref]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic devices,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Miller, D. A. B.

N. Streibl, K. Brenner, A. Huang, J. Jahns, J. Jewell, A. W. Lohmann, D. A. B. Miller, M. Murdocca, M. E. Prise, T. Sizer, “Digital optics,” Proc. IEEE 77, 1954–1969 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self-electro-optic effect device: optical set–reset latch, differential logic gate, and differential modulator/detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1928 (1989).
[Crossref]

D. A. B. Miller, “Optics for low-energy communication inside digital processors: quantum detectors, sources, and modulators as efficient impedance convertors,” Opt. Lett. 14, 146–148 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miller, J. M.

Morrison, R. I.

Morrison, R. L.

R. L. Morrison, “Symmetries that simplify the design of spot array phase gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 464–471 (1992).
[Crossref]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self-electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[Crossref]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic devices,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, “Progress in diffractive phase gratings used for spot array generators,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 144–147.

Murdocca, M.

N. Streibl, K. Brenner, A. Huang, J. Jahns, J. Jewell, A. W. Lohmann, D. A. B. Miller, M. Murdocca, M. E. Prise, T. Sizer, “Digital optics,” Proc. IEEE 77, 1954–1969 (1989).
[Crossref]

Noponen, E.

Novotny, R. A.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic devices,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Prise, M. E.

N. Streibl, K. Brenner, A. Huang, J. Jahns, J. Jewell, A. W. Lohmann, D. A. B. Miller, M. Murdocca, M. E. Prise, T. Sizer, “Digital optics,” Proc. IEEE 77, 1954–1969 (1989).
[Crossref]

Prongue, D.

H. P. Herzig, D. Prongue, R. Dandliker, “Design and fabrication of highly efficient fan-out elements,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 1307–1309 (1990).
[Crossref]

Richards, G. W.

T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all-optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sasian, J. M.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. I. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self-electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[Crossref]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic devices,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Sizer, T.

N. Streibl, K. Brenner, A. Huang, J. Jahns, J. Jewell, A. W. Lohmann, D. A. B. Miller, M. Murdocca, M. E. Prise, T. Sizer, “Digital optics,” Proc. IEEE 77, 1954–1969 (1989).
[Crossref]

Streibl, N.

H. Heibmeier, U. Krackhardt, N. Streibl, “A Dammann grating with diffraction order of arbitrary intensity etched into Al2O3,” Opt. Commun. 76, 103–106 (1990).
[Crossref]

N. Streibl, K. Brenner, A. Huang, J. Jahns, J. Jewell, A. W. Lohmann, D. A. B. Miller, M. Murdocca, M. E. Prise, T. Sizer, “Digital optics,” Proc. IEEE 77, 1954–1969 (1989).
[Crossref]

Taghizadeh, M.

Tooley, F. A. P.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. I. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self-electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all-optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[Crossref]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic devices,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Turunen, J.

Vasara, A.

Walker, S. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. I. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self-electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[Crossref]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic devices,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, “Progress in diffractive phase gratings used for spot array generators,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 144–147.

Westerholm, J.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self-electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self-electro-optic effect device: optical set–reset latch, differential logic gate, and differential modulator/detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1928 (1989).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

E. Kerbis, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, “An all-optical realization of a (2, 1, 1) switching node,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 600–602 (1990).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all-optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. P. Herzig, D. Prongue, R. Dandliker, “Design and fabrication of highly efficient fan-out elements,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 1307–1309 (1990).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Heibmeier, U. Krackhardt, N. Streibl, “A Dammann grating with diffraction order of arbitrary intensity etched into Al2O3,” Opt. Commun. 76, 103–106 (1990).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. IEEE (1)

N. Streibl, K. Brenner, A. Huang, J. Jahns, J. Jewell, A. W. Lohmann, D. A. B. Miller, M. Murdocca, M. E. Prise, T. Sizer, “Digital optics,” Proc. IEEE 77, 1954–1969 (1989).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic devices,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, “Progress in diffractive phase gratings used for spot array generators,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 144–147.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic elements of one system module. Polarized signal beams from the previous stage enter from the left; they are then deflected vertically, reflected at the mirror, and focused onto the AS-SEED array. Information is extracted by illuminating the AS-SEED array by means of beams generated from a BPG. The reflected light is directed toward the next module and is diffracted by a second BPG into three beams to create the Banyan-type interconnection. λ/4’s, quarter-wave plates.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

64 × 32 spot array generated by a BPG.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

One period in each dimension of the mask pattern for a 64 × 32 beam array generation BPG.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intensity distribution of the 2048 spots in the 64 × 32 spot array relative to the average intensity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Example of a space-variant interconnection scheme with a faceted hologram, (b) a space-invariant interconnection with a single hologram.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Banyan network used in a multistage network, in which rectangles represent switching nodes and labels identify the interconnection BPG; (b) magnified view of a portion of the second link stage, in which each node on the left produces three beams by means of the interconnection grating and darkened boxes on the right show how beams (dashed lines) are blocked to form a Banyan interconnection.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Several positive-order spots shown aligned with AS-SEED detector windows for the first link stage. Even-numbered orders (shaded circles) are naturally suppressed by the even-numbered design. Solid circles represent orders that must be suppressed by the optimization program. Spots between windows can be neglected.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Mask designs for the interconnection BPG’s. Two periods are shown in order to view more easily the symmetry characteristic of the even-numbered design.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Parameters for Spot Array and Interconnection Binary Phase Gratings

Equations (5)

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S = λ f P .
C = i ( I i I av ) 2 i I i ,
A n = sin ( Δ θ / 2 ) π n k = 1 N ( 1 ) k exp ( 2 π i n x k )
A 0 = 1 + 2 [ sin ( Δ θ / 2 ) ] k = 1 N ( 1 ) k x k
[ i ( I i I av R i ) w i ] 2 ,

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